• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zearalenone

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Method Development for Determination of Multi-Mycotoxins in Chicken Liver and Kidney Tissues by LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 닭 간과 신장 중 곰팡이 독소 6종 동시분석법 개발)

  • Kim, Soohee;Kim, Kwang-Nam;Kim, Hyobi;Song, Jae-Young;Park, Sung-Won
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2016
  • Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, that have adverse effects on animals and humans. Aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance and cause acute disease called mycotoxicoses. Mycotoxicosis in poultry birds results in decreased meat/egg production, immunosuppressant, and hepatotoxicosis. Some of toxins or their metabolites may be retained in animal or human tissues and induce health problems. This study was designed to develop a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin $B_1$, aflatoxin $M_1$, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin B and deoxynivalenol, in chicken liver and kidney tissues. The mycotoxins were extracted and purified using modified QUECHERS methods, separated by LC and detected by an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) and tandem MS. Good precision and linearity were observed for most of six mycotoxins. The recovery test for each mycotoxin in liver and kidney tissues mostly indicated good average recovery rates between 80.94% and 98.10% and the coefficient of variation mostly under 13.78%, except for aflatoxin $M_1$ and fumonisin $B_1$. The limit of detection (LOD) for six mycotoxins was $7.6{\sim}145.79{\mu}g/kg$ in liver tissues and $6.07{\sim}197.20{\mu}g/kg$ in kidney tissues. The quantification limits (LOQ) for 6 mycotoxins were in the range $23.04{\sim}441.78{\mu}g/kg$ in liver tissues and $18.40{\sim}597.59{\mu}g/kg$ in kidney tissues, respectively. The developed multi-mycotoxin method in this study permits simultaneous, simple, and rapid determination of several co-existing mycotoxins in chicken liver and kidney tissues.

Deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feeds alter gene expression profiles in the livers of piglets

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Jeong, Jin young;Lee, Yookyung;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Min Seok;Kim, Dong-Wook;Jung, Hyun Jung;Choe, Changyong;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.595-606
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The Fusarium mycotoxins of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zerolenone (ZEN) cause health hazards for both humans and farm animals. Therefore, the main intention of this study was to reveal DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the liver of piglets. Methods: In the present study, 15 six-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to the following three different dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, diet containing 8 mg DON/kg feed, and diet containing 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. After 4 weeks, liver samples were collected and sequenced using RNA-Seq to investigate the effects of the mycotoxins on genes and gene networks associated with the immune systems of the piglets. Results: Our analysis identified a total of 249 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which included 99 upregulated and 150 downregulated genes in both the DON and ZEN dietary treatment groups. After biological pathway analysis, the DEGs were determined to be significantly enriched in gene ontology terms associated with many biological pathways, including immune response and cellular and metabolic processes. Consistent with inflammatory stimulation due to the mycotoxin-contaminated diet, the following Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathways, which were related to disease and immune responses, were found to be enriched in the DEGs: allograft rejection pathway, cell adhesion molecules, graft-versus-host disease, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), type I diabetes mellitus, human T-cell leukemia lymphoma virus infection, and viral carcinogenesis. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that DON and ZEN treatments downregulated the expression of the majority of the DEGs that were associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9), proliferation (insulin-like growth factor 1, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2A, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, lipase G, and salt inducible kinase 1), and other immune response networks (paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor beta, Src-like-adaptor-1 [SLA1], SLA3, SLA5, SLA7, claudin 4, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, thyrotropin-releasing hormone degrading enzyme, ubiquitin D, histone $H_2B$ type 1, and serum amyloid A). Conclusion: In summary, our results demonstrated that high concentrations DON and ZEN disrupt immune-related processes in the liver.

Occurrence of Fungi and Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Rice Samples from Rice Processing Complexes (미곡종합처리장 곡류시료 내 곰팡이 오염과 Fusarium 독소 발생)

  • Lee, Theresa;Lee, Soohyung;Kim, Lee-Han;Ryu, Jae-Gee
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2014
  • Rice samples including paddy, husk, brown rice, blue-tinged rice, broken rice, discolored rice and polished rice were collected from rice processing complexes(RPC) nationwide to determine the contamination of fungi and mycotoxins on rice during 2010-2013. Among the samples, paddy rice had the highest frequencies of fungal and Fusarium occurrence, and the frequencies decreased along with milling as husk was the next. Blue-tinged rice or discolored rice was similar with brown rice for fungal occurrence, and polished rice showed the lowest frequency. Among Fusarium species, F. graminearum species complex occupied 87% in 2012 but did 35-39% in 2011 and 2013. Aspergillus and Penicillium species appeared at low frequency in most samples but occurred at higher frequency in certain RPC samples. Alternaria, Nigrospora, and Epicoccum species occurred similarly to the pattern of total fungi. The rice samples from 2010-2012 were analyzed for the occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, and other trichothecenes. The most highly contaminated sample was discolored rice in terms of frequency, level, ratio of simultaneous contamination with multiple toxins, followed by blue-tinged rice.

Effects of barley and barley bran contaminated with Fusarium spp. on the growth and feed efficiency of fattening and growing pigs (푸사리움속 곰팡이에 오염된 보리와 보리겨의 급여가 비육돈 및 육성빈돈의 생산성 및 사료이용효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Wang-Shik;Lee, Hyun-June;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Noh, Hwan-Gook;Kang, Seok-Jin;Jung, Young-Hun;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Hur, Tai-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2012
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of barley and barley bran contaminated with Fusarium spp on growth performance and feed efficiency of fattening and growing pigs. In experiment 1, total 48 fattening Landrace pigs were used in a fattening trial for 71 days. Pigs weighing around 75 kg were allocated into different substitution groups containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of barley contaminated Fusarium spp. In experiment 2, total 16 growing Landrace pigs were used in a growing trial for 45 days. Pigs weighing around 29.4 kg were allocated into different substitution groups containing 0, 5, 10 and 20% of barley bran contaminated Fusarium spp. Mycotoxin concentrations of barley and barley bran contaminated with 30% Fusarium spp were 0.452 and 1.049 ppm for deoxynivalenol, 8.125 and 17.646 ppm for nivalenol and 0.023 and 0.029 ppm for zearalenone, respectively. In experiment 1, no differences were found in weight gain and feed intake between control group (0%) and 10 or 20% substitution groups, but in 30% substitution group, weight gain and feed intake were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those in control group. After slaughtering, the extended haemorrhage of the fundus region in stomach was observed in 20 or 30% substitution groups. In experiment 2, weight gain and feed intake were not significantly different among treatment groups. After slaughtering of experimental pigs, the extended haemorrhage of the fundus region in stomach was observed in pigs fed diet with 20% substitution group. These results suggest that the feeding of diet with contaminated highly levels of Fusarium spp was negative effect on growth and feed efficiency in growing and fattening pig.

Survey on Fusarium Mycotoxin Contamination in Oat, Sorghum, Adlay, and Proso Millet during the Harvest Season in Korea (귀리, 수수, 율무, 기장의 수확기에 발생하는 Fusarium 곰팡이독소 오염도 조사)

  • Lee, Mi Jeong;Wee, Chi-Do;Ham, Hyenheui;Choi, Jung-Hye;Baek, Ji Sun;Lim, Soo Bin;Lee, Theresa;Kim, Jeom-Soon;Jang, Ja Yeong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2020
  • A total of 244 cereal samples (oat, sorghum, adlay, and proso millet) were collected from fields to examine the contamination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals during harvest season in 2017 and 2018. The contamination levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZEA) were analyzed individually by using the immunoaffinity column clean-up method with ultra performance liquid chromatography, and fumonisins (FUM) were analyzed by using the QuEChERS method with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Highest level of NIV contamination (120.0-3277.0 mg/kg) was observed in oat samples among the analyzed cereals. In the adlay samples, DON contamination was the highest (maximum level 730.0 ㎍/kg). The proso millet samples had a high frequency of detection of NIV and ZEA (61.5% and 57.9%, respectively), but the levels were low (average detection level of NIV, 75.6 ㎍/kg, for ZEA, 21.5 ㎍/kg). Among the cereal samples, sorghum had the highest contamination frequency of DON, ZEA, and FUM, and the co-occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxin was 70.0%, which was higher than the average of 29.9%. In order to safely manage Fusarium mycotoxin levels in cereals, continuous research on the development of contamination prevention technologies together with monitoring of mycotoxin contamination is needed.

Influence of Gamma-Irradiation on the Growth of Aspergillus spp. on Feeds for Ensuring Feed Safety (사료의 안전성 확보를 위한 Aspergillus속 곰팡이의 생육에 대한 감마선 조사 효과)

  • Nam, Bo-Ram;Kim, Kyeong-Yeol;Ryu, Hee-Jeong;Nam, Min-Ji;Shim, Won-Bo;Yoon, Yo-Han;Kim, Jae-Hun;Lee, Ju-Woon;Byun, Myung-Woo;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2010
  • Aspergillus spp. is widely spread in the world on feeds and foods. They have been known to produce aflatoxins, which are mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum gamma-irradiation dose for controling the growth of Aspergillus spp. to ensure safety of feeds. Four species fungal spore ($10^7$ spore/mL) exposed to 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy of gamma radiation were inhibited in their growth and $AFB_1$ productivity by ${\geq}5\;kGy$. Meantime, the growth of fungal inoculated on feeds was inhibited at ${\geq}3\;kGy$. However, $AFB_1$ presented in aqueous solution was not be inactivated completely by ${\leq}10\;kGy$ irradiation. These results indicate that Aspergillus spp. on feeds could be controlled by 5 kGy gamma-irradiation but detoxification of $AFB_1$ demands a higher dose of gamma-irradiation (${\geq}10\;kGy$).