• Title, Summary, Keyword: Yemen

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Critical Factors Influencing Adoption of Cloud Computing for Government Organizations in Yemen

  • Salem, Mubarkoot Mohammed;Hwang, Gee-Hyun
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - Many countries nowadays look at cloud computing as an opportunity because it holds great advantages for governments. Public sector in Yemen still uses traditional computing. This study tends to explore the factors that would affect cloud computing adoption in government organizations in Yemen. Research design, data and methodology - We used a combination of DOI theory and TOE framework with some changes to suit the context of government organizations. Eight hypotheses were proposed with a questionnaire developed and sent to people in Yemen. 118 responses were collected to assess the hypotheses. Results - Results indicate that Yemen lacks some prerequisites of cloud technology in terms of technological readiness and regulations. The factors: relative advantage, compatibility, security concern, perception of benefits and government support were accepted. Perception of benefits, in particular, is found to affect the decision of adoption. Security concern also showed a direct and indirect influence on cloud adoption in the government. Respondents consider security a key issues of the technology. The factors: complexity, technology readiness and regulatory support were rejected. Conclusions - Based on all analysis results, this study proposed some steps toward adopting cloud computing in Yemen.

State-Owned enterprises as ICSID claimants and establishment of jurisdiction: The Decision on Jurisdiction in BUCG v. Yemen (공기업의 ICSID 중재 신청과 관할권 성립: BUCG v. Yemen 사건을 중심으로)

  • Chang, Sok Young
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.27-42
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    • 2018
  • Due to the increasing number of foreign investments made by state-owned enterprises, there has been a growth in the number of investment arbitration claims submitted by them. However, international investment treaties including the ICSID Convention are intended to apply to investor-state disputes and according to Article 25 of the ICSID Convention, the claimant has to be "a national of another Contracting State." This raises the question of whether state-owned companies can be considered as "nationals of another Contracting State" or private investors. This issue has been discussed in the ICSID Decision on Jurisdiction in BUCG v. Yemen which has been released in 2017. Since there would be more claims related to the standing of state-owned enterprises as claimants, it is required to understand whether state-owned enterprises could be permitted access to the ICSID under the ICSID Convention Article 25. Moreover, the ICSID cases addressing the jurisdictional issues including BUCG v. Yemen has to be closely analyzed. In particular, as the Broches test was applied in order to decide the standing of state-owned companies, it is necessary to examine how the Broches criteria has been interpreted and adopted in the ICSID cases.

Breast Cancer Knowledge, Perception and Breast Self-Examination Practices among Yemeni Women: an Application of the Health Belief Model

  • Al-Sakkaf, Khaled Abdulla;Basaleem, Huda Omer
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1463-1467
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    • 2016
  • Background: The incidence of breast cancer is rapidly increasing in Yemen with recent indications of constituting one-third of female cancers. The main problem in Yemen remains very late presentation of breast cancer, most of which should have been easily recognisable. Since stage of disease at diagnosis is the most important prognostic variable, early diagnosis is an important option to be considered for control of breast cancer in low resourced settings like Yemen. In the present study, we aimed at describing breast cancer knowledge, perceptions and breast self-examination (BSE) practices among a sample of Yemeni women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study covered 400 women attending four reproductive health centres in Aden, Yemen through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire during April - July 2014. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge about breast cancer, and screening practices as well as respondents' perceptions based on the five sub scales of the Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived susceptibility; perceived severity; perceived barriers; perceived benefits; and self-efficacy. The response format was a five-point Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20) was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Logistic regression analysis was conducted with BSE as a dependent variable. Results: The mean age of women was 26.5 (S.D=5.6) years. The majority (89.0%) had never ever performed any screening. Two-thirds of respondents had poor knowledge. Perceived BSE benefits and self-efficacy and lower BSE barriers perception were significant independent predictors of BSE practice. Conclusions: Poor knowledge and inadequate BSE practices are prevailing in Yemen. The need for implementing culturally sensitive targeted education measures is mandatory in the effort to improve early detection and reduce the burden of breast cancer.

Oral Cancer: Knowledge, Practices and Opinions of Dentists in Yemen

  • Alaizari, Nader Ahmed;Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5627-5631
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    • 2014
  • Background: Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Results: Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. Conclusions: These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

Why is Hepatocellular Carcinoma Less Attributable to Viral Hepatitis in Yemen?

  • Saeed, Nadeem Mohammed;Bawazir, Amen Ahmed;Al-Zuraiqi, Masuod;Al-Negri, Fadhel;Yunus, Faisel
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3663-3667
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    • 2012
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are still public health problems in Yemen, with older individuals having much higher prevalence than younger generations. However, research on the prevalence of viral hepatitis in association with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) has not yet been undertaken in Yemen. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HCC patients and to estimate the risk of these infections being associated with the development of HCC. A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients attending oncology outpatient in Sana'a, Yemen, through the period 2008-mid 2010 with confirmed diagnosis of HCC. A total of 88 cases were studied thoroughly with different investigations such as CT-scan, ultrasound, tumour marker, alpha-feto-protein and histopathological biopsy. A structured questionnaire was also applied and physical examination done to assess the general condition of the patients. Statistical package (SPSS version 16) was used for analysis of the data. The mean age of the cases was 61.2 years (${\pm}12.6$) with half over 60 years. There were fewer male patients (36%) compared to females and most (97%) only had basic /no formal education. Seventy nine (89%) were diagnosed as HCC cases with histopathological biopsy while the rest were diagnosed by ultrasound, CT scan, tumour marker, and alpha-feto-protein. Around one-third of the subjects were positive for HBsAg and HCV antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed infection with HCV and use of smoking was associated with HCC diagnosis. Although an association was observed between the occurrence of HCC and viral hepatitis (either HBV or HCV) and cigarette smoking, but the rate of viral infection was lower than what has been reported elsewhere.

Skin Cancer: Clinico-Pathological Study of 204 Patients in Southern Governorates of Yemen

  • Al-Zou, Amer Bin;Thabit, Mazen Abood Bin;Al-Sakkaf, Khalid Abdulla;Basaleem, Huda Omer
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3195-3199
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    • 2016
  • Background: Skin cancer is a group of heterogeneous malignancies, in general classified into non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma skin cancer (MSC). Incidences are high in many parts in the world with considerable geographical and racial variation. In the Yemen, there has been scarce information about skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and histological trend of skin cancer in Southern Governorates of Yemen. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study covered 204 cases of skin cancer at the Modern Histopathology Laboratory and Aden Cancer Registry and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Aden, for the period 2006-2013. Data were classified regarding different demographic and tumor related variables and analyzed using CanReg-4 for cancer registry and SPSS (version 21). Results: The commonest encountered skin cancer was NMSC (93.1%). Generally, skin cancer appears slightly more frequently in females than males with a 1:1.06 male: female ratio, with a mean age of 62.9 years. Slightly higher than one-third (36.3%) were from Aden governorate. The head and neck proved to be the most common site in both males and females (58%). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common histological type of skin cancer (50.5%). Conclusions: Skin cancer is a common cancer in patients living in southern governorates of Yemen. The pattern appears nearly similar to the international figures with a low incidence of MSC.

Trends of Breast Cancer and its Management in the Last Twenty Years in Aden and Adjacent Governorates, Yemen

  • Harhra, Nasser Aa;Basaleem, Huda O.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4347-4351
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women and the principal cause of death in middle aged women. The objective of this study was to describe the trend of breast cancer and its management in Aden and adjacent south-eastern governorates of Yemen during the last 20 years. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of previous studies on patients with breast cancer in Aden and adjacent south-eastern governorates, Yemen (January 1989 through December 2007). The studied variables were: sex, age, time and type of presentation, disease stage, pathological types and the performed surgical treatment. The sources of information were the treatment registry of Aden health office, archives of Al-Gamhouria teaching hospital; major referral and other public and private hospitals in Aden and Aden Cancer Registry. Results: The total number of patients was 476, 99% being females. The age range was 19-88 years. The most affected age was 30-50 years (60.5%), 95% presenting after one month of having breast symptoms. Forty-five percent presented with signs of advanced local disease, while 59.2% had palpable axillary lymph nodes on presentation. Early breast cancer (stages I-II) occurred in 47%, and late breast cancer (stages III-IV) in 51.5%. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the commonest pathology (89.3%). The main surgical treatment was mastectomy (modified radical mastectomy (50%). Conclusion: Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of young with late presentation and advanced disease. Improving health awareness and earlier diagnosis of the disease by health education, encouraging breast self-examination, and providing the mammography equipment and mammary clinics in hospitals are recommended. Establishment of oncology and radiotherapy centers in Aden is a necessity.

Public Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer in Yemen

  • Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali;Addas, Abdallah;Tarakji, Bassel;Abbas, Alkasem;Al-Shamiri, Hashem M.;Alaizari, Nader Ahmed;Shugaa-Addin, Bassam
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10861-10865
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    • 2015
  • Background: Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ${\geq}15$ years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

Association between Shammah Use and Oral Leukoplakia-like Lesions among Adult Males in Dawan Valley, Yemen

  • Al-Tayar, Badr Abdullah;Tin-Oo, Mon Mon;Sinor, Modh Zulkarnian;Alakhali, Mohammed Sultan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8365-8370
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    • 2016
  • Background: Shammah is a traditional form of snuff dipping tobacco (a smokeless tobacco form) that is commonly used in Yemen. Oral mucosal changes due to the use of shammah can usually be observed in the mucosal surfaces that the product touches. The aim of this study was to determine the association between shammah use and oral leukoplakia-like lesions. Other associated factors were also determined. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 346 randomly selected adult males. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select the study location. After completing the structured questionnaire interviews, all the participants underwent clinical exanimation for screening of oral leukoplakia-like lesions Clinical features of oral leukoplakia-like lesion were characterized based on the grades of $Ax{\acute{e}}ll$ et al (1976). Univariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the potential associated factors. Results: Out of 346 male participants aged 18 years and older, 68 (19.7%) reported being current shammah users. The multivariable analysis revealed that age, non-formal or primary level of education, former shammah user, current shammah user, and frequency of shammah use per day were statistically associated with the presence of oral leukoplakia-like lesions [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.01, 1.06; P=0.006], (AOR=8.65; 95% CI: 2.81, 26.57; P=0.001), (AOR=3.65; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.50; P=0.008), (AOR=12.99; 95% CI: 6.34, 26.59; P=0.001), and (AOR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.36; P=0.026), respectively. Conclusions: The results revealed oral leukoplakia-like lesions to be significantly associated with shammah use. Therefore, it is important to develop comprehensive shammah prevention programs in Yemen.

Seroprevalence and Incidence of Toxoplasma gondii among Apparently Healthy and Visually or Hearing Disabled Children in Taiz City, Yemen

  • Saleh, Madha Mohammed Sheet;Al-Shamiri, Adam Hezam;Qaed, Abeer Ahmed
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.71-73
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    • 2010
  • This cross sectional study was conducted in the city of Taiz, Yemen, during the period from August 2006 to August 2007 in order to investigate the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis among apparently healthy children (AHC) and visually and/or hearing disabled children (DC). The seroprevalence was 16.0% among AHC compared to 32.5% among DC. The effect of gender was clear as the seroprevalence rate was significantly higher among females (18.3 and 43.8% for AHC and DC, respectively) than males (13.8 and 25% for AHC and DC, respectively). The seroprevalence was proportionally increased with the age, and the highest rates (20.9 and 53.0%) were reported among the oldest age group (> 10-14 years) for AHC and DC groups, respectively. The incidence rate was also higher (4.2%) in DC group compared to AHC group (2.4%) during 1 year period. These data indicate that the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis are significantly higher in DC group than those of AHC group. We need to check further relationship between toxoplasmosis and visual and/or hearing disability.