• Title, Summary, Keyword: Yeast culture

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Quality Properties of Chonggak Kimchi Fermented at different Combination of Temperature and Time (발효 온도와 시간 조합을 달리한 총각김치의 품질 특성)

  • Kang, Jeong-Hwa;Kang, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Eun-Sook;Chung, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.551-561
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    • 2003
  • To determine the conditions of the fermentation and storage for Chonggak kimchi in kimchi refrigerator, prepared Chonggak kimchi took into kimchi refrigerators which were controlled at four different modes of the fermented temperature and time, and fermented and kept for 16 weeks. The pH in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ dropped greater than all of kimchi fermented at other combinations, and the changes of pH at any combinations were not greater than those in Baechu kimchi, because pH in Chonggak kimchi did not dropped below 4.5. Acidities in Chonggak kimchi were greatly increased at higher temperature. The acidity in Chonggak kimchi during the first week of fermentation was lower than that in Baechu kimchi and then it was rather higher because of the addition of waxy rice paste. In texture, puncture force of Chonggak kimchi was decreased slowly until 8 weeks of fermentation and then did not changed much and the highest values showed in Chonggak kimchi stored directly at $-1^{\circ}C$ without any fermentation. In sensory evaluation, the scores for the carbonated flavor and the sourness were the highest in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$, but the lowest in Chonggak kimchi stored directly at $-1^{\circ}C$ without any fermentation because of some undesirable flavors. The lowest hardness showed in Chonggak kimchi fermented at highest temperature and the best hardness was in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 days or 6 days/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$. The appearance was the best in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ and the worst was in Chonggak kimchi stored directly at $-1^{\circ}C$ without any fermentation. The overall acceptability of Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ was good after 4 weeks of fermentation, but in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 days or 6 days/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ it was good after 6 weeks. Total microbial counts in most of Chonggak kimchi were reached to a maximum number within 7 days, and then decreased similarly at all modes. Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. increased to maximum number of $1.48{\times}10^9\;and\;5.62{\times}10^9$, respectively, in Chonggak kimchi fermented for 7 days. Yeast counts showed a increasing trend not depends on fermenting temperature and they were lower counts than those in Baechu kimchi. Waxy rice paste which added to Chonggak kimchi resulted in increasement of glucose as a carbon source and stimulated to reproduce the microbes in Chonggak kimchi.

Effect of Selenium Sources on Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (셀레늄 급여원에 따른 한우 채끝육의 육질 특성)

  • 박범영;조수현;성필남;하경희;이성훈;황인호;김동훈;김완영;이종문;안종남
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the feeding effect of selenium provided by different sources on the physico-chemical properties of M. longissimus thoracis. Twenty Hanwoo steers(20~24 months, approximately 613kg) were assigned to 4 different feeding groups of each five, depending on the sources of selenium such as inorganic selenium(sodium selenite), organic selenium(Yeast, USA Sel-Plex), Se-SMC(Se-spent mushroom compost) and the control(no selenium). The selenium level in feed was 0.9 ppm for all groups except the control. Animals were fed with different feeding treatments for 12 weeks and slaughtered at National Livestock Research Institute. The inorganic selenium group had the highest cooking loss(CL. %) and followed by the Se-SMC group and organic selenium group. No significant differences in chemical composition, WB-shear forces, water-holding capacity(WHC) and sensory properties were found among the groups(P>0.05). There were 40% frequencies of grade A in the inorganic selenium group and followed by the organic selenium group(20%). Se-SMC group had 80% of frequencies for grade 1+ and followed by the inorganic selenium group(40%), whereas the organic selenium group and the control group had the 20% frequencies for grade 1+. From the results of this study showed that the selenium sources did not affect chemical composition, WHC and tenderness of Hanwoo steers. However, the inorganic selenium group had the highest cooking loss(%) and lowest pH when compared to the other groups.

Microbial Diversity in the Enrichment Cultures from the Fermented Beverage of Plant Extract Using Ribosomal RNA Sequence Analysis (라이보좀 RNA 염기서열 분석을 이용한 집식배양된 식물추출물발효음료의 미생물 다양성)

  • Lee, Choung Kyu;Kim, Baolo;Kang, Young Min;Lee, Hee Yul;Hwang, Chung Eun;Ahn, Min Ju;Seo, Weon Taek;Cho, Kye Man
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2014
  • A beverage was produced by the fermentation of mixed extracts from the various fruits, vegetables, algae, and medical herbs. The physicochemical properties of the fermented beverage of plant extracts (FBPE) and microbial diversity were analyzed in cultures enriched from FBPE using 16S and 26S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The pH, acidity, $^{\circ}brix$, reducing sugar, and alcohol contents of the FBPE were determined to be the 3.48, 1.68%, 70.0, 1,026 g/L, and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant free sugar and organic acid in the FBPE were glucose (567.83 g/L) and tartaric acid (93.68 mg/L), respectively. Lactobacillus homohiochii was the predominant species in all enriched culture samples: 100% of the species in 0B (0% sugar) and 40B (40% sugar) libraries and 95.6% of 20B library (20% sugar). Lactobacillus fructivorans was detected in the 20B library. The predominant species in the samples of enrichment cultures collected from FBPE with three different sugar concentrations were: Candida zeylanoides (45.2%) in the 0Y library (0% sugar), Candida lactis-condensi (35.7%) and C. zeylanoides (35.7%) in the 20Y library (20% sugar), and C. lactis-condensi (38.1%) in the 40Y library (40% sugar). This result may provide a useful frame of reference for further analyses of microbial population dynamics in FBPE.