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A Comparison on Major Curriculum of 2-Year, 3-Year, and 4-Year Health Administration Colleges in Korea (국내 보건행정(학)과의 학제별 전공교육과정 비교분석 연구)

  • Hwang, Chung-Il;Hwang, Jeonghae
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.224-232
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    • 2013
  • Background: This study was a comparative analysis of the major curriculum for 2-year, 3-year, and 4-year colleges of the department of health administration in Korea. Methods: Among 45 Korean colleges registered with the department of health administration as of 2012, finally 25 colleges were selected by establishing the department of health administration more than 5 years ago, excluding government's financial support, and taking regional locations into account. Results: First, generally 2-year colleges was not the relationships between organizational philosophy/purposes and major course in comparison to those of 3-year or 4-year colleges. Second, the composition of credits in the major course appears to be higher for 3-year, 2-year, and 4-year colleges, respectively. Third, subjects related to basic medicine and medical records were included more often in 2-year, 3-year, and 4-year colleges, respectively, and health policy issues were covered more in 4-year, 3-year, and 2-year colleges, respectively. Fourth, the number of students per full-time professor in 2-year colleges was much higher than that in 3-year and 4-year colleges, and the employment rate of graduates for 4-year colleges was found to be higher than that for 2-year and 3-year colleges. Conclusion: Although this study has limitations with regard to the selection of research subjects, it provides baseline data for establishing the health administration required for training competent future professionals.

A Study on the Projected Workforce of Advanced Oncology Certified Nurses (종양전문간호사인력 수요추계에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Sung-Ho;Oh, Pok-Ja
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.49-61
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to suggest the projected manpower of oncology nurses & Advanced oncology certified nurses needed in the future. Method: Need models, ratio models and expert opinion were used for projecting the number of oncology nurses & Advanced oncology certified nurses. Resul: 1. The demand for the oncology nurses was estimated 6,043 in the year 2003, 6,548 in the year 2005, and 4,556 in the year 2010. 2. The demand range of the advanced oncology certified nurses centering on the number of hospitalized patients were estimated 358-538 in the year 2003, 388-583 in the year 2005, and 448-672 in the year 2010. 3. The demand range of the middle and long term advanced oncology certified nurses centering on the number of sickbed were estimated 507-787 in the year 2005, 523-810 in the year 2010, and 540-837 in the year 2020. 4. The demand range of the advanced oncology certified nurses centering on the number of organizations were estimated 374 in the year 2003, 399 in the year 2005, 410 in the year 2010. 5. The total demand range, concerning the numbers of hospitalized patients, hospital bed, and organizations are estimated 358-538 in the year 2003, 388-787 in the year 2005, 428-840 in the year 2010, and 540-837 in the year 2020. 6. In the demand of developed country's level oncology nurses are OCN's level 1,495, AOCN's level 102 in the year 2003, OCN's level 1,613, AOCN's level 111 in the year 2005, OCN's level 1,879, AOCN's level 128 in the year 2010 in case of the United States, and in case of Canada, 765 in the year 2003, 826 in the year 2005, and 956 in the year 2010.

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Oral Health Status of Needy Old Residents in Urban Area (도시 저소득층 고령 주민의 구강건강실태)

  • Son, Woo-Sung;Hur, Bock;Park, Soo-Byung;Kim, Jin-Bom
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.72-89
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    • 1996
  • The oral health status and practices related to oral health among 44-54-year-, 55-64-year- and 65-year-old needy residents were assessed. The subjects were the residents at the Unbong Permanent Rental Apartment, Bansong-dong, Haeundae-gu. Pusan, Korea. An oral epidemiological survey was undertaken to determine the status of dental caries and periodontal health. Periodontal health were analyzed by the tool of CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs). A questionnaire was used to interview for the practices of toothbrushing. The numbers of subjects were 192 for the interview on toothbrushing, 228 for the survey of dental status and 208 for the survey of periodontal status. The major results were as follows: 1. Toothbrushing frequencies per day were 1.9 among 44-54-year-, 1.7 among 55-64-year- and 1.7 among 65+-year-subjects. Percentages of after-meal-toothbrushings among total brushing frequencies per day were 73.7% among 44-54-year-, 70.6% among 55-64-year- and 76.5% among 65+-year-subjects. 2. DMFT indices were 15.5 among 44-54-year-, 16.4 among 55-64-year- and 26.6 among 65-year-subjects. Decayed teeth component of DMF teeth were 23.9% among 44-54-year-, 11.6% among 55-64-year- and 62.8% among 65+-year-subjects. Missed teeth component of DMF teeth were 55.59% among 44-54-year-, 62.8% among 55-64-year- and 77.4% among 65+-year-subjects. Filled teeth component of DMF teeth were 20.0% among 44-54-year-, 25.0% among 55-64-year- and 10.9% among 65+-year-subjects. 3. Sound permanent teeth were 16.4 among 44-54-year-, 15.6 among 55-64-year- and 5.4 among 65+-year-subjects. Present permanent teeth were 23.7 among 44-54-year-, 21.6 among 55-64-year- and 10.9 among 65-year-subjects. 4. Subjects who needed professional oral prophylaxis were 75.0% among 44-54-year-, 83.3% among 55-64-year-and 76.9% among 65-year-subjects. Subjects who needed complex periodontal treatments were 16.7% among 44-54-year-, 13.3% among 55-64-year- and 15.4% among 65+-year-subjects. 5. Sextants which needed professional oral prophylaxis were 59.3% among 44-54-year-, 71.5% among 55-64-year- and 71.5% among 65+-year-subjects. Sextants which needed complex periodontal treatments were 5.6% among 44-54-year-, 4.1% among 55-64-year- and 5.7% among 65+-year-subjects. 6. Systematic comprehensive oral health care services should be developed for old needy residents in urban area.

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Effect of Korean Effective Microorganisms and Seafood Amino Acid Fertilizer on the Root Quality of Panax ginseng (해양부산물 아미노산액비 및 유용미생물시용이 인삼의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ann, Seoung-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1023-1030
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    • 2012
  • Contents of ginsenosides 7 subordinations of two-year ginseng (fresh ginseng) is 1.27% and three-year ginseng is 2.09%, so the three-year ginseng root increased 64.9% compared to the two-year root. Compared with the comparison group, ginsenosides component content of KEM+SAF-applied group increased 24% in case of the two-year root and 20% in case of the three-year root. In vitamin C content, two-year root showed 59.4% higher and three-year root showed 37.7% higher in KEM+SAF applied group compared with the comparison group. In case of vitamin E, the two-year root indicated 5.6% higher and three-year root indicated 1.5% higher in KEM+SAF applied group compared with the comparison group, but there is no significant difference. In phytosterol three components (campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol), two-year root showed 25.3, 3.6, 14.1% higher for each, and three-year root showed 23.6, 6.8, 12.9% higher in KEM+SAF applied group and 14.4% was higher on average. In DPPH, two-year root indicated 34.4% higher and three-year root indicated 42.4% higher in KEM+SAF applied group compared to the comparison group. To sum up the results, KEM+SAF applied group showed (1)22% ginsenosides components content, (2)48.6% vitamin C content, (3)3.6% vitamin E content, (4)14.4% phytosterol content, (5)38.4% DPPH higher averagely compared to the comparison group.

Mumps & Rubella-specific IgG in MMR Vaccinees (소아의 연령증가에 따른 볼거리 및 풍진 항체)

  • Cheon, Haewon;Sin, Yeong-Gyu;Lee, Kangwoo;Lee, Youngkyoo;Chung, Jitae;Tockgo, Youngchang
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.175-184
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : This study was intended to measure seropositivities and the levels of mumps- and rubella-specific IgG of MMR vaccinees over 17 months of age in Korea. Materials and Methods : From June 1994 to April 1995 we obtained sera from visitors of well baby clinic and patients in Korea University Hospital, who were MMR vaccinees over 17 months of age and had no evidence of immunodeficiency. These 275 study population include 145 males and 130 females. Mumps- and rubella-specific IgG antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Cut-off values for seropositivity were 20 GU(Gamma Unit) in mumps and 0.17 in rubella. Results : 1) As age increased, seropositivities of mumps-specific IgG increased significantly, being 69.0% in 1.5~2 year, 75.0% in 3~4 year, 76.0% in 5~6 year, 90.0% in 7 year, 100% in 8 year, 96.9% in 9 year, 97.4% in 10 year, 97.4% in 11 year, and 96.6% in 12 year of age(p<0.001). 2) As age increased, the levels of mumps-specific IgG antibody(mean${\pm}$standard deviation, GU) increased significantly, being $64.9{\pm}66.5$ in 1.5-2 year, $117.7{\pm}126.4$ in 3~4 year, $152.3{\pm}147.1$ in 5~6 year, $194.3{\pm}168.2$ in 7 year, $258.1{\pm}190.6$ in 8 year, $193.1{\pm}130.1$ in 9 year, $225.7{\pm}119.6$ in 10 year, $220.7{\pm}114.3$ in 11 year, and $222.3{\pm}127.1$ in 12 year of age(p<0.001). There was positive correlation between age and mumps-specific antibody level (r=0.3282, p<0.001). 3) As age increased, seropositivities of rubella-specific IgG decreased significantly, being 72.4% in 1.5~2 year, 75% in 3~4 year, 72% in 5~6 year, 60% in 7 year, 44.4% in 8 year, 40.6% in 9 year, 28.2% in 10 year, 23.1% in 11 year, and 17.2% in 12 year of age(p<0.001). 4) As age increased, rubella-specific IgG decreased significantly, being $0.462{\pm}0.356$ in 1.5~2year, $0.438{\pm}0.306$ in 3~4 year, $0.287{\pm}0.179$ in 5~6 year, $0.204{\pm}0.139$ in 7 year, $0.189{\pm}0.153$ in 8 year, $0.124{\pm}0.121$ in 9 year, $0.093{\pm}0.114$ in 10 year, $0.104{\pm}0.135$ in 11 year, and $0.080{\pm}0.001$ in 12 year of age(p<0.001). There was negative correlation between age and rubella-specific IgG titer (r=-0.551, p<0.001). Conclusions : Eventhough seropositivities and the level of mumps-specific IgG increased as age increased, they are not enough to prevent mumps infection in 1.5 to 6 years of age. Seropositivities and the level of rubella-specific IgG decreased as age increased. Appropriate change in vaccine schedule may be needed to decrease the risks of mumps and rubella infection.

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An Epidemiological Study on the Complications caused by the Sterilization Program (불임시술의 합병증에 관한 역학적 연구)

  • Hong, Myung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.138-153
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    • 1996
  • Intending to offer basic information for a prospective health services in Korea, this study is to investigate the complication caused by sterilization in goverment family planning program from 1962 to 1995. The results are as follows: 1. Total number of sterilization performed during the period from 1962 to 1995 were 1.367,772 cases of male sterilization and 2,889,635 cases of female sterilization. 2. Incidence of the complication caused by sterilization operation from 1980 to 1995 were 1,883(0.20%) out of 925,801 cases in vasectomies and 15,866(0.70%) out of 2,256,020 cases in tubal sterilizations. 3. Major complications in vasectomy were epididymities of 658 cases (34.9%), vas recanalization of 326 cases(17.3%), hematoma of 266 cases(14.1%), scrotal abscess of 184 cases(9.8%), sperm granuloma of 76 cases(4.0%),and other of 373 cases(19.8%). On the other hand, in tubal sterilization, ectopic pregnancy was the most significant complication of 15,078 cases (95.0%) among 15,866 total complications, followed by pelvic inflammatory diseases of 155 cases(0.9%), peritonities of 96 cases(0.6%), ovarian & tubal bleeding of 31 cases(0.2%), intestinal perforation of 16 cases (0.1%), uterine bleeding of 14 cases(0.1%), uterine cervix laceration of 1 case (0.1%), and other of 271 cases(1.7%), while 161 pregnancies(0.1%) were terminated and 43 cases(0.3%) with normal delivery. 4. The occurrence rate of the complication for each period showed that most of the complication cases by vasectomy occurred in a year after the operation -the cases were 1,256 (66.7%). 254 cases(13.5%) occurred between the next year and the 2nd year, 138 cases (7.3%) between the 2nd year and the 3rd year, 73 cases(3.9%) between the 3rd year and the 4th year, 52 cases(2.8%) between the 4th year and the 5th year, 31 cases(1.6%) between the 5th year and the 6th year, 79 cases(4.2%) over the 6th year. Tubal sterilization indicated that the occurred complication cases in a year were 2,175 cases(13.7%), 2,113 cases(13.3%) occurred between the next year and the 2nd year, 2,082 cases(13.1%) between the 2nd year and the 3rd year, 2,049 cases (12. 9%) between the 3rd year and the 4th year, 1,819 cases(11.5%) between the 4th year and the 5th year, 621 cases(10.2%) between the 5th year and the 6th year, 4,007 cases(25.3%) over the 6th year. 5. For the cost of complication treatment, total \7,928,229,000 were paid as medical expenditure in which \609,438,000 for vasectomy and \7,318,791,000 for tubal sterilization. Accordingly per capita expenses were \345,000 for vasectomy and \467,000 for tubal sterilization. As the proportion of government sterilization program was decreased after 1988, that of private sterilization program would be increased. So it is recommended to set a guideline for the private sterilization program and to continue government sterilization program for the lower class.

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A comparative study on the 4-year college and 3-year college nursing curriculum (대학 및 전문대학의 간호교육과정 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ok;Han, Young-Lan;Kim, Hee-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.361-383
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    • 1996
  • This study analyze and find problems in the 4-year and 3-year college nursing curriculum through comparison and analysis of each college curriculum according to the Nursing Education Standards Criteria from the Korean Nurse Association, 1994. Analyzed areas and results are as follows : 1. Nursing education philosophy To analyze Nursing Education philosophy, we reviewed the categaries of Person, Health, Nursing, Environment. In of 4-year colleges, 50% of them were presenting definitions of Person that were the same as the Nursing Education Standards. But in the definitions of Environment and Health, they presented limited contents. In the 3-year college, we could not find any statement of Nursing Education Philosophy similar to Nursing Education Standards. 2. Nursing education purpose In 4-year colleges, they stated aboict only 3 aspects and others werelacking in correspondance with Nursing Education Standards. In 3-year colleges, some aspects were sincere, but when they were compared to the standards they were very limited. 3. Nursing education curriculum As we analyzed 4-year and 3-year college nursing curriculum, We found that 3-year colleges use curriculum from 4-year colleges in a modified and condensed form. Thus, it is considered that 3-year colleges have considerable burdens because they have to teach all the credits within 3-years that is normally taught in the 4-year college. Therefore, we can suppose that 3-year colleges have more problems in the quality. And, the majority of 4-year and 3-year college curriculums don't include recent concepts such as health promotion, prevention, and rehabilitation.

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Children's Dramatic Play Behaviors in Same-Age and Mixed-Age Preschool Classrooms (유치원 단일연령 교실과 혼합연령 교실에서의 아동의 극놀이 행동)

  • Ha, Seung-Min
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to examine children's dramatic play and dramatic play themes in the same-age and mixed-age kindergarten classrooms. The subjects were 45 children in three classrooms of 4-year-olds, 69 children in three classrooms of 5-year-olds, and 60 children in three mixed-age classrooms of 4-and 5-year-olds. Observations were conducted by videotape recordings. Observation periods were of five-minutes duration. There were ten observations of children's indoor free-play periods. Four-and five-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms were more likely to engage in group-dramatic play than 4-and 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms. Four-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms were more likely to engage in domestic and family, war/violence, school, animal, and vehicle play themes than 4-year-olds in same-age classrooms. However, 5-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms were more likely to engage in family and school play themes than 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms. 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms were more likely to engage in vehicle and animal play themes than 5-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms. 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms did not differ from 5-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms on the war/violence themes used during dramatic play. In terms of sex differences, boys were more likely to engage in violence, adventure fantage themes than girls. Conversely girls were more likely to engage in family/marriage static play themes than boys.

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근적외 분광분석법을 이용한 버어리종 잎담배 화학성분 분석

  • 김용옥;장기철;이경구
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to analyze chemical components in burley tobacco using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Samples were collected in '96 and '97 crop year. Calibration equations were developed by modified partial least square. The standard error performance(SEP) of '96 crop year samples between NIRS and standard laboratory analysis were 0.25% for nicotine, 0.18% for total nitrogen, 0.59% for crude ash, 0.32% for ether extracts, and 0.14% for chlorine, respectively. The analytical results of '97 crop year samples were similar to those of '96 crop year samples. The analytical result of '97 crop year samples analyzed by '96 calibration equation was more inaccurate than that of '96 crop year samples. The SEP of '96 or '97 crop year samples applying calibration equation derived from '96 plus '97 crop year samples was similar to that of '96 or '97 crop year samples analyzed by '96 or '97 calibration equation, respectively. The SEP of '97 crop year samples analyzed by calibration equation derived from '96 plus '97 crop year samples was more accurate than that of '97 crop year samples analyzed by '96 calibration equation. To improve the analytical inaccuracy caused by the difference of crop year between calibration and prediction samples, we need to include the prediction sample spectra which were different from calibration sample spectra in recalibration sample spectra, and then develop recalibration equation. The NIRS can apply to analyze burley leaf tobacco, leaf process or tobacco manufacturing process which were required the rapid analytical result.

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Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Punux Ginseng Starch (인삼전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • 오훈일;이송재
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.114-121
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    • 1981
  • Starch was isolated from 4-year-old and 6-year-old ginseng roots and its physical and chemical characteristics were studied. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. The shape of ginseng starch granules was polygonal and rounded with its granule size ranging from 2.0 to 7.5$\mu$. The swelling power of 4-year-old ginseng starch was much greater than that of 6-year old ginseng starch. Gelatinization pattern showed that 6-year-old ginseng starch gelatinized rapidly at $65^{\circ}C$, whereas 4-year-old starch continued to gelatinize, without having a definite gelatinization temperature as temperature increased 3. Amylogram of ginseng starch showed that gelatinization initiated at 61$^{\circ}C$ and was completed at 88$^{\circ}C$ with its viscosity reaching at 810 B.U. 4. The amylose contents were 32% and 9% for 4-year-old and 6-year-old ginseng starch, respectively. 5. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that there were some structural differences between 4-year-old and 6-year-old ginseng starch.

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