• Title/Summary/Keyword: Xylene

Search Result 763, Processing Time 0.13 seconds

Effect of the Repeated Treatment of Xylene to the Rats on the Xylene Metabolism (흰쥐에 Xylene반복 투여가 Xylene의 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 이혜자;조현국;이상일;전태원;윤종국
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-66
    • /
    • 1999
  • To evaluate the effect of repeated treatment of xylene on its metabolism, m-xylene (0.25 ml of 50% in olive oi1/100 g body weight) has been intraperitoneally given to the rats 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 times every other day. m-Xylene was once more administered to the animals after 24 hrs since last injection of it. And then the animals were sacrificed after 24 hrs. Four times xylene treated rats showed the significantly elevated urinary m-methylhippuric acid, compared to those treated with the single dose of m-xylene with the continued similiar high levels of urinary m-methylhippuric acid up to the animals pretreated 12 times and then those treated 16 times defined the significantly decreased urinary m-methylhippuric acid compared to those treated 12 times. On the other hand, hepatic aniline hydroxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities demonstrated a gradual increase from the first group to the 12 times xylene-treated animals, but those treated 16 times showed the significantly decreased value compared with the 12 times treated-group. And aldehyde dehydrogenase activities in rats treated with m-xylene 8, 12 or 16 times were significantly decreased compared to those pretreated one or four times. In the early stage of xylene administration, proliferation of SERs were seen whereas SERs were decreased and RERs were clearly increased in xylene-treated rats 16 times. These results indicate that the frequency of xylene injection may influence upon the changes in xylene metabolite, m-methylhippuric acid and it may be due to induction of xylene metabolizing enzymes.

  • PDF

Effect of Liver Damage by Combined Administration of Ethanol and Xylene in Rats (흰쥐에게 Ethanol과 Xylene 병행 투여시 간손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, In-Sook;Lee, Hye-Ja
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.10 no.7
    • /
    • pp.259-267
    • /
    • 2010
  • To evaluate an effect of liver damage on ethanol and xylene exposure, experiments on normal male rats of the S-D strain were performed in 4 groups. The biochemical results suggest that the ethanol group had significantly higher levels of AST, ALT, LDH and also, the xylene group had notably higher levels of AST, ALT, LDH along with MMHPA than those of the control groups. The levels of AST, ALT and LDH in the ethanol+xylene group were drastically higher than those in the control, ethanol and xylene groups. But, there were significantly lower ALP levels in the xylene and ethanol+xylene groups than both the control and ethanol groups. The histological features of rat livers treated with alcohol, or xylene proved to be normal. But the rat livers treated with ethanol+xylene showed mild to moderate necrosis and inflammation as well as minimal fatty changes. The results in this experiment suggest that liver functions decreased when medicated together with xylene and ethanol rather than solely with xylene.

Effect of Ethanol-pretreatment on the Liver Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Xylene-treated Rats (에탄올 전처치한 흰쥐에 Xylene 투여가 간조직 중 Xanthine Oxidase 활성 변동에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤종국;이상희;전태원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.739-744
    • /
    • 1998
  • To evaluate an effect of ethanol pretreatment on the liver xanthine oxidase(XO) activity, 0.25ml of xylene(50% in olive oil) per 100g body weight was daily given four days to the rats at 2hrs after aministration of ethanol each day, while each control group(ethanol, xylene, olive oli) was treated as the same dose described as above. The animals were sacrificed at 24hrs after last injection. Xylene-treated rats showed the more decreased activity of liver XO compared to the control. But the pretreatment of ethanol to the xylene-treated rats enhanced the liver XO activity. Furthermore, the xylene-treated rats led to more increased Vmax value in liver XO compared to the only xylene-treated rats. On the other hadn, hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was more decreased in xylene-treated rats pretreated with ethanol than in xylene-treated rats. And the intermediated xylene metabolites, methyl benzylalcohol or aldehyde inhibited the XO activity "in vitro". In conclusion, the phenomenon that pretreatment of ethanol to the xylene-treated rats led to the enhancement of liver XO activity, may be due to an influence of acetaldehyde.taldehyde.

  • PDF

Substrate Utilization Patterns During BTEX Biodegradation by an o-Xylene-Degrading Bacterium Ralstonia sp. PHS1

  • Lee, Sung-Kuk;Lee, Sun-Bok
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.12 no.6
    • /
    • pp.909-915
    • /
    • 2002
  • The biodegradation of BTEX components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene) individually and in mixtures was investigated using the o-xylene-degrading thermo-tolerant bacterium Ralsronia sp. strain PHS1 , which utilizes benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or o-xylene as its sole carbon source. The results showed that as a single substrate for growth, benzene was superior to both toluene and ethylbenzene. While growth inhibition was severe at higher o-xylene concentrations, no inhibition was observed (up to 100 mg $l^-1$) with ethylbenzene. In mixtures of BTEX compounds, the PHS1 culture was shown to degrade all six BTEX components and the degradation rates were in the order of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, and m- and p-xylene. m-Xylene and p-xylene were found to be co-metabolized by this microorganism in the presence of the growth-supporting BTEX compounds. In binary mixtures containing the growth substrates (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene. and o-xylene), PHS1 degraded each BTEX compound faster when it was alone than when it was a component of a BTEX mixture, although the degree of inhibition varied according to the substrates in the mixtures. p-Xylene was shown to be the most potent inhibitor of BTEX biodegradation in binary mixtures. On the other hand, the degradation rates of the non-growth substrates (m-xylene and p-xylene) were significantly enhanced by the addition of growth substrates. The substrate utilization patterns between PHS1 and other microorganisms were also examined.

Biodegradation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers) from organic solvent tolerant bacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi BCNU 106

  • Kim, Jong-Su;Park, Hyeong-Cheol;Jo, Su-Dong;Kim, Gi-Uk;Bae, Yun-Wi;Mun, Ja-Yeong;Jeong, Yeong-Gi;Ju, U-Hong
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.386-389
    • /
    • 2003
  • Organic solvent tolerance bacteria, Pseudomonas savastanoi BCNU 106 could utilize a high contentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers (BTEX) as a sole carbon source. It was founded that strain BCNU 106 transformed o-xylene to 2-methylbenzyl alcohol, 2-methylbenzoic acid through direct oxygenation of methyl residue on GC-MS analysis.

  • PDF

Substrate Interactions on Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene Isomers(BTEX) by Indigenous Soil Microorganisms (토양미생물을 이용한 Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene 그리고 Xylene isomers(BTEX)의 분해시 기질반응)

  • La, Hyun-Joo;Chang, Soon-Woong;Lee, Si-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.375-383
    • /
    • 2000
  • A mixed culture isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil was enriched on toluene as a sole carbon and energy source, and degradation characteristics of BTEX(Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes) was observed. In the single-substrate experiments, all the BTEX compounds were degraded, and it was degraded as following orders; toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene. In the degradation experiments of BTEX mixtures, the degradation rate was decreased compared to that in the single substrate experiment and ethylbenzene was degraded faster than benzene. In the experiments of binary-mixtures, various substrate interactions such as inhibition, stimulation, and non-interaction were observed, and ethylbenzene was shown to be most potent inhibitor of BTEX degradation. In the degradation characteristic studies of xylene isomers, m-xylene and p-xylene were degraded as carbon sources, and it was stimulated in the presence of either benzene or toluene. However, degradation of o-xylene was enhanced only in the presence of benzene.

  • PDF

A Study on the Effect of Aging on the Xylene Toxicity in Rats (흰쥐 성장기간에 따른 Xylene의 독성에 관한 연구)

  • 이혜자;이상희;전태원;이상일;윤종국
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.193-199
    • /
    • 2000
  • To evaluate an effect of aging on the xylene toxicity, 50% m-xylene in olive oil (0.25 ml/100 g body wt.) was administered to 5 week and 12 week-old rats one times intraperitoneally and sacrificed at 24 hrs afterwards. The increasing rate of urinary m-methylhippuric acid concentration was higher in 12 week-old rats than 5 week-old rats by the treatment of m-xylene. On the liver function findings, i.e., liver weigh/body weight (%), serum levels of ALT activity and hepatic malondialdehyde content, 12 week-old rats showed more severe liver injury than 5 weeks those in xylene-treated rats. And the hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents was higher in 12 weeks rats than those of in 5 week-old rats, but the increasing rate of that was lower in 12 week-old rats. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also higher in 12 week-old rats than in 5 week-old rats whereas the increasing rate of that was higher in 5 week-old than those in 12 week-old rats by the xylene treatment. Furthermore, the hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were no differences between the 5 and 12 week-old rats both in the control and xylene-treated group. In conclusion, age may influences upon the hepatotoxicity with xylene and it may be responsible for xylene metabolism in rats.

  • PDF

The Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds on Apoptosis of Human Neutrophils and Eosinophils

  • Yang, Eun-Ju;Kim, In-Sik
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.123-126
    • /
    • 2010
  • Volatile organic compounds are commonly off gassed from various building materials and can induce sick building syndrome. Volatile organic compounds such as formaldehyde, xylene and toluene are known as toxic agents in immune cells. Human leukocytes, particularly, neutrophils and eosinophils play important roles in the regulation of immune responses. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of formaldehyde, ortho-xylene (o-xylene), para-xylene (p-xylene) and toluene on the apoptosis of neutrophils and eosinophils isolated from the blood of healthy donors. Formaldehyde increased the constitutive apoptosis of neutrophils and eosinophils. o-xylene, p-xylene and toluene increased the spontaneous apoptosis of eosinophils, but not that of neutrophils. Formaldehyde increased the protein level of IL-8 in neutrophils and eosinophils, and suppressed the MCP-1 expression in neutrophils. The release of IL-6 from neutrophils was diminished by volatile organic compounds used in this study. In conclusion, formaldehyde, xylene and toluene elevate the apoptosis of neutrophils and eosinophils, and regulate the release of cytokine and chemokine in neutrophils and eosinophils. These results indicate that formaldehyde, xylene and toluene have a cytotoxicity in human neutrophils and eosinophils and may damage the modulation of immune responses.

Effects of Picrorrhiza Rhizoma on Acute Inflammation in Mice

  • Lee, Hyeung-Sik;Ku, Sae-Kwang
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.137-140
    • /
    • 2008
  • The effects of Picrorrhiza Rhizoma (PR) aqueous extracts were observed on xylene-induced acute inflammation. The xylene was topically applied 60 min after administration of 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg of PR extracts, and all animals were sacrificed 2 hrs after xylene application. The changes on ear weights, histolopathological analyses of ear were evaluated as compared with indomethacin and dexamethasone 15 mg/kg treated groups - well known anti-inflammatory agents. Xylene application resulted in marked increases in induced ear weights as compared with intact control ear. Severe vasodilation, edematous changes of ear skin and increase in the thickness of the ear tissues as acute inflammation were detected in xylene-treated control ears at histopathological observation. However, these xylene-induced acute inflammatory changes were dosedependently decreased by oral treatment of PR extracts. Therefore, it is concluded that PR extracts has favorable anti-inflammatory effects on xylene-applicated acute ear inflamed mice.

Cutaneous Toxicity of Xylene Application to Rat Skin

  • Jeon, Tae-Won;Lee, Sang-Hee;Yoon, Chong-Guk
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.83-88
    • /
    • 2002
  • To investigate the skin toxicity of xylene, xylene (25 mg/$\textrm{cm}^2$) has been sequentially applied to the rat skin for four days. On the light microscopic examination, epithelium was left out with infiltration of inflammatory cells in border with dermis, and formation of new epithelial layer was shown under the inflammatory zone. Application of xylene to the rat skin showed the marked rise of cutaneous xanthine oxidase activity whereas, He activities of oxygen free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly declined. Furthermore, the content of cutaneous glutathione was more and less decreased in rat skin applied with xylene. In conclusion, these results suggest that a part of oxygen free radical may be responsible for morphological changes in skin by applying xylene to the rat skin.

  • PDF