• Title, Summary, Keyword: Xenotransplantation

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Current Status of Xenotransplantation - A Review

  • Lee, J.H.;Moran, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1497-1504
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    • 2001
  • There is emerging interest in using xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues and organs for treatment of human illness. This article reviews the current status of xenotransplantation, with particular emphasis on the physiological and immunological barriers to xenotransplantation and genetic manipulations to overcome xenograft rejection. Preliminary success in xenotransplantation therapy for human Parkinson's disease using porcine foetal brain cells is described. Finally the zoonotic dangers of porcine xenotransplantation, most particularly porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), are discussed.

Porcine Xenotransplantation to Primates

  • Min, T.S.;Han, H.J.;Park, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1535-1542
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    • 2010
  • Xenotransplantation is a hot topic currently, since the demand for diverse organs is increasing in patients. Among many species, pigs are suitable animals for xenotranplantation as they share many anatomical and physiological characteristics with humans. This review article provides an overview of porcine xenotransplantation and the rejection of pig xenotransplants in primates, and use of genetically modified and cloned pigs in xenotransplantation. It also highlights major target organs in porcine xenotransplantation and virus infection in xenotransplantation.

Investigation of helminths and protozoans infecting old world monkeys: captive vervet, cynomolgus, and rhesus monkeys

  • Lee, Jae-Il;Kang, Sook-Jung;Kim, Nan-A;Lee, Chi-Woo;Ahn, Kyoung-Ha;Kwon, Hyouk-Sang;Park, Chung-Gyu;Kim, Sang-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.273-277
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the infection rate of gastro-intestinal tract parasites on acquired laboratory nonhuman primates, Vervet monkey, Cynomolgus monkey, and Rhesus monkey acquired from Japan and China. These monkeys have been acclimating at an individual housing condition after our legal quarantine period. We examined 133 fecal samples to investigate parasitic infection using direct smear and formalin-ether-sedimentation technique. As a result, total parasitic infection rate was 33.8% (n = 45/133) for all monkeys. Two species of macaques, cynomolgus and rhesus, were infected with Trichuris trichiura (4), Giardia lamblia (4) and Balantidium coli (41). Vervet monkeys, which had been controlled by individual housing system for a long time, were clear for parasitic infection. The protozoan, Balantidium coli was one of the most frequently detected in these monkey colonies. Double infection was noted in only 4 monkeys and involved with Trichuris trichiura and Balantidium coli. Serious clinical symptoms were not observed in the most of the infected monkeys, but the monkeys infected by Giardia lamblia showed intermittent or chronic watery diarrhea. Consequently, the prophylactic anthelmintic treatment and periodic monitoring are essential to preserve the SPF colonies in the laboratory facility.

Analysis of Natural Recombination in Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Genes

  • Lee, Dong-Hee;Lee, Jung-Eun;Park, Nu-Ri;Oh, Yu-Kyung;Kwon, Moo-Sik;Kim, Young-Bong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.585-590
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    • 2008
  • Human tropic Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs) are the major concern in zoonosis for xenotransplantation because PERVs cannot be eliminated by specific pathogen-free breeding. Recently, a PERV A/C recombinant with PERV-C bearing PERV-A gp70 showed a higher infectivity (approximately 500-fold) to human cells than PERV-A. Additionally, the chance of recombination between PERVs and HERVs is frequently stated as another risk of xenografting. Overcoming zoonotic barriers in xenotransplantation is more complicated by recombination. To achieve successful xenotransplantation, studies on the recombination in PERVs are important. Here, we cloned and sequenced proviral PERV env sequences from pig gDNAs to analyze natural recombination. The envelope is the most important element in retroviruses as a pivotal determinant of host tropisms. As a result, a total of 164 PERV envelope genes were cloned from pigs (four conventional pigs and two miniature pigs). Distribution analysis and recombination analysis of PERVs were performed. Among them, five A/B recombinant clones were identified. Based on our analysis, we determined the minimum natural recombination frequency among PERVs to be 3%. Although a functional recombinant envelope clone was not found, our data evidently show that the recombination event among PERVs may occur naturally in pigs with a rather high possibility.

Valved Conduit with Glutaraldehyde-Fixed Bovine Pericardium Treated by Anticalcification Protocol

  • Lim, Hong-Gook;Kim, Gi Beom;Jeong, Saeromi;Kim, Yong Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.333-343
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    • 2014
  • Background: A preclinical study was conducted for evaluating a valved conduit manufactured with a glutaraldehyde (GA)-fixed bovine pericardium treated using an anticalcification protocol. Methods: Bovine pericardia were decellularized, fixed with GA in an organic solvent, and detoxified. We prepared a valved conduit using these bovine pericardia and a specially designed mold. The valved conduit was placed under in vitro circulation by using a mock circulation model, and the durability under mechanical stress was evaluated for 2 months. The valved conduit was implanted into the right ventricular outflow tract of a goat, and the hemodynamic, radiologic, histopathologic, and biochemical results were obtained for 6 months after the implantation. Results: The in vitro mock circulation demonstrated that valve motion was good and that the valved conduit had good gross and microscopic findings. The evaluation of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization demonstrated the good hemodynamic status and function of the pulmonary xenograft valve 6 months after the implantation. According to specimen radiography and a histopathologic examination, the durability of the xenografts was well preserved without calcification at 6 months after the implantation. The calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations of the explanted xenografts were low at 6 months after the implantation. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that our synergistic employment of multiple anticalcification therapies has promising safety and efficacy in the future clinical study.

Progress in Transgenic Cloned Pig for Xenotransplantation

  • Park, Kwang-Wook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.9-19
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    • 2003
  • Pig organ is thought to be the most suitable nonhuman organ for xenotransplanstation. However, one of the major constraints to using pig organs for xenotransplantation is human natural antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection (HAR). Elimination of a(1,3) galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) from the pig is expected to be a solution to the problem of hyperacute rejection. ry1any efforts have made characterization of GGTA1 in structure and function. improvement in the technique of DNA transfection of somatic cells and advancement of the pig NT, a specific modification has been made to one copy of the GGTA1 gene by Missouri group in 2002. To date because homozygousity of the genetic modification has been achieved in this gene, the role of gala(1,3) gal specific natural antibody in HAR and the efficacy of xenotransplantation in a nonhuman primate model will be addressed. If other genes are found to be involved in rejection of pig donors by primates, the technology will be available to modify those genes so that rejection can be overcome.

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Progress in Transgenic Cloned Pig for Xenotransplantation

  • Park, Kwang-Wook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.9-19
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    • 2003
  • Pig organ is thought to be the most suitable nonhuman organ for xenotransplanstation. However, one of the major constraints to using pig organs for xenotransplantation is human natural antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection (HAR). Elimination of a(1,3) galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) from the pig is expected to be a solution to the problem of hyperacute rejection. Many efforts have made characterization of GGTA1 in structure and function, improvement in the technique of DNA transfection of somatic cells and advancement of the pig NT, a specific modification has been made to one copy of the GGTAl gene by Missouri group in 2002 To date because homozygousity of the genetic modification has been achieved in this gene, the role of gala(1,3) gal specific natural antibody in HAR and the efficacy of xenotransplantation in a nonhuman primate model will be addressed. Of other genes are found to be involved in rejection of pig donors by primates, the technology will be available to modify those genes so that rejection can be overcome.

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