• Title, Summary, Keyword: XPS

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Application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in ionic liquids

  • Park, Ju-Yeon;Seo, Cho-Hyeon;Seo, Seong-Yong;Gang, Yong-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.117-117
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    • 2015
  • Availability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the identification of ionic liquids (ILs) was tested. Commercially available ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM] $BF_4$), (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([BMIM] OTf), (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM] $PF_6$), 1-hexyl-3-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM] $PF_6$), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM] $Tf_2N$) were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed with XPS. In order to confirm whether the results of XPS were correct, conventional method such as a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed. After the XPS results were convinced by NMR, we synthesized ILs (1-(4-sulfonic acid) butyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([SBBIM] OTf), 1-(4-sulfonic acid) propyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([SPMIM] OTf), and 1-(4-sulfonic acid) propyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([SPBIM] OTf) and analyzed it with XPS and NMR as well. It was successful the usage of XPS to analyze ILs without any purification processes.

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The Treatment of gynecomastia using XPS® Microresector(Shaver) (XPS® microresector(Shaver)를 이용한 여성형 유방증 수술)

  • Song, Jea Yong;Han, Byung Kee;Kim, Chung Hun
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.806-810
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Gynecomastia is an abnormal increase in the volume of the male breast. Subcutaneous mastectomy was the first surgical treatment for gynecomastia. But because of the complications such as nerve injury and scar formation, subcutaneous mastectomy has been substituted with liposuction. Recently various techniques including ultrasound - assisted liposuction has been used for treatment of gynecomastia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of XPS$^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) for treatment of gynecomastia. Methods: 17 patients, 33 breasts of gynecomastia, Simon grade I or II have been treated with XPS$^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver). The mean age was 24.5. The subcutaneous tissue and glandular tissue were removed with XPS$^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver). The operation time, the weight of removed tissue and patients' satisfaction score were accessed. Results: The mean operation time was 78.2 minutes. The mean weight of removed tissue was 113.8 g. There was no significant complications such as necrosis, hematoma, infection or scar contracture. Patients' satisfactory score of scar, shape and confidence were 8.4, 8.2 and 8.4 respectively. As the average score was 8.3, almost patients were satisfied with their breasts. Conclusion: The authors have treated 17 patients suffering from gynecomastia with XPS$^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver). We obtained short operation time, early recovery, minimal operative scar and less complications with XPS$^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) for the treatment of gynecomastia, and patients were satisfied with the results of our method. We concluded XPS$^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) is an alternative option for the treatment of gynecomastia.

XPS® Microresector for Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis (XPS® Microresector(Shaver)를 이용한 액취증 수술)

  • Han, Byung Ki;Park, Sung Wook;Song, Jea Yong;Kim, Chung Hun
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.569-573
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Surgical excision of the subcutaneous tissues, with or without skin excision in the axillary hair-bearing area, has been the treatment of choice in treating osmidrosis for several decades. However, long periods of postoperative immobilization of a shoulder joint, partial necrosis of skin flaps or the possibility of hematoma and scars have occurred frequently. So we used $XPS^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) in procedure which requires removal of soft tissue for comparing results between surgical excision and the laters. Methods: From January 2007 to February 2008, a total of 20 patients(8 male and 12 female) underwent $XPS^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) assisted aspiration for treating osmidrosis. The mean age of the subjects was 21.9, and we tried to analyze some advantages of $XPS^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver). Results: The average operation time was 61.6 minutes. This results can show that the patients who received $XPS^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) assisted aspiration can accomplish better outcomes than any other procedures in terms of operation time at least. Moreover, no significant postoperative complications occurred in our studies. Subjects have been followed up from 2 months to 1 year and among these patients, no one suffered from critical complications. Conclusion: In brief, $XPS^{(R)}$ microresector(Shaver) is able to shorten the time of operation and simplify the procedures relatively and this device has more superiorities in wound healing by maintaining of vascularized dermal skin flaps. It means that $XPS^{(R)}$ microresector (Shaver) can prevent flap necrosis, axillary hair loss and minimalize scarring and bleeding. Thus, we expect that these advantages can lead to better patient's comfort and self-confidence than several previous procedures.

Effect of XPS and Polyethylene Aggregates in Model Tests for Prevention of Frost Heave in Railroad Track (철도에서의 동상방지를 위한 모형시험에서 XPS 및 PE골재의 설치 효과)

  • Kim, Donggwan;Yoon, Yeowon;Kim, Youngchin
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2014
  • In this research, in order to study insulation effect of commercial XPS and recycled PE aggregates for prevention of frost heave in the roadbed of railroad track from the freezing temperature, model tests were carried out in the large freezing room. For this, thermal conductivities were measured for various dry densities, water contents, temperatures and mixing ratios of PE aggregates. From the tests, it can be seen that thermal conductivities of roadbed decrease with the increase of the ratio of mixed PE aggregates. However it was sensitive to the changes of temperature and water content due to the amount of water in the voids. From the model test of railroad track, it can be seen that the time to reach $0^{\circ}C$ was longer for XPS than that for the PE aggregates. Also the test shows best insulation effect can be achieved when XPS board was installed above the PE aggregate layer rather than the opposite order.

The Chemical COmposition Analysis by AES and XPS of PbTiO$_3$ Thin Films Fabricated by CVD (화학증착법에 의해 제조된 PbTiO$_3$ 박막의 AES와 XPS에 의한 조성분석)

  • Soon Gil Yoon;Ho Gi Kim
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.83-86
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    • 1989
  • Lead titanate thin films with a perovskite structure were successfully structure were successfully fabricated on titanium substrate by Chemical Vapour Deposition(CVD). Analyses of Auger Electron Spectroscopy(AES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been performed in order to find a chemical composition of lead titanate films. The analysis of chemical composition by AES and XPS was investigated for variations of deposition temperature and Ti(C$_2$H$_{5}$O)$_4$ fractions. The chemical composition of PbTiO$_3$by XPS analysis was almost constant regardless of deposition parameters and the comparison of chemical composition by AES and XPS was performed.d.

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Surface Analysis of Silicone Polymer used as Insulating Material by XPS and Surface Voltage Decay (XPS 및 Surface voltage decay를 이용한 실리콘 절연재료의 표면분석)

  • Youn, B.H.;Lee, K.T.;Park, C.R.;Kim, N.R.;Seo, Y.J.;Huh, C.S.;Cho, H.G.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.236-239
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    • 2002
  • Surface states of silicone polymer treated by plasma were investigated by the analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface voltage decay. Plasma treatment causes the silica-like oxidative layer, which is confirmed with XPS, and lowers surface resistivity with increasing the plasma treatment time. Using the decay time constant of surface voltage, the calculated surface resistivity was compared with the value directly measured by a voltage-current method. A good agreement between two methods was obtained. In addition, we estimated the thermal activation energy for surface conduction, Based on our results, we could understand the relationship between surface chemical states and surface electrical properties.

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XPS Analysis of $Cd_{1-x}Co_xIn_2Se_4$ Crystals ($Cd_{1-x}Co_xIn_2Se_4$ 결정의 XPS 분석)

  • 최성휴
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.355-359
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    • 1994
  • Cd1-xCoxIn2Se4(X=0.50) 결정을 수직 Bridgman 방법으로 성장시키고 성장된 결정의 결정구조 및 XPS 특성을 연구하였다. 성장된 결정은 pseudocubic 구조이고 격자상수는 a=5.778$\AA$으로 주어졌다. Cd1-xCoxIn2Se4 결정의 각 성분원소인 cadmium cobalt indium 그리고 selenium에 대한 XPS spectrum으 로부터 결합에너지와 결합상태를 조사하였다. Cd1-xCoxIn2Se4결정과 결합하지 안는 각 성분원소인 cadium cobalt imdium 그리고 selenium에 대한 core level의 XPS spectrum과 비교하면 각 성분원소상 이의 결합에 의한 chemical shift 현상 때문에 core level의 결합에너지가 0.10~4.87 eV 차이가 있다. Cd1-xCoxIn2Se4 결정에서 Co 2P3/2 core level의 주 peak와 statellite peak와의 결합에너지 차이로부터 cadmium과 치화된 cobalt는 Co2+ ion으로 Td symmetry 점에 위치함을 알 수 있다.

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Surface analysis of CuSn thin films obtained by rf co-sputtering method

  • Gang, Yu-Jin;Park, Ju-Yeon;Jeong, Eun-Gang;Gang, Yong-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.175.1-175.1
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    • 2015
  • CuSn thin films were deposited by rf magnetron co-sputtering method with pure Cu and Sn metal targets with a variety of rf powers. CuSn thin films were studied with a surface profiler (alpha step), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and contact angle measurement. The thickness of CuSn thin films was fixed at $200{\pm}10nm$ and deposition rate was calculated by the measured with a surface profiler. From the survey XPS spectra, the characteristic peaks of Cu and Sn were observed. Therefore, CuSn thin films were successfully synthesized on the Si (100) substrate. The oxidation state and chemical environment of Cu and Sn were investigated with the binding energy regions of Cu 2p XPS spectra, Sn 3d XPS spectra, and Cu LMM Auger spectra. Change of the crystallinity of the films was observed with XRD spectra. Using contact angle measurement, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability of the CuSn thin films were studied with distilled water (DW) and ethylene glycol (EG).

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A Study on the Etching Characateristics of TiW Films using BCl$_3$/SF6/ gas chemistries (BCl$_3$/SF6 gas chemistries에 의한 TiW막의 식각특성 연구)

  • 권광호;김창일;윤선진;김상기;백규하;남기수
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics D
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    • v.34D no.3
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1997
  • The surface properties after plasma etching of TiW alloy using the chemistries of BCl$_{3}$ and SF$_{6}$ gases with varying mixing ratio have been investigated using XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectrocopy). The elements existed on the etched sampled have been extracted with BCL$_{3}$/SF$_{6}$ ratio and their chemical binding states have also been analysed. It was confirmed that the thickness of native oxide formed on the TiW films is thinner than 10nm by using Ar sputtering. At the same time, the roughness of etched surface has been esamnied using AFM (atomic force microscopy). on the basis of the basis of this results, the relations between the caanges of oxygen contents detected by XPS and the rouhness of etched surface have been discussed. And the etch rate and etched profile of Tiw films have been examined and the changes of the etch rate and etched prfile have been discussed with XPS results. From XPS results, the role of passivation layer consisted of Ti-S compound with XPS results. From XPS results, the role of passivation layer consisted of Ti-S compound has been proposed. Ti-S compound seems to make a role of passivation layer that surpresses Ti-O formation.ion.

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Tribological Behavior Analysis of CrMoN Coating by XPS (XPS 분석을 통한 CrMoN 코팅의 마찰마모 거동 연구)

  • Yang, Young-Hwan;Lyo, In-Woong;Park, Sang-Jin;Lim, Dea-soon;Oh, Yoon-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2012
  • The tribological behavior of CrMoN films with respect to surface chemistry was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All of the films were prepared from a hybrid PVD system consisting of DC unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering and arc ion plating (AIP) sources. The tribological property of the films was evaluated by a friction coefficient using a Ball-on-disk type tribometer. The chemistry of wear track was analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and XPS. The friction coefficient was measured to be 0.4 for the CrMoN film, which is lower than that of a monolithic CrN film. EDS and XPS results imply the formation of an oxide layer on the coating surface, which was identified as molybdenum oxide phases, known to be a solid lubricant during the wear test.