• Title/Summary/Keyword: X-ray diffraction patterns

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The study of growth and characterization of CuGaTe$_2$single crystal thin films by hot wall epitaxy (Hot wall epitaxy(HWE) 방법에 의한 CuGaTe$_2$단결정 박막 성장과 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 홍광준;이관교;이상열;유상하;정준우;정경아;백형원;방진주;신영진
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.425-433
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    • 2000
  • The stochiometric mix of evaporating materials for the $CuGaTe_2$single crystal thin films was prepared from horizontal furnance. Using extrapolation method of X-ray diffraction patterns for the $CuGaTe_2$polycrystal, it was found tetragonal structure whose lattice constant $a_0 and c_0$ were 6.025 $\AA$ and 11.931 $\AA$, respectively. To obtain the single crystal thin films, $CuGaTe_2$mixed crystal was deposited on throughly etched semi-insulator GaAs(100) substrate by the Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) system. The source and substrate temperature were $670^{\circ}C$ and $410^{\circ}C$ respectively, and the thickness of the single crystal thin films is 2.1$\mu\textrm{m}$. The crystalline structure of single crystal thin films was investigated by the photoluminescence and double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXD). Hall effect on this sample was measured by the method of van der Pauw and studied on carrier density and mobility dependence on temperature. The carrier density and mobility of $CuGaTe_2$single crystal thin films deduced from Hall data are $8.72{\times}10{23}$$\textrm m^3$, $3.42{\times}10^{-2}$ $\textrm m^2$/V.s at 293K, respectively. From the photocurrent spectrum by illumination of perpendicular light on the c-axis of the $CuGaTe_2$single crystal thin film, we have found that the values of spin orbit coupling $\Delta$s.o and the crystal field splitting $\Delta$cr were 0.0791 eV and 0.2463 eV at 10 K, respectively. From the PL spectra at 10 K, the peaks corresponding to free bound excitons and D-A pair and a broad emission band due to SA is identified. The binding energy of the free excitons are determined to be 0.0470 eV and the dissipation energy of the donor-bound exciton and acceptor-bound exciton to be 0.0490 eV, 0.0558 eV, respectively.

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Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Local Commercial Rice Brands (지역 브랜드 쌀의 이화학적 특성 비교)

  • Choi, Ok Ja;Jang, Won Yong;Song, Chi Young;Lee, Mi Young;Shim, Ki Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.11
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    • pp.1336-1342
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    • 2017
  • The study examined and compared the physicochemical and characteristics of various rice brand varieties and private brand products on the market. The moisture content in the proximate composition of rice was 15.67~17.03%, crude protein content was 5.73~6.30%, crude lipid content was 0.38~0.95%, and crude ash content was 0.23~0.56 %. Ilmi and Ilpum had high moisture content, whereas Gosihikkari and Hopyeong had high crude protein content. In the Hunter's color value of rice flour, L value was 96.76~97.27, a value was -1.63~-0.63, and b value was 2.00~2.60. The WAI was 1.21~1.39, WSI was 0.63~0.93%, and amylose content was 14.63~20.86%, respectively; Gosihikkari and Ilmi showed the lowest values. The X-ray diffraction patterns of rice flours of all varieties showed an A shape. For the amylogram properties of rice flour, initial pasting temperature was $59.57{\sim}63.23^{\circ}C$, maximum viscosity was 569.00~718.67 B.U. (Brabender Units), breakdown was 303.00~423.67 B.U., and setback was 212.67~265.33 B.U.. For differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) of rice flour, onset temperature was $54.66{\sim}58.63^{\circ}C$, peak temperature was $65.87{\sim}68.14^{\circ}C$, end temperature was $73.37{\sim}75.54^{\circ}C$, and enthalpy was 1.98~2.95 cal/g. The rice varieties with high internal density and initial pasting temperature as well as low crude protein content, WAI, amylose content, and setback can be classified as good. Gosihikkari in Gyeonggi Province, Ilmi and Hopyeong in Jeollanam-do, and Samgwang in Chungcheongnam-do are among them.

Studies on the Mineralogical Characteristics of Apple Orchard Soils (사과원토양(園土壤)의 광물학적특성(鑛物學的特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Mahn Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 1973
  • The mineralogical studies of the eleven sub-soil samples derived from granite, granodiorite, diorite and arkose sandstone, taken from apple orchards in the province of Kyungsangbukdo, Korea are made to investigate the relationships between the mineral weathering, soil forming processes and mineralogical composition. The fine sand fraction (less than 0.2mm) and the clay fraction (less than 2 micron) are dispersed with the shaker after hydrogen peroxide treatment for the removal of organic matter, and separated from each suspension by gravity sedimentation. The fine sand are observed by mineral microscope and the clay are observed by X-ray diffraction patterns, differential thermal analysis curves and infrared spectrum. The outline of the results are as follows. 1. The primary minerals ; Quartz, changed-feldspar, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar are dominant in almost all samples, and some samples contain an appreciable amount of hornblende, biotite, muscovite and plant opal. There are also those samples which contain very small quantity of pyroxene group, tourmaline, epidote, cyanite, magnetite, volcanic glass and zircon. They are mainly derived from weathering products of granite, granodiorite, diorite, arkose or its mixtures. 2. All samples contain expanding or nonexpanding $14{\AA}$ minerals, illite and kaolin minerals, and some samples contain chlorite, cristobalite, gibbsite, and those primary minerals as quartz and feldspar, but the quantities vary according to the parent matrials. 3. Non-expanding $14{\AA}$ minerals may be dioctahadral vermiculite which sandwiches gibbsite layer or chlorite in between layer lattices. 4. As for clay minerals, montmorillonite was principal component in the samples derived from weathering products of arkose sandstone and tertiary. Minerals which are derived from weathering products of arkose have kaolin minerals and vermiculite as their principal component, and minerals derived from weathering products of acidic rock group are generally classified into two groups, the kaolin mineral group, and the kaolin minerals and vermiculite group.

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The study of growth and characterization of CuGaSe$_2$ single crystal thin films by hot wall epitaxy (HWE(Hot wall epitaxy)에 의한 CuGaSe$_2$단결정 박막 성장과 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 홍광준;백형원
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 2000
  • The stochiometric mixture of evaporating materials for the $CuGaSe_2$single crystal thin films were prepared from horizontal furnace. Using extrapolation method of X-ray diffraction patterns for the polycrystal $CuGaSe_2$, it was found tetragonal structure whose lattice constant $a_0}$ and $c_0$ were 5.615 $\AA$ and 11.025 $\AA$, respectively. To obtains the single crystal thin films, $CuGaSe_2$mixed crystal was deposited on throughly etched GaAs(100) by the Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) system. The source and substrate temperature were $610^{\circ}C$ and $450^{\circ}C$ respectively, and the growth rate of the single crystal thin films was about 0.5$\mu\textrm{m}$/h. The crystalline structure of single crystal thin films was investigated by the double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXD). Hall effect on this sample was measured by the method of van der Pauw and studied on carrier density and mobility depending on temperature. From Hall data, the mobility was likely to be decreased by pizoelectric scattering in the temperature range 30 K to 150 K and by polar optical scattering in the temperature range 150 K to 293 K. The optical energy gaps were found to be 1.68 eV for CuGaSe$_2$sing1e crystal thin films at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the photocurrent peak energy is well explained by the Varshni equation then the constants in the Varshni equation are given by $\alpha$ = $9.615{\times}10^{-4}$eV/K, and $\beta$ = 335 K. From the photocurrent spectra by illumination of polarized light of the $CuGaSe_2$single crystal thin films. We have found that values of spin orbit coupling $\Delta$So and crystal field splitting $\Delta$Cr was 0.0900 eV and 0.2498 eV, respectively. From the PL spectra at 20 K, the peaks corresponding to free bound excitons and D-A pair and a broad emission band due to SA is identified. The binding energy of the free excitons are determined to be 0.0626 eV and the dissipation energy of the acceptor-bound exciton and donor-bound exciton to be 0.0352 eV, 0.0932 eV, respectively.

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Physicochemical Properties of Chestnut Starch According to the Processing Method (전분 제조방법에 따른 밤전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Yong-Doo;Choi, Ok-Ja;Shim, Ki-Hoon;Cho, In-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.366-372
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    • 2006
  • This study is to investigate the physicochemical properties of differently pretreated chestnut starches during starch isolation and to examine their gelatinization properties by both heat and alkali treatments. One kind is starch A made by alkali method from peeled chestnut. The other is starch B made from chestnut with the outer layer. The results are as follows. Starch A has higher water binding capacity of 86.9% than starch B with 80.66%. Swelling powers of both starch A and B increased rapidly from $60^{\circ}C\;to\;80^{\circ}C$ in both, and since then it has changed a bit. Both began to show their solubility at $60^{\circ}C$ and increased continuously as the temperature went up. Starch A has higher swelling power and solubility than starch B. In iodine reaction, starch A has higher ${\lambda}max$ and absorbance at ${\lambda}max$ than starch B. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that starch A is type $C_b$ and that starch B is type B. Starch B has higher relative crystallinity of 37.0% than starch A with 36.2%. The results by differential scanning calorimetry revealed that starch A gelatinized from $66.95^{\circ}C$ to $77.5^{\circ}C$ and its enthalpy is 2.04 cal/g. And starch B gelatinized from $67.09^{\circ}C\;to\;77.5^{\circ}C$, and its enthalpy is 2.29 cal/g. Amylograms of chestnut starch at 6.5% concentration indicated that starch B needs higher onset temperature when beginning to gelatinize than starch A does. But starch A shows much higher peak viscosity, breakdown and setback than starch B does. Starch A shows higher viscosity, gel volume, and optical transmittance in gelatinization properties by alkali than starch B does.

Phase Transformation of 2 Components(CaO-, $Y_2O_3$-, MgO-$ZrO_2$) and 3 Components(MgO-$ZrO_2-Al_2O_3)$ Zirconia by X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy (X-선회절과 Raman 분광분석을 이용한 2성분계(CaO-, $Y_2O_3$-, MgO-$ZrO_2$) 및 3성분계(MgO-$ZrO_2-Al_2O_3)$ Zirconia의 상전이연구)

  • 은희태;황진명
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.145-156
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    • 1997
  • ZrO2 phase transformations depending on the type and amount of dopants and the sintering temperatures were studied for the 2 components (CaO-, Y2O3-, MgO-ZrO2) and the 3 components(MgO-ZrO2-Al2O3)ZrO2 powder by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In the CaO- and Y2O3-ZrO2 systems, as the CaO and Y2O3 contents increased to 6~15mol% and 3~15mol% respectively, we were not able to identify between tetragonal and cubic in the X-ray diffraction patterns. On the other hand, all Raman modes shifted to lower wavenumbers, decreasing in intensity and the number of bands, markedly. These phenomena were caused by tetragonallongrightarrowcubic phase transformation and interpreted by the breakdown of the wave vector selection rule(k=0) and the structural disorder associated with the formation of oxygen sublattice which was caused by the substitution between Zr4+ ion and Ca2+ or Y3+ ion in ZrO2 matrix. The monoclinic to cubic phase transformation occurred in 10mol% MgO-ZrO2 system. As the Al2O3 content increased from 0 to 20mol% in the MgO-ZrO2-Al2O3 systems, cubic phase transformed to monoclinic phase, this is because the MgO didn't play a role in a stabilizer because of the formation of the spinel(MgAl2O4) by the reaction between MgO and Al2O3, Also, the ZrO2 phase transformation was explained by the change of it's lattice parameters depending on the type and amount of dopants. Namely, as the amount of dopant increased to 10~13mol%, the axial ra-tio c/a came close to unity with increasing the lattice parameter a and decreasing the lattice parameter c. At that time, the tetragonallongrightarrowcubic phase transformation occurred.

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Studies on the Physical and Chemical Denatures of Cocoon Bave Sericin throughout Silk Filature Processes (제사과정 전후에서의 견사세리신의 물리화학적 성질변화에 관한 연구)

  • 남중희
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.21-48
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    • 1974
  • The studies were carried out to disclose the physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction obtained from silk cocoon shells and its characteristics of swelling and solubility. The following results were obtained. 1. The physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction. 1) In contrast to the easy water soluble sericin, the hard soluble sericin contains fewer amino acids include of polar side radical while the hard soluble amino acid sach as alanine and leucine were detected. 2) The easy soluble amino acids were found mainly on the outer part of the fibroin, but the hard soluble amino acids were located in the near parts to the fibroin. 3) The swelling and solubility of the sericin could be hardly assayed by the analysis of the amino acid composition, and could be considered to tee closely related to the compound of the sericin crystal and secondary structure. 4) The X-ray patterns of the cocoon filament were ring shape, but they disappeared by the degumming treatment. 5) The sericin of tussah silkworm (A. pernyi), showed stronger circular patterns in the meridian than the regular silkworm (Bombyx mori). 6) There was no pattern difference between Fraction A and B. 7) X-ray diffraction patterns of the Sericin 1, ll and 111 were similar except interference of 8.85A (side chain spacing). 8) The amino acids above 150 in molecular weight such as Cys. Tyr. Phe. His. and Arg. were not found quantitatively by the 60 minutes-hydrolysis (6N-HCI). 9) The X-ray Pattern of 4.6A had a tendency to disappear with hot-water, ether, and alcohol treatment. 10) The partial hydrolysis of sericin showed a cirucular interference (2A) on the meridian. 11) The sericin pellet after hydrolysis was considered to be peptides composed with specific amino acids. 12) The decomposing temperature of Sericin 111 was higher than that of Sericin I and II. 13) Thermogram of the inner portioned sericin of the cocoon shell had double endothermic peaks at 165$^{\circ}C$, and 245$^{\circ}C$, and its decomposing temperature was higher than that of other portioned sericin. 14) The infrared spectroscopic properties among sericin I, II, III and sericin extracted from each layer portion of the cocoon shell were similar. II. The characteristics of seriein swelling and solubility related with silk processing. 1) Fifteen minutes was required to dehydrate the free moisture of cocoon shells with centrifugal force controlled at 13${\times}$10$^4$ dyne/g at 3,000 R.P.M. B) It took 30 minutes for the sericin to show positive reaction with the Folin-Ciocaltue reagent at room temperature. 3) The measurable wave length of the visible radiation was 500-750m${\mu}$, and the highest absorbance was observed at the wave length of 650m${\mu}$. 4) The colorimetric analysis should be conducted at 650mu for low concentration (10$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$), and at 500m${\mu}$ for the higher concentration to obtain an exact analysis. 5) The absorbing curves of sericin and egg albumin at different wave lengths were similar, but the absorbance of the former was slightly higher than that of the latter. 6) The quantity of the sericin measured by the colorimetric analysis, turned out to be less than by the Kjeldahl method. 7) Both temperature and duration in the cocoon cooking process has much effect on the swelling and solubility of the cocoon shells, but the temperature was more influential than the duration of the treatment. 8) The factorial relation between the temperature and the duration of treatment of the cocoon cooking to check for siricin swelling and solubility showed that the treatment duration should be gradually increased to reach optimum swelling and solubility of sericin with low temperature(70$^{\circ}C$) . High temperature, however, showed more sharp increase. 9) The more increased temperature in the drying of fresh cocoons, the less the sericin swelling and solubility were obtained. 10) In a specific cooking duration, the heavier the cocoon shell is, the less the swelling and solubility were obtained. 11) It was considered that there are differences in swelling or solubility between the filaments of each cocoon layer. 12) Sericin swelling or solubility in the cocoon filament was decreased by the wax extraction.. 13) The ionic surface active agent accelerated the swelling and solubility of the sericin at the range of pH 6-7. 14) In the same conditions as above, the cation agent was absorbed into the sericin. 15) In case of the increase of Ca ang Mg in the reeling water, its pH value drifted toward the acidity. 16) A buffering action was observed between the sericin and the water hardness constituents in the reeling water. 17) The effect of calcium on the swelling and solubility of the sericin was more moderate than that of magnecium. 18) The solute of the water hardness constituents increased the electric conductivity in the reeling water.

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