• Title, Summary, Keyword: Work Efficiency

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Evaluation of the influence of a visual design of an examination guide on patient comprehension and testing accuracy (검사 안내문의 시각적 디자인화가 환자의 검사 이해도 및 정확성에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Kang, Young-Eun;Jung, Woo-Young;Hong, Bo-Ruem
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2019
  • Purpose An examination guide is a useful medium to provide the patient with an overview, pre- and post-test preparation, and precautions of nuclear testing. The design and arrangement of existing written texts and announcements were evaluated to elucidate the comprehension of patients undergoing testing. Materials and Methods Informational material describing bone scanning and $^{201}thallium$ myocardium perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), as a secondary examination, which accounts for the largest portion of gamma imaging at Asan Hospital (Seoul, South Korea), was selected as an improvement target in consultation with a national innovation center. Existing informational material was dispensed to patients scheduled for bone scans from November 2016 to February 2017 and the revised material was issued from March 2017 to May 2017. A survey was conducted of 200 patients who underwent $^{201}thallium$ myocardium perfusion SPECT before and after the revisions (n = 100 each time period) to assess the patients' understanding of the informational material. Results When comparing the use of the conventional vs. revised material, the number of patients who received treatment before bone scanning had decreased from 130 to 60, while the number of those who required additional imaging decreased from 53 to 14. Prior to the revision, 43% of patients underwent testing before preparation and 18% underwent additional testing. The decreased need for additional image acquisition after revision of the informational material resulted in a decrease in acquisition time of about 2 min, from 16.5 to 14.2 min. In the case of $^{201}thallium$ myocardium perfusion SPECT, patient comprehension of all five items surveyed had increased, while the number of patients who had repeatedly asked about various facets of the procedure pre- and post-testing had decreased from 36% to 16% and 31% to 14%, respectively. Conclusion Lower patient comprehension is accompanied by a decrease in image quality due to non-compliance during pre-testing and may lead to repetitive questions from the patient, which may also negatively affect the fatigue and work efficiency of the examiner. Improved readability and visibility of informational material through visualization was correlated with greater patient comprehension as well as improved image quality and acquisition time.

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A Study on the Verification of an Indoor Test of a Portable Penetration Meter Using the Cone Penetration Test Method (자유낙하 콘관입시험법을 활용한 휴대용 다짐도 측정기의 실내시험을 통한 검증 연구)

  • Park, Geoun Hyun;Yang, An Seung
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2019
  • Soil compaction is one of the most important activities in the area of civil works, including road construction, airport construction, port construction and backfilling construction of structures. Soil compaction, particularly in road construction, can be categorized into subgrade compaction and roadbed compaction, and is significant work that when done poorly can serve as a factor causing poor construction due to a lack of compaction. Currently, there are many different types of compaction tests, and the plate bearing test and the unit weight of soil test based on the sand cone method are commonly used to measure the degree of compaction, but many other methods are under development as it is difficult to secure economic efficiency. For the purpose of this research, a portable penetration meter called the Free-Fall Penetration Test (FFPT) was developed and manufactured. In this study, a homogeneous sample was obtained from the construction site and soil was classified through a sieve analysis test in order to perform grain size analysis and a specific gravity test for an indoor test. The principle of FFPT is that the penetration needle installed at the tip of an object put into free fall using gravity is used to measure the depth of penetration into the road surface after subgrade or roadbed compaction has been completed; the degree of compaction is obtained through the unit weight of soil test according to the sand cone method and the relationship between the degree of compaction and the depth of the penetration needle is verified. The maximum allowable grain size of soil is 2.36 mm. For $A_1$ compaction, a trend line was developed using the result of the test performed from a drop height of 10 cm, and coefficient of determination of the trend line was $R^2=0.8677$, while for $D_2$ compaction, coefficient of determination of the trend line was $R^2=0.9815$ when testing at a drop height of 20 cm. Free fall test was carried out with the drop height adjusted from 10 cm to 50 cm at increments of 10 cm. This study intends to compare and analyze the correlation between the degree of compaction obtained from the unit weight of soil test based on the sand cone method and the depth of penetration of the penetration needle obtained from the FFPT meter. As such, it is expected that a portable penetration tester will make it easy to test the degree of compaction at many construction sites, and will lead to a reduction in time, equipment, and manpower which are the disadvantages of the current degree of compaction test, ultimately contributing to accurate and simple measurements of the degree of compaction as well as greater economic feasibility.

The Comparison of Image Quality between Computed Radiography(CR) and Direct Digital Radiography(DDR) which Follows the Proper Exposure Conditions in General Photographing under the Digital Radiography(DR) (Digital Radiography 환경하에서 일반촬영시 적정 노출조건에 따른 CR과 DDR의 Image Quality 비교)

  • Kim, Jin-Bae;Kang, Chung-Hwan;Kang, Sung-Jin;Park, Soo-In;Park, Jong-Won;Kim, Yeong-Su;Kim, Seung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.64-77
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    • 2002
  • DR has had an important fact not only in the department of radiology but also in productivity or work efficiency of a whole hospital. The environment of DR has more various parameter than CR, so it is able to supply high quality of medical services. The current environment of radiology department in each hospital has been changed from Film-Screen system to DR through Full-PACS. This hospital which uses Full-PACS became to study the proper condition of CR and DDR and how the image quality of them is expressed among general photographing systems in the DR environment. From this experiment, the image quality of DDR is better than CR under the same exposure condition. And in the DDR system, the score of image which uses AEC is a little higher than the score which doesn't use it. Especially it can be known that the function of AEC of DDR is useful to improve the image quality in the part of skull and chest. (The function of AEC : It is the tool that detects the ionized current of x-ray which goes through objects with using the ion chamber which is in the detector. Also it controls the examination of X-ray when the proper density is reached.) Because the proper degree of density can be represented by this system, the photographing can be taken much easily without consideration of the exposure condition with the thickness of various objects. From the result of this experiment, it can be known that the selection of proper exposure condition plays an important rule to gain good Image Quality. More researches will be necessary about DDR system which has potential ability in the future.

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Local Autonomy, National Economy and Local Public Finance (지방자치(地方自治)와 국민경제(國民經濟) 및 지방재정(地方財政))

  • Lee, Kye-sik
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.41-67
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    • 1991
  • Local autonomy of Korea's lower-level local council has been reinstated following elections last March for the first time in thirty years. Last June, we had elections for the upper-level local council. Mayors, governors, and administrative chiefs of cities, provinces and other local government bodies are slated for elections in the first half of next year. The impacts of local autonomy are taking effect in not only the political sphere, but also the administrative and economic spheres. In fact, it seems that some modification of all economic policy making and administration is inevitable. Since the initiation of local autonomy, in order to make the economy work more efficiently, it has become quite important to examine the impact of local autonomy on the national economy. The areas of local autonomy include independent legislative power, administrative power, organizational power, and most important of all, the independent public financial power of the local governments. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of local autonomy on the national economy and ways of enhancing the role of local public finance to facilitate settlement and development of the local autonomy system. Local autonomy will contribute to the continuous growth of our economy, allow balanced development, and generate greater efficiency. However, local autonomy can also incur economic costs causing at times short-term price instability, inefficient resource allocation, through tax competition and tax exporting, and insolvency of local government due to abusive fiscal operation. To reduce these side effects, different alternatives must be considered. Local autonomy systems generally provide more efficient resource allocation than centralization. But in the model used in Chapter 3 of this paper, the relative efficiencies of both local autonomy and centralization are determined by comparing the elasticity of substitution between national public goods and local public goods. If the elasticity of substitution is bigger than one, centralization provides a more efficient resource allocation. The development of local autonomy could be attained through democratization of the local public finance system including the following three propositions. I) The independence of public financial power of local governments should be established over central government. Furthermore, a democratically operated scheme of intergovernmental fiscal coordination is especially necessary. 2) In the operation of local finance, direct democracy is needed to induce the voluntary participation of local residents. The residents can take part in planning both the local budget and the development of the community. To attain this goal, all the results of local finance operations should be made public. 3) Among economic ill-effects of the local autonomy system, the most serious one is the possibility of insolvency of local governments. Therefore, measures to limit abusive spending by the local governments should be introduced, such as the fiscal restraints system adopted in the United States.

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Studies on Creep Behavior for Rice Stalks (벼줄기의 크리이프 거동(擧動)에 관한 연구)

  • Huh, Yun Kun;Kim, Sung Rai;Lee, Sang Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1995
  • All agricultural crops and products should be cultured, harvested, handled and processed by the proper mechanical methods in the mechanized farming systems. Agricultural crops might be injured or deformed through various working stages due to static or dynamic forces of machines. Mechanical forces had to be applied with proper degrees to the agricultural crops in incoincidence with properties of crops without any damage of crops so as to increase the work efficiency qualitatively. Knowledges of mechanical properties of agricultural materials are essential to prevent of agricultural crops in relation with mechanical farming system. This study was carried out to examine and analyze the creep behavior of the rice stalk on growing and harvesting periods by mechanical model with computer measurement system in radial directional compressive force and bending force. The creep behavior of the rice stalk could be predicted precisely and its results approached closely to the measured values. The creep behaviors were increased greatly with increase of compressive force, namely, the steady state creep behavior occurred at the force less then 25N and the logarithmic creep behavior at the force bigger than 30N. The instantaneous elastic modulus $E_o$ and the retardation time ${\tau}_K$ were increased together with increase of applied forces, meanwhile the retarded elastic modulus $E_r$ and viscosity ${\eta}_v$ were decreased with increase of applied forces in mechanical model being expected the creep behavior in relation with the level of applied forces, which was well explained that the rice stalk might be visvo-elastic material. In the creep test along the stalk portion with compressive force and bending force, the intermediate portion showed greatest values and also the lower portion showed the least values, which implied that the intermediate portions of rice stalk were very weak. The steady state creep behavior occured at the intermediate portion and the upper portion in the rice stalk at the compressive force larger than 25.0N, which showed the possibility of injury due to external forces.

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Application and Effectiveness of a Preceptorship for the Improvement of Clinical Education (임상실습 교육개선을 위한 일 실습지도자 활용모델 (preceptorship model)의 적용 및 효과에 관한 연구 -암센타, 재활센타, 중환자실 실습을 중심으로-)

  • 이원희;김소선;한신희;이소연;김기연
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.581-596
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    • 1995
  • Clinical practice in nursing education provides an opportunity for students, through the process of ap-plying theoretical knowledge to practice, and to learn nursing skills as well as being socialized into nursing and as such decrease the reality shock of actual nursing practice. Because of a shortage of nursing faculty, the job of achieving the objectives of the clinical practice had been turned over to the head nurses. This resulted in many problems, such as, unclear location of responsibilities and inadequate feedback from head nurses. Therefore this study was done to introduce and evaluate the use of preceptors as a way to minimize the above problems, and to maximize the achievement of the clinical practice objectives. Using an adaptation of Zerbe's (1991) three-tiered team model, clinical practice was done using a preceptor, a head nurse and a clinical instructor, each with different and well defined roles. The subjects of this study were 67 senior students of the College of Nursing of Y University in Seoul whose clinical practice in adult nursing was carried out between May 1, 1994 and December 8, 1994. There were 22 preceptors who had at least two years of clinical experience and who were recommended by their head nurses. They were given additional education on the philosophy and objectives of the College of Nursing, on communication skills, on the theory and practice of education, and on nursing diagnosis and education evaluation. The role of the preceptor was to work one-to-one with students in their practice. The role of the head nurse was to supervise and evaluate the preceptors. The role of the clinical instructor was to provide the education program for the preceptors, to provide ad-vice and suggestions to the preceptors and to maintain lines of communication with the college. With each of these roles in place, it was thought that the effectiveness and efficiency of the clinical practice could be increased significantly. To evaluate the effectiveness of the preceptorship, the three - tiered model, Lowery's Teacher Evaluation Opinion Form translated and adapted to Korea was used to measure student statisfaction. The Clinical Practice Compentency Evaluation Tool developed by Lee et ai was also used to measure student competencies. The results of this study are as follows 1. The satisfaction with clinical practice was higher with the introduction of the perceptors than it was before they were used. (t=-5.96, p=<.005) 2. The clinical practice competencies were higher with the introduction of the preceptors than it was before they were used(t=-5.l3, p<.005) 3. In order to analyze areas not measured by the quantitative tools additional analysis of the open questions was done. The results of this analysis showed that : 1) The students felt positive about their sense of security, confidence, handling of responsbility, and being systematic. They also felt positive about improvements in knowledge, opportunities for direct care, and socialization. 2) The students felt negative about the technical part of their role, lack of knowledge by the preceptor, unprofessional attitudes on the part of the preceptor, difficulty in the role of the professional nurse(student). 3) The preceptors felt positive about their responsibility, motivation, and relationship with the college. 4) The preceptors felt negative about their bur-den. Introduction of the preceptorship model will lead to change and improvement in the negative factors discussed above, solve problems in the present clinical education system, increase continuity in the education of the students, help with socialization of the students and motivation of the preceptors to up-grade their education and increase their confidence. These objectives must be obtained to further the development of professional nursing, and thus, making the preceptorship a reality is our job for the future.

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EMERGY Analysis of Korean Fisheries (한국수산업의 EMERGY 분석)

  • SOHN Ji-Ho;SHIN Sung-Kyo;CHO Eun-Il;LEE Suk-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.689-700
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    • 1996
  • Fisheries products have to be produced and maintained by work processes from the environment, sometimes helped by people. In Korean fisheries both environmental production and its economic use are included within the windows of system approach. EMERGY is the sum of all inputs expressed as one form of solar energy required directly and indirectly to make a product. Calculating EMERGY flows into Korean fisheries evaluates the real wealth contributed by environmental production and its economic use. Several indices calculated from EMERGY analysis table and a three-arm diagram give perspective on the type and efficiency of the environmental uses. Net EMERGY yield ratio is a measure of its net contribution to the economy beyond its own operation. For adjacent waters fisheries in Korea, the net contribution to the economy is 11.85 or higher, which is a stimulus to the economy that is able to purchase it. EMERGY investment ratio measures the intensity of the economic development and the loading of the environment. The ratio for Korean fisheries as a whole is 0.50, for the adjacent waters fisheries 0.09 and for the shallow-sea cultures 1.28, which is lower than the same index for the industry of the developed country (7.0). The component of environment drawn into production are large compared to purchased investment in Korean fisheries. Much more EMERGY is contained in fisheries products than in the paid services used to process the products. The EMERGY exchange ratio for Korean fisheries as a whole is 6.98, for the adjacent waters fisheries is 10.69 and for the shallow-sea cultures is 1.25. Using market values to evaluate wealth of environment resources is found to be many times too small. Money is paid only to people for their contribution, and never to the environment for its contribution. Macroeconomic value is the appropriate measure for discussing large-scale considerations of an economy, including environment and human goods & services.

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Dental Hygienists' Turnover Intention and its Related Factors (치과위생사의 이직요인에 대한 조사연구)

  • Yoon, Mi-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Choi, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to help prevent the turnover of competent dental hygienists in a bid to boost the efficiency of personnel management for dental health care workers and provide higher-quality oral health services. After relevant literature and data were reviewed, a survey was conducted on dental hygienists, who worked at dental institutes, for approximately four months from September to December 2004 to identify what affected their turnover. The findings of the study were as below: 1. Regarding turnover experience, 39.7 percent of the dental hygienists investigated had such an experience. As to turnover frequency, those who took up another employment once made up the largest group(28.2%), followed by twice(8.0%) and three times(2.9%). The most dominant turnover reason was working conditions(66.7%), followed by seeking being hired by larger institutes(36.2%), pay(21.7%), relationship with dentists(11.6%) and commuting distance(11.6%). 2. As for their hope for turnover, 82.8 percent hoped to take up another employment, and working conditions were cited as the most common reason(44.4%), followed by pay(33.3%), commuting distance(18.1%), marriage(13.2%), health/use of leisure time(11.8%), and commuting time(10.4%). 3. Concerning preference for future workplace, 38.5 percent, the largest group, wanted to work at public health clinics. As to a preferred term of working as dental hygienists, 50.0 percent, the greatest group, hoped to serve as dental hygienists until they are financially secure. 34.5 percent, the second largest group, intended to keep working until they reach the age limit. In regard to their responsibility for family economy, 47.7 percent, the greatest percentage, shouldered the partial responsibility for that, and 31.6 percent assumed no responsibility. 4. As to their intention to quit working as dental hygienists, 61.5 percent were willing to do that, and marriage(29.0%) was singled out as the most frequent reason, followed by working conditions(27.1%), child birth(22.4%), health/housework(18.7%), pay(15.9%) and learning/use of free time(15.0%).

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QTL Mapping for 6-Year-Old Growths of a Single Open-Pollinated Half-Sib Family of a Selected Clone 7-1037 in Loblolly Pine(Pinus taeda) and Average Effect of QTL Allele Substitution (테다소나무 7-1037 클론의 단일 반형매 풍매가계 6년생 생장에 대한 QTL mapping과 QTL 대립유전자 치환의 평균효과)

  • Kim, Yong-Yul;Lee, Bong-Choon;O'Malley, David M.
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.4
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    • pp.483-494
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    • 2006
  • We conducted QTL mapping for 6-year growths of open-pollinated half-sib progenies from a selected clone 7-1037 in Pinus taeda. With an AFLP marker analysis on haploid DNA samples from the megagametophytes of the open-pollinated seeds, we constructed 20 framework maps spanning a total of 1,869 cM in total length and 18.5 cM in an average interval length between markers. Composite interval mapping reveals that one QTL explains 5.9% of the total phenotypic variation of height, and three QTLs account for 3.9~5.6% of the variation of diameter at breast height (DBH). There are no correlations between the QTLs. The genetic effects of the QTLs are 39.6 cm in height and 7.20~9.41 mm in DBH, respectively, The average effects of gene substitution of the markers closely linked with the QTLs are 44.3 cm in height and 8.38~11.81 m in DBH. Under an assumption that the within-family heritability for the growth traits of loblolly pine is less than 0.2, the QTLs account for 26.8% of the additive genetic variance of the progenies. In terms of relative selection efficiency, the individual selection based on QTL markers could be 5 times as high as phenotypic selection. The results in this study indicate that the QTL mapping method with open-pollinated half-sib family could be more practical and applicable to the conventional seed orchard-based selection work than other mapping methods with a single full-sib family, in particular from the viewpoint that it can provide crucial information for within-family individual selection such as breeding value.

Designing an Intelligent Advertising Business Model in Seoul's Metro Network (서울지하철의 지능형 광고 비즈니스모델 설계)

  • Musyoka, Kavoya Job;Lim, Gyoo Gun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 2017
  • Modern businesses are adopting new technologies to serve their markets better as well as to improve efficiency and productivity. The advertising industry has continuously experienced disruptions from the traditional channels (radio, television and print media) to new complex ones including internet, social media and mobile-based advertising. This case study focuses on proposing intelligent advertising business model in Seoul's metro network. Seoul has one of the world's busiest metro network and transports a huge number of travelers on a daily basis. The high number of travelers coupled with a well-planned metro network creates a platform where marketers can initiate engagement and interact with both customers and potential customers. In the current advertising model, advertising is on illuminated and framed posters in the stations and in-car, non-illuminated posters, and digital screens that show scheduled arrivals and departures of metros. Some stations have digital screens that show adverts but they do not have location capability. Most of the current advertising media have one key limitation: space. For posters whether illuminated or not, one space can host only one advert at a time. Empirical literatures show that there is room for improving this advertising model and eliminate the space limitation by replacing the poster adverts with digital advertising platform. This new model will not only be digital, but will also provide intelligent advertising platform that is driven by data. The digital platform will incorporate location sensing, e-commerce, and mobile platform to create new value to all stakeholders. Travel cards used in the metro will be registered and the card scanners will have a capability to capture traveler's data when travelers tap their cards. This data once analyzed will make it possible to identify different customer groups. Advertisers and marketers will then be able to target specific customer groups, customize adverts based on the targeted consumer group, and offer a wide variety of advertising formats. Format includes video, cinemagraphs, moving pictures, and animation. Different advert formats create different emotions in the customer's mind and the goal should be to use format or combination of formats that arouse the expected emotion and lead to an engagement. Combination of different formats will be more effective and this can only work in a digital platform. Adverts will be location based, ensuring that adverts will show more frequently when the metro is near the premises of an advertiser. The advertising platform will automatically detect the next station and screens inside the metro will prioritize adverts in the station where the metro will be stopping. In the mobile platform, customers who opt to receive notifications will receive them when they approach the business premises of advertiser. The mobile platform will have indoor navigation for the underground shopping malls that will allow customers to search for facilities within the mall, products they may want to buy as well as deals going on in the underground mall. To create an end-to-end solution, the mobile solution will have a capability to allow customers purchase products through their phones, get coupons for deals, and review products and shops where they have bought a product. The indoor navigation will host intelligent mobile-based advertisement and a recommendation system. The indoor navigation will have adverts such that when a customer is searching for information, the recommendation system shows adverts that are near the place traveler is searching or in the direction that the traveler is moving. These adverts will be linked to the e-commerce platform such that if a customer clicks on an advert, it leads them to the product description page. The whole system will have multi-language as well as text-to-speech capability such that both locals and tourists have no language barrier. The implications of implementing this model are varied including support for small and medium businesses operating in the underground malls, improved customer experience, new job opportunities, additional revenue to business model operator, and flexibility in advertising. The new value created will benefit all the stakeholders.