• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wool Growth

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A study on the damage of some fibers affected by growth of Dermatophytes (Dermatophytes의 번식에 의한 몇가지 섬유의 손상에 관한 연구)

  • Nam Yun Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 1978
  • Dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum are used in this study to confirm (a) The Dermatophytes could utilize the wool, cotton and nylon fiber as a nutrient source. (b) The degree of damage of fibers by the Dermatophytes growth. The results of the experiment are summarized as follows; 1. Dermatophytes could not utilize the wool, cotton and nylon fiber directly as a nutrient source without the exogenously applied nutrients. 2. It was presumed that Dermatophytes could utilize the knitted wool fabric as their nutrient source when nutrient was exogenously applied. since the knitted wool fabric was greatly damaged by T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum growth. 3. The tensile strength of knitted wool fabric was significantly decreased by T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, but not by E. floccosum. However, the tensile strength of knitted nylon fabric was not particularly affected by the Dermatophytes. 4. The burst strength of knitted wool fabric was decreased by T. mentagrophytes ($77\%$). T. rubrum ($53\%$). and E. floccosum ($15\%$). Though the burst strength of knitted cotton fabric was decreased by Dermatophytes about $20\%$, that of knitted nylon fabric was not affected. 5. Observing the damaged wool fiber by scanning microscope, the inner part of wool fiber was permeated by T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum.

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Preparation of Multifuctional Wool Fibers with Nano-Silver Colloid (나노 은 콜로이드를 이용한 다기능성 양모섬유의 제조)

  • Ki, Hee-Yeon;Yeo, Sang-Young;Jeong, Sung-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Fiber Society Conference
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    • pp.239-240
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    • 2003
  • Recently, the works about antibacterial finishing have been actively investigated in textile industry because of increasing environmental pollution. Wool can easily be an medium for microorganisms growth under proper temperature and humid condition. These microorganisms can result in damages, skin irritations, and infections in wool products. For this reason, the wool materials must be protected against microorganisms in order to suppress their growth and dissemination as well as fiber damage. (omitted)

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PRODUCTION FROM FINE WOOL SHEEP IN THREE AREAS IN NORTHERN CHINA

  • Masters, D.G.;Purser, D.B.;Yu, S.X.;Wang, Z.S.;Yang, R.Z.;Liu, N.;Wang, X.L.;Lu, D.X.;Wu, L.H.;Rong, W.H.;Ren, J.K.;Li, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 1990
  • The seasonal changes in production, the systems of management and the seasonal climatic and feeding conditions are described for three farms representative of the major areas for growing fine-wool sheep in northern China. At all farms, summer and autumn were seasons of rapid liveweight gain and wool growth. In the winter and spring, during lactation, liveweight declined wool growth decreased by approximately 70%, and fibre diameter by 4 to 8 microns. The wool produced was characterized by a very low clean wool yield (39-51%). Greasy fleece weights ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 kg and average diameter of wool fibres from 20.5 to 23 microns. The number of lambs born per 100 ewes mated ranged from 79 to 95, lamb weights ranged from 3.8 to 4.5 kg, and weaning weights ranged from 17 to 25 kg. Overall, the patterns of sheep production were similar to those found in seasonally arid environments (such as in the mediterranean climatic zone). Yield of clean wool and therefore clean fleece weights were far below those in most other fine-wool producing areas of the world.

Duckweed as a Protein Source for Fine-Wool Merino Sheep: Its Edibility and Effects on Wool Yield and Characteristics

  • Damry, J.V. Nolan;Bell, R.E.;Thomson, E.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.507-514
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether duckweed is useful as a dietary protein source for fine-wool Merino sheep and to evaluate its effects on wool yield and characteristics. In Experiment 1, the sheep were given one of three maintenance diets consisting of oaten chaff (520-700 g/d) supplemented with 16-32 g crude protein/d in the form of fresh (1 kg/d) or sun-dried (50-100 g/d) duckweed. Each ration was estimated to provide 5.4 MJ (1.3 Mcal)/d of metabolisable energy (ME). The sheep readily ingested the fresh or dried duckweed. None of the wool measures (yield, rate of fibre elongation, fibre diameter) differed (p>0.05) between dietary treatments. In Experiment 2, oaten-chaff-based diets (800 g/d) supplying 6.5-7.2 MJ (1.6-1.7 Mcal)/d of ME were supplemented with iso-nitrogenous amounts (4-5 g N) either of urea (8 g), cottonseed meal (60 g) or dried duckweed (100 g). In this experiment, the rate of wool fibre elongation, thought to be related to intestinal amino acid absorption, was lower (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given either oaten chaff/cottonseed meal or oaten chaff/duckweed for which the rates did not differ (p>0.05). Fibre diameter, which ranged from 16.0-16.7 mm, did not differ (p>0.05) between diets, but tended to be lower on the oaten chaff/urea diet so that volume of wool produced was also significantly lower (p<0.05) on this diet than on the diets containing duckweed or cottonseed meal. Rumen ammonia concentrations at 4.5 and 7.5 h after feeding were higher (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given the other two diets. A comparison of the rumen ammonia concentrations, wool growth rate and predicted flows of amino acids from the rumen of sheep supplemented with duckweed rather than cottonseed meal suggested that duckweed is a valuable source of 'escape protein' for ruminants.

Effect of Feed Protein Source on Digestion and Wool Production in Angora Rabbit

  • Bhatt, R.S.;Sawal, R.K.;Mahajan, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1075-1079
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    • 1999
  • Adult German cross $(German{\times}British{\times}Russian)$ angora rabbits (one year age), 32 in number were divided randomly into four groups $(T_1-T_4)$ with equal sex ratio and fed diets containing $T_1$ groundnut cake (GNC); $T_3$, soyaflakes (SF); $T_4$, sunflower cake (SFC) and $T_2$, a mixture of all the three cakes along with green forage as roughage for a period of 9 months. Nine per cent protein was added from each protein source. Fibre level was maintained by adjusting the level of rice phak in the diets. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and contained similar level of fibre. DMI through roughage was not affected due to source of protein in the diet, however, DMI through concentrate was higher $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with SFC diet, which resulted in higher total feed intake in the group $(T_4)$. Body weights increased up to second shearing, thereafter it decreased due to summer depression. Diet containing soyaflakes sustained higher wool yield whereas, it was lowest $(p{\leq}0.05)$ on SFC diet. Wool attributes (staple length, medullation, fibre diameter) were not affected due to source of protein in the diet. Digestibility of fibre and its fractions (ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose) decreased $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with incorporation of SFC in the diets. Balance of calcium was lowest whereas, that of nitrogen was highest with SFC diet $(T_4)$. Biological value of N and net protein utilization was better when different protein sources were mixed together $(T_2)$. Protein quality of soyaflakes proved better for wool production followed by groundnut cake and mixture of three protein sources. Sunflower cake alone or in combination decreased wool production which may be checked by supplementation of amino acids and energy.

Growth Performance and Caecal Fermentation in Growing Rabbits Fed on Diets Containing Graded Levels of Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaves

  • Prasad, Rajendra;Misra, A.K.;Sankhyan, S.K.;Mishra, A.S.;Tripathi, M.K.;Karim, S.A.;Jakhmola, R.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1309-1314
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    • 2003
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and changes in caecal fermentation pattern was studied on four groups of 8 grower rabbits (soviet chinchilla) each, fed on diets containing 17 to 18% CP and $10.4-11.00MJ\;DE\;kg^{-1}$ feed. The complete diets contained mulberry leaves along with other feed ingredients at 0 (LH), 15 (ML15), 30 (ML30) and 45% (ML45) levels. In LH diet ground lucerne hay was added at 15% of the diet as roughage source. The diets were uniform in other nutritional parameters except the higher amount of hemicellulose (18.7 and 16.5%) in LH and ML15 diets. The performance of grower rabbits was better (p<0.05) on LH and ML15 diets in terms of twelve weeks weight (kg), total gain (g), average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (%). Different levels of mulberry leaves in the diet did not influence the dry matter intake. Digestibility of nutrients for DM, OM, CP, NDF and energy was uniform in all the diets but the digestibility of CF, ADF and cellulose was higher (p<0.01) on ML15, ML30 and ML 45 diets. The hemicellulose digestibility was significantly higher (p<0.01) on LH (44.52%) and ML15 (48.00%) compared to ML30 (33.54%) and ML 45 (39.17%) diets. The nitrogen retention (% of intake) was higher (p<0.05) in LH and ML15 diets than ML30 and ML45 diets. The caecum weight as percent of intestine weight consistently increased (p<0.05) with increasing content of mulberry leaves in diets. Total nitrogen and $NH_3$-N was higher on LH and ML15 diets. It is concluded that incorporation of mulberry leaves can replace Lucerne hay in complete rabbit feed (15% in diet). Even at higher level i.e. 30 and 45% of the diet mulberry leaves based complete feed gave promising results.

RESULTS FROM ADAPTABILITY TRIAL OF RAMBOUILLET SHEEP AND THEIR CROSSBREEDING WITH KAGHANIS. EFFECTS ON EWE MATING WEIGHT, WOOL PRODUCTION, LITTER SIZE AND LAMB GROWTH

  • Nawaz, M.;Meyer, H.H.;Jadoon, J.K.;Naqvi, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.481-485
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    • 1992
  • In order to upgrade native sheep, Rambouillet (R) rams were mated to Kaghani (K) ewes to generate F1 ($R{\times}K$) crossbred ewes. Crossbred ewes were backcrossed to Rambouillet rams to produce B1 ($R{\times}F1$), B2 ($R{\times}B1$) and B3 ($R{\times}B2$) genotypes. Weaning weight of 2605 lambs and wool weight of 2378 mature ewe records, representing R, K, F1, B1, B2 and B3 genotypes, were analyzed to compare genetic variation among genotypes produced during upgrading process and identify genotypes of the highest performance. Performance of Rambouillets was also evaluated under semi-temperate climate. Data were adjusted for yearly variation considering Rambouillet as a control. Genotypes influenced lambs weaning weight (p<.01). B1 lambs were heaviest (18.4 kg) followed in order by B2, F1, B3, R and K lambs (18.3, 17.9, 16.9, 16.8 and 13.2 kg, respectively). The highest wool production was 2.5 kg from R ewes followed by B2 (2.3), B3 (2.3), F1 (2.0) and K (1.2) ewes (p < .01). Ewe mating weight, reproduction, growth and wool production of Rambouillets deteriorated significantly after the first decade of their importation. Compared with the first phase (1959-1971), ewe mating weight, litter size, birth weight, lamb weaning weight and wool production declined by 20, 23, 32 and 36%, respectively, in the second phase (1972-1988).

Estimates of Direct and Maternal Effects on Growth Traits in Angora Rabbits

  • Niranjan, S.K.;Sharma, S.R.;Gowane, G.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.981-986
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    • 2010
  • Genetic parameters of growth traits were estimated in the German Angora rabbit reared in the sub-temperate region of India. Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained for body weights at weaning (42 days) and post-weaning at 84, 126 and 168 days. A total of 8,324 animal records were used for the analysis of these traits. The data were analyzed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. A log likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Direct heritability estimates were observed to be moderate for the traits under study. Heritability estimates for weaning (42 d), 84, 126 and 168 d weights obtained from the best models were $0.25{\pm}0.05$, $0.17{\pm}0.05$, $0.21{\pm}0.06$ and $0.12{\pm}0.05$. Maternal effects had higher importance at weaning, and declined with the advancement of age. Significant maternal permanent environmental effect on weaning and post-weaning weights was a carryover effect of maternal influences during pre-weaning age. The estimated repeatabilities of doe effects on body weights were 0.37, 0.22, 0.18 and 0.28 at weaning, 84, 126 and 168 d body weight, respectively. Results indicated that modest rate of genetic progress is possible for body weight traits of Angora rabbit through selection. Similarly, these growth traits could be included in selection criteria along with wool traits for early selection of the animals.

Effects of Replacing Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) Hay with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Ruminal Fermentation and Ewe Performance

  • Sparkes, J.L.;Chaves, A.V.;Fung, Y.T.E.;van Ekris, I.;Bush, R.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2010
  • Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of replacing 30% (% in diet DM) of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) hay with citrus pulp in Merino ewe diets: i) an in vitro study which measured ruminal fermentation; and ii) an in vivo study in which twelve Merino ewes pre- and post-lambing were fed experimental diets in a cross-over design over 120 days to evaluate effects on ewe performance (i.e. DM intake, average daily gain (ADG) and wool growth). In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, the control treatment consisted of lucerne (91.3% in diet DM), lupins (8.3% in diet DM) and phosphate (0.42% in diet DM), while the citrus pulp treatment consisted of lucerne (57.7% in diet DM), lupins (9.5% in diet DM), phosphate (0.48% in diet DM) and fresh citrus pulp (32.3% in diet DM). Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of SAS. In the in vitro study, gas production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield, proportion of propionic acid to total VFA and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were higher (p<0.02) in the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In contrast, in vitro ammonia production, pH and the acetate to propionate ratio were lower (p<0.03) for the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In the in vivo study, DM intake of ewes fed the citrus pulp diet was lower than their control ewe counterparts throughout both the pre- and post-lambing periods (928.9 vs. 1,115.0 g/d pre-; 1,285.0 vs. 1,620.3 g/d post-lambing, p<0.01), however ADG was similar (p = 0.12). Wool growth parameters and lamb performance did not differ (p>0.32) between treatments. In summary, the in vitro study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp improved total VFA yield, increased total gas production and improved IVDMD, while decreasing the production of ammonia, acetic acid and rumen pH. In addition, the in vivo study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp pre- and post-lambing decreased intake but did not affect ewe performance in terms of ADG and wool growth. These findings, of course, would be of significant interest to sheep producers endeavouring to control cost of feed ingredients whilst maintaining productivity.