• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wool Fibre

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Duckweed as a Protein Source for Fine-Wool Merino Sheep: Its Edibility and Effects on Wool Yield and Characteristics

  • Damry, J.V. Nolan;Bell, R.E.;Thomson, E.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.507-514
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether duckweed is useful as a dietary protein source for fine-wool Merino sheep and to evaluate its effects on wool yield and characteristics. In Experiment 1, the sheep were given one of three maintenance diets consisting of oaten chaff (520-700 g/d) supplemented with 16-32 g crude protein/d in the form of fresh (1 kg/d) or sun-dried (50-100 g/d) duckweed. Each ration was estimated to provide 5.4 MJ (1.3 Mcal)/d of metabolisable energy (ME). The sheep readily ingested the fresh or dried duckweed. None of the wool measures (yield, rate of fibre elongation, fibre diameter) differed (p>0.05) between dietary treatments. In Experiment 2, oaten-chaff-based diets (800 g/d) supplying 6.5-7.2 MJ (1.6-1.7 Mcal)/d of ME were supplemented with iso-nitrogenous amounts (4-5 g N) either of urea (8 g), cottonseed meal (60 g) or dried duckweed (100 g). In this experiment, the rate of wool fibre elongation, thought to be related to intestinal amino acid absorption, was lower (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given either oaten chaff/cottonseed meal or oaten chaff/duckweed for which the rates did not differ (p>0.05). Fibre diameter, which ranged from 16.0-16.7 mm, did not differ (p>0.05) between diets, but tended to be lower on the oaten chaff/urea diet so that volume of wool produced was also significantly lower (p<0.05) on this diet than on the diets containing duckweed or cottonseed meal. Rumen ammonia concentrations at 4.5 and 7.5 h after feeding were higher (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given the other two diets. A comparison of the rumen ammonia concentrations, wool growth rate and predicted flows of amino acids from the rumen of sheep supplemented with duckweed rather than cottonseed meal suggested that duckweed is a valuable source of 'escape protein' for ruminants.

Effect of Feed Protein Source on Digestion and Wool Production in Angora Rabbit

  • Bhatt, R.S.;Sawal, R.K.;Mahajan, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1075-1079
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    • 1999
  • Adult German cross $(German{\times}British{\times}Russian)$ angora rabbits (one year age), 32 in number were divided randomly into four groups $(T_1-T_4)$ with equal sex ratio and fed diets containing $T_1$ groundnut cake (GNC); $T_3$, soyaflakes (SF); $T_4$, sunflower cake (SFC) and $T_2$, a mixture of all the three cakes along with green forage as roughage for a period of 9 months. Nine per cent protein was added from each protein source. Fibre level was maintained by adjusting the level of rice phak in the diets. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and contained similar level of fibre. DMI through roughage was not affected due to source of protein in the diet, however, DMI through concentrate was higher $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with SFC diet, which resulted in higher total feed intake in the group $(T_4)$. Body weights increased up to second shearing, thereafter it decreased due to summer depression. Diet containing soyaflakes sustained higher wool yield whereas, it was lowest $(p{\leq}0.05)$ on SFC diet. Wool attributes (staple length, medullation, fibre diameter) were not affected due to source of protein in the diet. Digestibility of fibre and its fractions (ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose) decreased $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with incorporation of SFC in the diets. Balance of calcium was lowest whereas, that of nitrogen was highest with SFC diet $(T_4)$. Biological value of N and net protein utilization was better when different protein sources were mixed together $(T_2)$. Protein quality of soyaflakes proved better for wool production followed by groundnut cake and mixture of three protein sources. Sunflower cake alone or in combination decreased wool production which may be checked by supplementation of amino acids and energy.

Reactive dyeing systems for wool fibres based on hetero-bifunctional reactive dyes

  • Jeong, Jo-Ho;D. M. Lewis
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Dyers and Finishers Conference
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2003
  • Although fibre reactive dyes for wool were developed before those for cellulosic fibres, there are still limited ranges of fibre reactive dyes available for wool compared to those for cellulosic fbres. Since Fujioka and Abeta introduced the first mixed bifunctional reactive system in the early 1980s for cellulosic fibres, there has been some works on cotton and on silk. (omitted)

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Fleece Phenotype Influences Susceptibility to Cortisol-induced Follicle Shutdown in Merino Sheep

  • Ansari-Renani, H.R.;Hynd, P.I.;Aghajanzadeh, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1761-1769
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the extent to which susceptibility to cortisol-induced follicle shutdown is influenced by fleece phentotype. Twenty Finewool (10 sheep low fibre diameter, low coefficient of fibre diameter-LL and 10 low fibre diameter, high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-LH) and twenty Strongwool (10 low fibre diameter, low coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HL and 10 high fibre diameter and high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HH) sheep of 9 months of age were individually penned in an animal house and were injected intramuscularly with an aqueous suspension of hydrocortisone acetate at a rate of 1.42 mg/kg body weight for a period of two weeks. Fibre diameter was measured from clipped tattooed patch wool samples. Follicle activity was measured by histological changes in skin biopsies taken weekly. Blood samples were collected at two-week intervals and plasma cortisol measured. Increased plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.05) reduced clean wool production and mean fibre diameter dropped to its lowest level four weeks after commencement and two weeks after the cessation of cortisol injection. Elevation of plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.0001) increased the percentage of inactive follicles two weeks after injection started. High fibre diameter groups (Strongwool sheep; i.e. HL+HH) had significantly (p<0.0001) higher percentage of follicle shutdown than low fibre diameter groups (Finewool sheep; i.e. LL+LH). Average percentage of shutdown follicles for Finewool (LL+LH) and Strongwool (HL+HH) Merino sheep was $9.8{\pm}0.9$ and $13.5{\pm}0.9$ respectively. Shutdown of primary follicles was more pronounced in Finewool than Strongwool sheep. There was no significant effect of coefficient of variation of fibre diameter on propensity to follicle shutdown induced by exogenous cortisol. It is concluded that elevation in plasma cortisol concentration is inhibitory to the normal activity of follicles in Strongwool sheep but that variation in fibre diameter has little or no effect.

Development of High Sensible Fabrics Using Worsted Yarn Drawing Technology (소모사 연신기술 이용 고감성 직물소재 개발)

  • Kim, Seung-Jin
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.623-629
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    • 2007
  • Recently, the $"Optim"^{(R)}$ which is the wool fibre with high lustre developed by CSIRO in Australia is imported and commercialized as a high sensible fabrics for garment. But the price of this $"Optim"^{(R)}$ fibre is very high so material demand and supply is not smooth. This study is aiming to develop the drawing technology of the worsted yarn with washable function, lustre and low production cost. For this purpose, drawing yarns are made using developed drawing machine and high sensible fabrics are woven using this yarns, and various physical properties of the fabric specimen are measured and analysed with garment characteristics such as sewability and formability. The final objective of this study is seemed to be achieved by making the high sensible fabrics using drawing worsted yarns with high lustre such as $"Optim"^{(R)}$ fibre.

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A Study of the Oxygen Plasma Treatment on the Serviceability of a Wool Fabric

  • Kan, C.W.;Chan, K.;Yuen, C.W.M.
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2004
  • Low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment using oxygen gas was applied to a wool fabric. The LTP treated wool fabric was tested with several methods: ASTM D5035-1995, ASTM D1424-1996, AATCC Test Method 99-2000, AATCC Test Method 61-2001 lA, AATCC Test Method 15-2002 and AATCC Test Method 8-2001 and the results were compared with the industrial requirements (ASTM D3780-02 and ASTM D4155-0l). The results revealed that the LTP treated wool fabric could fulfil the industrial requirements. The results of the investigation were discussed thoroughly in this paper.

Evaluation of Crossbreeding Effects for Wool Traits in Sheep

  • Malik, B.S.;Singh, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1536-1540
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    • 2006
  • Crossbreeding effects for wool quality traits viz. greasy fleece weight (kg), staple length (cm), average fibre diameter (${\mu}$) and medulation percentage were estimated using the Dickerson's and Kinghorn's models. The data analyzed involved 15 genetic groups including Nali purebred, $F_1$'s of two and three breeds, $F_2$'s and reciprocal crossbred obtained from the crossing of Nali (N), Merino (M) and Corriedale (C) breeds during 1980-96. Nali and Corriedale breeds had non-significant negative additive genetic effects (Dickerson's model) on greasy fleece weight, while effects of Corriedale were negative for staple length only from both models. In general additive genetic effects of all three breeds were non-significant for all the wool traits except medulation percentage. Non significant heterotic and recombination effects (epistatic loss) were estimated from both models. However, the estimates of crossbreeding effects varied between the models both in magnitude as well as in direction barring few exceptions. Undesirable positive heterosis was found on medulation percentage for all types of combinations involving three breeds. Comparison of least squares means of various genetic groups revealed that both two breed and three breed crosses were superior to the Nali breed for all wool quality traits. Fibre diameter of MN crossbreds was significantly less than CN crossbreds. Results also indicated that as the inheritance of Nali breed in a cross is decreased, the medulation percentage decreases which is desirable. Inter se mating of crossbreds (two breed, three breed) has not resulted in a decline in the wool quality traits. These results indicate that the synthetic population derived from three breeds can be stabilized easily for wool traits as there may not be epistatic loss on subsequent inter se mating of crossbreds.

Effect of Feeding Chemically Treated Mustard (Brassica campestris) Straw on Rumen Fibre Degrading Enzymes in Sheep

  • Vaithiyanathan, S.;Raghuvanshi, S.K.S.;Mishra, A.S.;Tripathi, M.K.;Misra, A.K.;Prasad, R.;Jakhmola, R.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1610-1613
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    • 2003
  • The aim of the experiment was to study the changes in the activities of various rumen fibre degrading enzymes due to the feeding of chemically treated mustard (Brassica campestris) straw in sheep. Mustard straw (MS) (<5 cm particle size) was treated either with urea (4% (w/w), or with 2% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), or with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (2% NaOH and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)) and/or supplemented with 2% (w/w) urea. Seven maintenance type rations were prepared using MS (70 parts) with molasses (5 parts) and concentrate (25 parts). They were untreated MS (CMS), urea treated MS (UMS), urea supplemented MS (MSUS), alkali treated MS (AMS), alkali treated and urea supplemented MS (AMS-US), alkali $H_2O_2$ treated MS (AHMS) and alkali $H_2O_2$ treated and urea supplemented MS (AHMS-US). They were then compressed into a complete feed block with the help of block making machine. Forty two male hoggets of Malpura breed sheep were equally distributed into each treatment group and (were) offered feed and water ad libitum. At the end of 21 days of feeding trial, rumen liquor was collected through stomach tube from three animals in each group at 0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h of post feeding. Results showed that the level of enzyme varied from 8.52 to 11.12, 40.85 to 50.37, 3.22 to 3.78, 2.09 to 2.77 and 31.44 to 44.24 units/100 ml SRL respectively for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), $\alpha$-amylase, microcrystalline cellulase (MCCase), filter paper (FP) degrading enzyme and $\alpha$-glucosidase. Processing of MS affected the enzyme activities, in a way, that NaOH and AHP treatment significantly reduced CMCase and FP degrading enzyme. The effect of urea treatment showed an increase in the activity of MCCase and $\alpha$-glucosidase. But the supplementation of urea increased the activity of CMCase, FP degrading enzyme and $\alpha$-glucosidase. The CMCase, $\alpha$-amylase, $\alpha$-glucosidase activities were highest at 4hr whereas MCCase and FP degrading enzyme had maximum activities at 12 h post feeding Results suggested that MS might need longer time in the rumen for its effective degradation.

FT-IR Study of Dopant-wool Interactions During PPy Deposition

  • Varesano Alessio;Aluigi Annalisa;Tonin Claudio;Ferrero Franco
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2006
  • Coating the fibre surface by in situ oxidative chemical polymerisation of polypyrrole (using $FeCl_3$ as oxidant) is a readily industrial applicable way to give electrical properties to wool with good ageing stability [1], although pre-treatments are required to avoid damage of the cuticle surface due to the acidic condition of the process. FT-IR and EDX analysis reveal that organic sulphonates and sulphates, used as dopants, are absorbed by wool, while chlorine ions are preferably embedded on the polypyrrole layer. The resulting electrical conductivity seems mainly due to the presence of chlorine as counter-ion of polypyrrole; nevertheless, the presence of arylsulphonate in the polymerisation bath increases the electrical conductivity of the coating layer.

PRODUCTION FROM FINE WOOL SHEEP IN THREE AREAS IN NORTHERN CHINA

  • Masters, D.G.;Purser, D.B.;Yu, S.X.;Wang, Z.S.;Yang, R.Z.;Liu, N.;Wang, X.L.;Lu, D.X.;Wu, L.H.;Rong, W.H.;Ren, J.K.;Li, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 1990
  • The seasonal changes in production, the systems of management and the seasonal climatic and feeding conditions are described for three farms representative of the major areas for growing fine-wool sheep in northern China. At all farms, summer and autumn were seasons of rapid liveweight gain and wool growth. In the winter and spring, during lactation, liveweight declined wool growth decreased by approximately 70%, and fibre diameter by 4 to 8 microns. The wool produced was characterized by a very low clean wool yield (39-51%). Greasy fleece weights ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 kg and average diameter of wool fibres from 20.5 to 23 microns. The number of lambs born per 100 ewes mated ranged from 79 to 95, lamb weights ranged from 3.8 to 4.5 kg, and weaning weights ranged from 17 to 25 kg. Overall, the patterns of sheep production were similar to those found in seasonally arid environments (such as in the mediterranean climatic zone). Yield of clean wool and therefore clean fleece weights were far below those in most other fine-wool producing areas of the world.