• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wool Fibre

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An Investigation of Spinning and Knitting Performance of Domestic Angora rabbit hair (앙골라 토모의 방적 및 편직성에 관한 연구)

  • 장석윤;최영엽
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 1970
  • This investigation aimed at improving the quality of domestic Angora fur fibre, when it is spun together wool and synthetic fibre, by solving the difficulties in processing and it was also aimed at finding the methods of preventing the fault of fibre-slipping off from knitted goods. This investigations was classified into two main parts, one of them was fundamental study and another was spinning and knitting performance. In the former the physical and chemical properties was investigated, in the latter the spinning and knitting performances was investigated taking use of the results of fundamental study. The processing aspects was, in the study of spinning and knitting performance, compared with the quality of trial-products which was made during the investigation and the method of preventing fibre-slipping off was also studied. Summary of results were as follows; 1) Topology of Angora fur fibre \circled1 Generally Angora fur fibre was classified into three appearances, finer fur fibre, hetero type hair and guard hair. \circled2 Angora fur fibre, regardless of its appearances, was composed of ladder type medulla forming a hollow cylinder and covered with cortex. \circled3 A few crimps was founded in Angora fur fibre except finer fur fibre. \circled4 Though the scale on the Angora fur fibre was founded, it was exceedingly by smaller than that of woo. 2) Physical properties \circled1 Because of characteristics in appearances of Angora fur fibre the strength-elongation behaviour was considerably scattered and load-elongation behaviour of finer fur fibre was less than that of wool. \circled2 The static charging rate of Angora fur fibre was similar to that of wool but discharging rate was quicker than that of wool. \circled3 The staple length of domestic Angora fur fibre was considerably scattered. 3) Chemical properties \circled1 The chemical component of Angora fur fibre was similar to that of wool. \circled2 Rate of curl was increased by the treatment of carroting but the load-elongation behaviour became 4) Spinning and knitting performance \circled1 Smaller amount of water was recommanded when oiling the Angora fur fibre than oiling the wool. \circled2 The processing characteristics of Angora fur fibre was similar to that of wool which has fine denier and long staple. \circled3 Knitting officiency could be increased by the use of additional filament yarn. 5) Fibre-slipping off from the knitted goods \circled1 The mechanism of fibre-slipping off was classified into two parts, fibre-slipping off by statics and frictional pulling. \circled2 a) The prevention of fibre-slipping off was capable by increasing of twists, turns Per unit length of yarn and using of long staple. b) The use of core yarn was effected on the decrease of fibre-slipping off.

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Duckweed as a Protein Source for Fine-Wool Merino Sheep: Its Edibility and Effects on Wool Yield and Characteristics

  • Damry, J.V. Nolan;Bell, R.E.;Thomson, E.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.507-514
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether duckweed is useful as a dietary protein source for fine-wool Merino sheep and to evaluate its effects on wool yield and characteristics. In Experiment 1, the sheep were given one of three maintenance diets consisting of oaten chaff (520-700 g/d) supplemented with 16-32 g crude protein/d in the form of fresh (1 kg/d) or sun-dried (50-100 g/d) duckweed. Each ration was estimated to provide 5.4 MJ (1.3 Mcal)/d of metabolisable energy (ME). The sheep readily ingested the fresh or dried duckweed. None of the wool measures (yield, rate of fibre elongation, fibre diameter) differed (p>0.05) between dietary treatments. In Experiment 2, oaten-chaff-based diets (800 g/d) supplying 6.5-7.2 MJ (1.6-1.7 Mcal)/d of ME were supplemented with iso-nitrogenous amounts (4-5 g N) either of urea (8 g), cottonseed meal (60 g) or dried duckweed (100 g). In this experiment, the rate of wool fibre elongation, thought to be related to intestinal amino acid absorption, was lower (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given either oaten chaff/cottonseed meal or oaten chaff/duckweed for which the rates did not differ (p>0.05). Fibre diameter, which ranged from 16.0-16.7 mm, did not differ (p>0.05) between diets, but tended to be lower on the oaten chaff/urea diet so that volume of wool produced was also significantly lower (p<0.05) on this diet than on the diets containing duckweed or cottonseed meal. Rumen ammonia concentrations at 4.5 and 7.5 h after feeding were higher (p<0.05) for sheep given the oaten chaff/urea diet than for those given the other two diets. A comparison of the rumen ammonia concentrations, wool growth rate and predicted flows of amino acids from the rumen of sheep supplemented with duckweed rather than cottonseed meal suggested that duckweed is a valuable source of 'escape protein' for ruminants.

Effect of Feed Protein Source on Digestion and Wool Production in Angora Rabbit

  • Bhatt, R.S.;Sawal, R.K.;Mahajan, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1075-1079
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    • 1999
  • Adult German cross $(German{\times}British{\times}Russian)$ angora rabbits (one year age), 32 in number were divided randomly into four groups $(T_1-T_4)$ with equal sex ratio and fed diets containing $T_1$ groundnut cake (GNC); $T_3$, soyaflakes (SF); $T_4$, sunflower cake (SFC) and $T_2$, a mixture of all the three cakes along with green forage as roughage for a period of 9 months. Nine per cent protein was added from each protein source. Fibre level was maintained by adjusting the level of rice phak in the diets. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and contained similar level of fibre. DMI through roughage was not affected due to source of protein in the diet, however, DMI through concentrate was higher $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with SFC diet, which resulted in higher total feed intake in the group $(T_4)$. Body weights increased up to second shearing, thereafter it decreased due to summer depression. Diet containing soyaflakes sustained higher wool yield whereas, it was lowest $(p{\leq}0.05)$ on SFC diet. Wool attributes (staple length, medullation, fibre diameter) were not affected due to source of protein in the diet. Digestibility of fibre and its fractions (ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose) decreased $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with incorporation of SFC in the diets. Balance of calcium was lowest whereas, that of nitrogen was highest with SFC diet $(T_4)$. Biological value of N and net protein utilization was better when different protein sources were mixed together $(T_2)$. Protein quality of soyaflakes proved better for wool production followed by groundnut cake and mixture of three protein sources. Sunflower cake alone or in combination decreased wool production which may be checked by supplementation of amino acids and energy.

Reactive dyeing systems for wool fibres based on hetero-bifunctional reactive dyes

  • Jeong, Jo-Ho;D. M. Lewis
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Dyers and Finishers Conference
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2003
  • Although fibre reactive dyes for wool were developed before those for cellulosic fibres, there are still limited ranges of fibre reactive dyes available for wool compared to those for cellulosic fbres. Since Fujioka and Abeta introduced the first mixed bifunctional reactive system in the early 1980s for cellulosic fibres, there has been some works on cotton and on silk. (omitted)

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Fleece Phenotype Influences Susceptibility to Cortisol-induced Follicle Shutdown in Merino Sheep

  • Ansari-Renani, H.R.;Hynd, P.I.;Aghajanzadeh, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1761-1769
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the extent to which susceptibility to cortisol-induced follicle shutdown is influenced by fleece phentotype. Twenty Finewool (10 sheep low fibre diameter, low coefficient of fibre diameter-LL and 10 low fibre diameter, high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-LH) and twenty Strongwool (10 low fibre diameter, low coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HL and 10 high fibre diameter and high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HH) sheep of 9 months of age were individually penned in an animal house and were injected intramuscularly with an aqueous suspension of hydrocortisone acetate at a rate of 1.42 mg/kg body weight for a period of two weeks. Fibre diameter was measured from clipped tattooed patch wool samples. Follicle activity was measured by histological changes in skin biopsies taken weekly. Blood samples were collected at two-week intervals and plasma cortisol measured. Increased plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.05) reduced clean wool production and mean fibre diameter dropped to its lowest level four weeks after commencement and two weeks after the cessation of cortisol injection. Elevation of plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.0001) increased the percentage of inactive follicles two weeks after injection started. High fibre diameter groups (Strongwool sheep; i.e. HL+HH) had significantly (p<0.0001) higher percentage of follicle shutdown than low fibre diameter groups (Finewool sheep; i.e. LL+LH). Average percentage of shutdown follicles for Finewool (LL+LH) and Strongwool (HL+HH) Merino sheep was $9.8{\pm}0.9$ and $13.5{\pm}0.9$ respectively. Shutdown of primary follicles was more pronounced in Finewool than Strongwool sheep. There was no significant effect of coefficient of variation of fibre diameter on propensity to follicle shutdown induced by exogenous cortisol. It is concluded that elevation in plasma cortisol concentration is inhibitory to the normal activity of follicles in Strongwool sheep but that variation in fibre diameter has little or no effect.

Compressive Behaviour of Fibre Assemblies -Wool under Cyclic and Constant Compressive Loading Tests- (섬유 집합체의 압축 거동 -양모에 관한 반복 압축과 정하중 압축-)

  • Ryu, Un-Yeong;Lee, Jae-Gon;U, Jae-Rin
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.38-52
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    • 1984
  • Pressure developed inside wool assemblies under constant-volume, cyclic, compressive loading has been investigated. Measured pressure value decreases with an increase in number of repeat cycles whilst it registers a higher value as the off-load interval (the time interval between two consecutive loading intervals) is increased. The regression curve is in excellent agreement with a decreasing exponential curve of the form Y=C+A exp (BX). Pressuer is affected strongly by the number of cyclic repeats and only slightly affected by the cyclic time interval when it is short whereas it is significantly affected by the cyclic time interval when it is longer. Volume deformation under constant compressive load increases with time, and this is expressible as decreasing exponential curve represented by this Y=C+A exp(Bt). By employing a three-parameter solid rheological model for the random fibre assembly at the constant load compression, two elastic moduli and a coefficient of viscosity were found to vary linearly with the density of fibre assembly at the first compression.

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Effect of Blend Ratio of Fibres and Twist Structure of the Yarns on the Bending Properties of Staple Yarns (I) - Bending Properties of Single Yarns - (섬유 혼합비와 꼬임 구조가 방적사의 굽힘 특성에 미치는 영향(I)-단사의 굽힘 특성-)

  • O, Ae-Gyeong;Kim, Han-Seong;Kim, Seung-Jin
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.431-441
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    • 1993
  • The bending properties of the single yarns, such as the bending rigidity, the coercive couple, the hysteresis energy, and the residual curvature, are related with their constituent fibre diameters as well as the surface helix angle antral the linear density. The estimated and the experimental values of these properties are compared by varying the blend ratio of wool/polyester fibres. The validity of the specific bending rigidity was ascertained by adopting the value, which the experimental bending rigidity of the single yarn is divided by experimental yarn linear density. The bending rigidity of single blend yarns depends on the number of yam twist, the linear density and the blend ratio. The specific bending rigidity was decreased with increasing the number of yarn twist and blend ratio of polyester fibre. The coercive couple and the residual curvature, relating to intra-fibre friction in the yarn, were increased with blend ratio of polyester fibre. The coercive couple and the residual curvature of 100% polyester staple yarn were increased with the twist angle, and the maximum of these values were found to be increased as the blend ratios of wool/polyester fibres were increased.

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Development of High Sensible Fabrics Using Worsted Yarn Drawing Technology (소모사 연신기술 이용 고감성 직물소재 개발)

  • Kim, Seung-Jin
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.623-629
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    • 2007
  • Recently, the $"Optim"^{(R)}$ which is the wool fibre with high lustre developed by CSIRO in Australia is imported and commercialized as a high sensible fabrics for garment. But the price of this $"Optim"^{(R)}$ fibre is very high so material demand and supply is not smooth. This study is aiming to develop the drawing technology of the worsted yarn with washable function, lustre and low production cost. For this purpose, drawing yarns are made using developed drawing machine and high sensible fabrics are woven using this yarns, and various physical properties of the fabric specimen are measured and analysed with garment characteristics such as sewability and formability. The final objective of this study is seemed to be achieved by making the high sensible fabrics using drawing worsted yarns with high lustre such as $"Optim"^{(R)}$ fibre.

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A Study of the Oxygen Plasma Treatment on the Serviceability of a Wool Fabric

  • Kan, C.W.;Chan, K.;Yuen, C.W.M.
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2004
  • Low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment using oxygen gas was applied to a wool fabric. The LTP treated wool fabric was tested with several methods: ASTM D5035-1995, ASTM D1424-1996, AATCC Test Method 99-2000, AATCC Test Method 61-2001 lA, AATCC Test Method 15-2002 and AATCC Test Method 8-2001 and the results were compared with the industrial requirements (ASTM D3780-02 and ASTM D4155-0l). The results revealed that the LTP treated wool fabric could fulfil the industrial requirements. The results of the investigation were discussed thoroughly in this paper.

Evaluation of Crossbreeding Effects for Wool Traits in Sheep

  • Malik, B.S.;Singh, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1536-1540
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    • 2006
  • Crossbreeding effects for wool quality traits viz. greasy fleece weight (kg), staple length (cm), average fibre diameter (${\mu}$) and medulation percentage were estimated using the Dickerson's and Kinghorn's models. The data analyzed involved 15 genetic groups including Nali purebred, $F_1$'s of two and three breeds, $F_2$'s and reciprocal crossbred obtained from the crossing of Nali (N), Merino (M) and Corriedale (C) breeds during 1980-96. Nali and Corriedale breeds had non-significant negative additive genetic effects (Dickerson's model) on greasy fleece weight, while effects of Corriedale were negative for staple length only from both models. In general additive genetic effects of all three breeds were non-significant for all the wool traits except medulation percentage. Non significant heterotic and recombination effects (epistatic loss) were estimated from both models. However, the estimates of crossbreeding effects varied between the models both in magnitude as well as in direction barring few exceptions. Undesirable positive heterosis was found on medulation percentage for all types of combinations involving three breeds. Comparison of least squares means of various genetic groups revealed that both two breed and three breed crosses were superior to the Nali breed for all wool quality traits. Fibre diameter of MN crossbreds was significantly less than CN crossbreds. Results also indicated that as the inheritance of Nali breed in a cross is decreased, the medulation percentage decreases which is desirable. Inter se mating of crossbreds (two breed, three breed) has not resulted in a decline in the wool quality traits. These results indicate that the synthetic population derived from three breeds can be stabilized easily for wool traits as there may not be epistatic loss on subsequent inter se mating of crossbreds.