• Title, Summary, Keyword: Women by Marriage

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A Study on Job Stress and Working Environment of Female Occupational Therapist (여성 작업치료사의 직무 스트레스와 근무 환경에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Hong;Song, Ye-Won;Cha, Tae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.484-492
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    • 2017
  • This study assessed female occupational therapist job stress and musculoskeletal pain, and examines the problems caused by sexual harassment, family, and marriage policy. The results provide information to improve work environments, reduce job stress, yield data needed for sexual harassment prevention education, examine women occupational therapists' economic activities, and broadly improve the quality of life through participation. The study subjects were currently employed female occupational therapists. Initially 200 subjects were recruited, of whom 185 returned the study questionnaire. Questions addressing job stress included, 'There are times when one feels that the salary is worth less than the job effort', 'Feel tired due to work.', 'That it is time to pay attention to other therapy.', answered positively in that order. Musculoskeletal pain in the wrist and hand (90%), shoulder (86%), neck (69.7%) and waist (68.6%) were the order of the wrist and hand (63%), shoulder (62.2%) and waist (51.9%) pain resulted in interference with daily life. Verbal harassment was reported by 71.4% and 48.6% reported physical and visual harassment. The most common topics in workplace relations were 'Must choose whether to focus on the individual or work (61.1%).', 'Need for understanding and someone who can share their feelings (54.6%).', and 'Colleagues are willing to listen to my story (73%)'.

Effects of Cultural Challenge and Economic Hardship on Intention to Divorce among the Multicultural Couples : Interdependence and Relationship Patterns Viewed Through Actor and Partner Effects (문화적 도전과 경제적 곤란이 다문화부부의 이혼의사에 미치는 영향 : 자기효과와 상대방효과로 본 상호의존성과 관계패턴)

  • Hyun, Kyoungja;Kim, Jeonghwa
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.67 no.2
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    • pp.203-236
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    • 2015
  • Given the interdependence of a marital couple, this study examined the effects of both cultural challenge and economic hardship on intention to divorce among the multicultural couple using the actor-partner interdependence model(APIM), and explored dyadic patterns of actor and partner effects. 415 couples(n=830) participated in this self-administered questionnaire study. Results of path analyses based on APIMs revealed that for Korean husbands perceived cultural challenge contributed positively to divorce intention of the couple showing both actor and partner effects, whereas for immigrant wives such perception showed only an actor effect. In contrast, perceived economic hardship among the husbands had little effect on divorce intention of both husbands and wives, whereas such perception by wives had both actor and partner effects on divorce intention. Results of dyadic pattern analyses performed by Bootstrap indicated the actor-only pattern and the couple pattern of perceived cultural challenge on divorce intention of husbands and wives respectively. In case of perceived economic hardship comparison of the effect size suggested the partner-only pattern and the actor-only pattern for divorce intention of husbands and wives respectively. These findings implied that in order to promote conjugal harmony and to prevent the multicultural family from being dissolved, Korean husbands need to develop greater cultural competence so as to tolerate cultural differences between the couple, whereas immigrant wives and their families need to develop greater economic competence so as to foster a hope for economic reliance.

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Multicultural Childcare in Japan: Current Circumstances and Future Perspectives (다문화 사회에서의 일본의 「다문화보육」)

  • Kang, Ran Hye
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.73-90
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    • 2009
  • The number of multi-cultural members, such as immigrant labors, international marriage women are gradually increasing in Japan society. Now it might be said that Japan has become a multi-cultural society. Recently in Japanese kindergartens and nursery schools the numbers of foreign and bi-cultural children are increasing. The aim of this paper is to review the researches on the cultural diversity in the Japan, especially in childcare. Methodology proceeds from a review of related literature to internet-based data and to the statistics issued by the government. Through reviewing them, the problems of teachers' assumptions and the importance of discussions about teachers' competencies to educate minority children and to communicate with their parents were suggested. As a switch over to multi-cultural society is occurring in Japan, the attitude of assimilationism is weakening, and the local community is now beginning to tolerate the multi-cultural childcare. Consequently, It was over to age that is distinguish identity from only nationality.

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Attitudes of male and female older adults concerning death (성별에 따른 죽음에 대한 태도 비교 연구 - 남.녀노인들의 임종과 죽음에 대한 불안도 측정을 중심으로 -)

  • 서혜경
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.89-102
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    • 1990
  • The research is a comparative study of death attitudes between male and female elderly people. There is no doubt as to the inevitability of death. And yet, there is a vast conspiracy involved in the word of dead or death. The aged are considered to be nearer death than are people in other age groups. Kalish(1976) emphasized that for the aged two meanings of death have significance for evaluating their life ; first, that older people are known to have a limited life time and face death ; second that older people are known to have suffered many death-imposed losses that are often associated with the dying process. In considering these implications, the level of anxiety regarding death and dying is a crucial factor in determining mental health. In the study, 152 male elderly and 145 female elderly residing in Seoul, Korea was compared on the four dimensions of death anxiety and assigned personal variables. Therefore, the purpose the research was (1) to examine the characteristics of subjects on the independent variables(age, marital status, family relationship, social activities, religiousity etc.) ; (2) to examine the relationship between the independent variables and each dimension of death axniety ; (3) to determine the proportion of variance in the respective of death anxiety which is accounted for by the respective independent variables ; (4) to examine whether a significant difference between the respective independent variables and each dimension of death anxiety has ; (5) to determine the combination of variables which is the most successful in explaining the variance in death anxiety. Finding from this study support the following conclusions; 1. There was a significant differences between the male and female subjects in the level of death anxiety. In turn, the male older adults had lower death anxiety than did the female elderly. This implies that male tend to look forward to death rather than deny it. 2. As there was evidences from several studies, this research found that fear of death decreases as age increases. 3. The following two variables that correlate best with dying anxiety of others in both male and female older adults : 'marriage life', 'social interaction'. 4. The variables 'age' and 'children' for both female and male elderly accounted for the most variance in death anxiety of self. The findings of the study lend this investigator several suggestions, implications and recommendations for future research. There can be no death without life, and conversely, no life without death. Psychologists and health-related professionals may be learn as much about death as they can in order to develop more healthy attitudes and in order to be able to better aid and comfort dying people and their familities. Perhaps most importantly, professionals may be help those who are not faced with death at present to develop an understanding of it and healthy attitudes toward it. The programs of death education are needed for dedication to the evitability of death and the preparation of life for the older adults. More seminars, symposiums and research on death attitudes are needed. Finally, study for female older adults has been negelected topic in the areas of women's study and health education. Future study, for female elderly, have to deeply investigate where those problems come from and how to cope with in order to the female elderly segment can live the rest of their lives in satisfaction with well-being.

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Pastor's Expectations from Parish Nurses (목회자의 목회간호에 대한 역할기대)

  • Kim, Chung-Nam;Kwon, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.154-169
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    • 1996
  • Parish nursing is a community health nursing role developed in 1983 by Lutheran chaplain Granger Westberg. An increasing emphasis on holistic care, personal reseponsibility for a healthy lifestyle, and changes in healthcare delivery systems have undoubtedly facilitated the establishment and nurturance of an innovative nursing role in the community. Parish nurses are functioning in a variety of church congregations of various denominations. The parish nurse is a educator, a personal health counselor, a coordinator of volunteers. The parish nurses helps people relate to the complexed medical care system and assists people to integrate faith and health. The autors conducted a study on pastor's expectations from parish nurses. Results of this study will be useful to those instrumental in planning, initiating, supporting, and evaluating a parish nurses program The research was done on 130 pastors in Taegue and Kyong Sang Buck Do, of various ages ranging from their 20's to 60's: and pastoring churches of various sizes, ranging from under 100 to over 300 members. 94.6% agreed that they needed a parish nurse on their staff; and 86.2% said they wanted to start a parish nurse program in their churches if certain basic conditions were met. The pastors responded that some would hire the nurses on a full-time basis(22.3%), a part -time basis (37.7%) or use volunteer nurses (40%). The pastors said they would expect the following from a parish nurse: health counselling (80.0%) regular health check-ups (78.5%) health care for the elderly (78.5%) health information and education (72.3%) hospice care (72.3%) visiting sick church members at home (69.2%) arranging and training volunteers to help the seek (59.2%) health care for expectant mothers (50.0%) introducing and taking people to health care facilities (46.2%) The pastors were surveyed about specific areas of health education they would want the parish nurse to teach(for example, high blood pressure and heart disease prevention and management(76.2%) ; stress management(74.6%); and diabetes prevention and management(73.8%). The pastors were surveyed about specific areas of health counselling they would expect the parish nurse to do (for example, drug abuse, (73.1), alcohol abuse(64.6%), marriage conflict(60.0%), recovery after the loss of a loved one(56.9%), and women's conflict with parents-in-law(53.8%). The pastors were surveyed about types of things they would want included in regular health check-ups, what they would want a parish nurse to do on home visits, and what they would want included in home care for the elderly. They were also surveyed on what kind of spiritual care they would like parish nurses to give. Most (90.7%) wanted their parish, parishioners to be involved in the parish nurses program as volunteers, and in a variety of ways(such as visiting sick in their homes(68.5%) and helping with housework(63.1%) and taking sick people to health facilities(60%). Parish nurses role, activities, and boundaries of practice should be continuously monitored and refined and a 'case manager' should be conceptualized as an additional or all-encompassing role. An initial parish / community needs and readiness assessment should be done prior to establishing a program to detemine if the congregation is ready, willing, and able to support such a position for at least a 2 to 3 year period.

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Multi-Cultural Society and Social Distance for Foreigners in Korean Society (다문화사회와 외국인에 대한 사회적 거리)

  • Lee, Myoung-Jin;Choi, Yu-Jung;Choi, Set-Byol
    • Survey Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.63-85
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    • 2010
  • This study defines the substance and multi-dimension of emotional reactions which Koreans have toward foreigners to find the starting point of change in values which is an inevitable task in this multi-cultural society. The results indicate that the Bogardus scale which has been used to measure the social distance toward the minority race is found to have limitations in explaining the closed attitude of Koreans toward 'nation' and 'kinship through marriage'. To supplement such limitations, exploration on attitudes toward foreigners from different native places is performed based on the 'evaluation', 'power' and 'activity' dimensions of the Affective Control Theory. As a result, Americans are highly evaluated in all three dimensions while Japanese are evaluated low in the 'evaluation' dimension and high in the 'power' and 'activity' dimensions. North Korean defectors and ethnic Koreans from China (the Chosun race) are high in evaluation but low in other dimensions. West Asians are evaluated low in all three dimensions. By comprehending the influencing factors and the relative influence of social distance, it proves that the 'evaluation' dimension is the common denominator in all groups while 'power' dimension toward Japanese and 'activity' dimensions toward Chinese and West Asians influence social distance. All foreigners excluding Americans receive closer social distance when having higher education level. Moreover, American women and older North Korean defectors receive closer social distance.

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Dietary Intakes and Eating Behaviors of Vietnamese Female Immigrants to Korea through Marriage and Korean Spouses and Correlations of Their Diets (국내 베트남 결혼이민여성과 한국인 배우자의 식이섭취 및 식습관에 대한 상관관계)

  • Kim, Sun-Hye;Kim, Wha-Young;Lyu, Ji-Eun;Chung, Hye-Won;Hwang, Ji-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.22-30
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    • 2009
  • This study aimed to examine nutritional status and similarities of diets between Vietnamese female immigrants and Korean spouses and dietary changes of Vietnamese females after immigration. Subjects were 608 couples visiting 13 medical centers for the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea from November 2006 to November 2007. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were obtained and dietary intakes were assessed using one-day 24-hour recall. Sixty-eight percent of wives answered there have been changes in their diets and consumptions of meats, fish, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits increased after immigration. Energy intakes of wives and spouses were 1491.7 kcal and 1788.8 kcal, respectively, showing most couples (80.1%) consumed less than the Korean estimated energy requirements. More than half of the couples were below the Korean estimated average requirements of zinc, vitamin $B_2$, and folate. The correlation coefficients between couples ranged 0.15-0.38 for unadjusted, 0.22-0.35 for per 1000 kcal, and 0.21-0.40 for energy-adjusted, respectively. The proportions of couples in the same quartiles of each nutrient intake and in the same answers of each question of Mini Dietary Assessment were about 30% across nutrients and around 50% across questions. The length of residence is related to similarities of nutrient intakes between couples: similarities decreased after 3 years of residence in Korea. In conclusion, nutritional intakes of inter-married couples were inadequate although wives reported that their dietary intakes increased after immigration. Inadequate nutrient intakes of wives were partly explained by similar diets between couples because these wives without enough adjustment to Korean culture were more likely to follow what their spouses ate. Findings from this study may be helpful to improve the nutritional status of inter-married couples and make policies and programs for them. A follow-up study should identify factors affecting inadequate nutritional status of intermarried couples and similarities of their diets.

An Analysis of Determinants of Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Housewives in Korea (한국부인의 보건지식, 태도 및 실천에 영향을 미치는 제요인분석)

  • 남철현
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.3-50
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    • 1984
  • The levels of health knowledge, attitude and practice of housewives considerably effect to the health of households, communities and the nation. This study was designed to grasp the levels of health knowledge, attitude and practice of houswives and analyse the various factors effecting to health in order to provide health education services as well as materials for effective formulation and implementation of health policy to improve the health of the nation. This study has been conducted through interviews by trained surveyers for 4,281 housewives selected from 4,500 households throughout the country for 40 days during July 11-August 20, 1983. The results of survey were analysed by stepwise multiple regression and path analysis are summarized as follows; 1. Based on the measurement instrument applied to this study, the levels of health knowledge, attitude and practice of housewives were extremely low with 54.5 points out of 100 points in full. Higher level with 72 points and above was approximately 21 percent and lower level with 39 points and below was approx. 24 percent. The middle level was approx. 55 percent. In order to implement health programs successively, health education should be more strengthened and to improve the level of health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the nation, political consideration as a part of spiritual reformation must be concentrated on health. 2. The level of health knowledge indicated the highest points with 57.3 the level of attitude was the second with 55.0 points and the practice level was the lowest with 50.0 point. Therefore, planning and implementation of health education program must be based on the persuasion and motivation that health knowledge turn into practice. 3. Housewives who had higher level of health knowledge, showed their practice level was relatively lower and those who had middle or low level of it practice level was the reverse. 4. Correlations among health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) were generally higher and statistically significant at 0.1 percent level. Correlation between total health KAP level and health knowledge was the highest with r=.8092. 5. Health KAP levels showed significant differences according to the age, number of children, marital status, self-assessed health status and concern on health of the housewives interviewed (p<0.001) 6. Health KAP levels also showed significant differences according to the education level, economic status, employment before marriage and grown-up area of the housewives interviewed. (p<0.001) 7. Heath KAP levels showed significant differences according to health insurance benificiary and the existence of patients in the family. (p<0.001). 8. Health KAP levels showed significant differences according to distance to government organizations, schools, distance to health facilities, telephone possession rate, television possession rate, newspaper reading rate and activities of Ban meeting and Women's club. (p<0.001) 9. Health KAP levels showed significant differences according to electric mass communication media such as television, radio and village broadcasting etc. and printed media such as newspaper, magazine and booklets etc., IEC variables such as individual consultation and husband-wife communication, however, there was no significance with group training. 10. Health KAP of the housewives showed close correlation with personal characteristics variables, i.e., education level (r=.5302), age (r=-.3694) grown-up area (r=.3357) and employment before marriage. In general, correlation of health knowledge level was higher than the levels of attitude or practice. In case of health concern and health insurance, correlation of practice level was higher than health knowledge level. 11. Health KAP levels showed higher correlation with community environmental characteristics, Ban meeting and activity of Women's club, however, no correlation with New-village movement. 12. Among IEC variables, husband-wife communication showed the highest correlation with health KAP levels and printed media, electric mas communication media and health consultation in order. Therefore, encouragement of husband-wife communication and development of training program for men should be included in health education program. 13. Mass media such as electric mass com. and printed media were effective for knowledge transmission and husband-wife communication and individual consultation were effective for health practice. Group training was significant for knowledge transmission, however, but not significant for attitude formation or turning to health practice. To improve health KAP levels, health knowledge should be transmitted via mass media and health consultation with health professionals and field health workers should be strengthened. 14. Correlation of health KAP levels showed that knowledge level was generally higher than that of practice and recognized that knowledge was not linked with attitude or practice. 15. The twenty-five variables effecting health KAP levels of housewives had 41 per cent explanation variances among which education level had great contribution (β=.2309) and electric mass com. media (β=.1778), husband-wife communication (β=.1482), printed media, grown-up area, and distance to government organizations in order. Variances explained (R²) of health KAP were 31%, 15%, and 30% respectively. 16. Principal variables contributed to health KAP were education level (β=.12320, β=.1465), electric mass comm. media (β=.1762, β=.1839), printed media, (β=.1383, β=.1420) husband-wife communication (β=.1004, β=.1067), grown-up area and distance to government organizations, in order. Since education level contributes greatly to health KAP of the housewives, health education including curriculum development in primary, middle and high schools must be emphasized and health science must be selected as one of the basic liberal arts subject in universities. 17. Variences explained of IEC variables to health KAP were 19% in total, 14% in knowledge, 9% in attitude, and 10% in health practice. Contributions of IEC variables to health KAP levels were printed media (β=.3882), electric mass comm media (β=.3165), husb-band wife com. (β=.2095,) and consultation on health (β=.0841) in order, however, group training showed negative effect (β=-.0402). National fund must be invested for the development of Health Program through mass media such as TV and radio etc. and for printed materials such as newspaper, magazines, phamplet etc. needed for transmission of health knowledge. 18. Variables contributed to health KAP levels through IEC variables with indirect effects were education level (Ind E=0.0410), health concern (Ind E=.0161), newspaper reading rate (Ind E=.0137), TV possession rate and activity of Ban meeting in order, however, health facility showed negative effect (Ind E=-.0232) and other variables showed direct effect but not indirect effect. 19. Among the variables effecting health KAP level, education level showed the highest in total effect (TE=.2693) then IEC (TE=.1972), grown-up city (TE=.1237), newspaper reading rate (TE=.1020), distance to government organization (TE=.095) in order. 20. Variables indicating indirect effects to health KAP levels were; at knowledge level with R²=30%, education level (Ind E=.0344), newspaper reading rate (Ind E=.0112), TV possession rate (Ind E=.0689), activity of Ban meeting (Ind E=.0079) in order and at attitude level with R²=13%, education level (Ind E=. 0338), activity of Ban meeting (Ind E=.0079), and at practice level with R²=29%. education level (Ind E=.0268), health facility (Ind E=.0830) and concern on health (Ind E=.0105). 21. Total effect to health KAP levels and IEC by variable characteristics, personal characteristics variables indicated larger than community characteristics variables. 22. Multiple Correlation Coefficient (MCC) expressed by the Personal Characteristic Variable was .5049 and explained approximately 25% of variances. MCC expressed by total Community environment variable was .4283 and explained approx. 18% of variances. MCC expressed by IEC Variables was .4380 and explained approx. 19% of variances. The most important variable effected to health KAP levels was personal characteristic and then IEC variable, Community Environment variable in order. When the IEC effected with personal characteristic or community characteristic, the MCC or the variances were relatively higher than effecting alone. Therefore it was identified that the IEC was one of the important intermediate variable.

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A Baseline Survey on Development of Primary Health Care in the Rural Korea -Sanpuk Village, Kumsa-Myun, Yuju- Gun, Kyunggi-Do- (농촌지역의 일차보건사업 개발을 위한 기초조사 연구 - 경기도 여주군 금사면 산북부락을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Myung-Ho;Yun, Suk-Woo;Rhee, Hae-Soak
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.5-27
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    • 1987
  • It is widely recognized that primary health care in the community is one of the most important and effective health measures in these days. However, it is reality that unsatisfactory health care system, ineffective utilization of health care by the community people in the rural area are hampering better understanding for primary health care. Therefore promoting health for the rural people and increasing understanding about primary health care, the baseline survey in the community focused in examination for safe community water supply was carried out. The survey was conducted through August 25-31, 1986 in order to find out health problems and relevant factors and to define the demographic characteristics of $^*$Sanpuk village, Kumsa-Myun, Yuju-Gun, Kyunggi-Do, Korea. Household survey was carried out for every home by trained interviewers. The major results are found out as follows : 1) 84.2%(400 houses) of total households were surveyed because 15.8%(75 houses) were unable to survey due to either refusal against interview or absence of family. These 400 households were composed of 1,697 residents(male:830, female 867). Educational level of respondents showed 34.1% as elementary school graduated. Religion distribution showed Buddism(23.8%) as the most dominant. 50.7% of respondents married in the area. 2) Most households(91.5%) have lived in their own house in Sanpuk area. Average family size showed 4.3. More than half of residents(64.2%) have used public supplied water tap. Only 1.5% of the households had a flush toliet. The rest of households have still used primitive insanitary latrines. 3) 32.5% of residents have used gas burner for cooking and for heating in the house, and the coal briquet were used for boiler. Lack of convenient public transportation was the chief complaint for their day life. 4) Each household occupied 1,990 pyungs of rice paddy and 1,170 pyungs of ordinary field in average. Beside farming products, mushroom was the highest product. 5) Sixth percent of households in the survey area regularly participated in community meeting one hand and on the other hand 39.5% never participated. Most of respondents closely contacted with their neighbours and they seemed very friendly each other. 6) The prevalence rate of illness and injury during recent 15 days showed 48.3 per 1,000. The prevalence rate of chronic illnesses during the past one year showed 74 per 1,000. Injury and accident lead the higher portion(22.0%) in the former and in the latter pain(arthritis, back-pain) showed 27.0% as the dominant sickness. 87.8% of the ill residents in the former received medical treatment. As the most frequently utilized medical facility, the clinic or hospital were counted. Among the residents suffering from chronic illnesses, 77.3% in Sanpuk area get some kind of medical treatments and they rarely utilized the clinic or hospital. The reason why the patient did not receive any medical care was found out the fact that symptoms of illness was light or mild and economic problems was serious. 7) Average age of marriage showed 21.6 years old in the women and the average duration of marital period was shown for 15.1 years. The married woman in reproductive age in Sanpuk area had experienced pregnancies 4 times in the aver-age including 0.7 time of pregnancy in average were interrupted by induced abortion and 0.3 time by spontaneous abortion respectively. The practicing rate of the family planning of the married woman during reproductive ages showed 70.7% and the tuballigation was found out as the most frequently used contraceptives. 8) Among woman who has children under 2 years old, 70.0% had received the prenatal care for the last pregnancy. However, the average number of prenatal care visitis per woman showed 3.3 times. Fifty-two % of woman who received the postnatal care for the last delivery showed only 37.5%. 9) Immunization rate of the children under 2 years old showed relatively high and looked successful. The breast feeding for these children showed dominantly in the most. Most of the mothers in Sanpuk area had started the supplementary diet during weaning period of their infants of 6th and 7th month after birth. * : Sanpuk area is a demstration area for community development which has been supported by the Community Development Foundation during the part 10 years. The village is relatively closer to urban area such as Seoul, However, it has a similar characteristics shown as a remote village because of geographical location and inconvenient transportation at present.

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A Cohort Study of Mental, Physical and Behavioral Impacts of Early(at Age 55) Compulsory Retirement in Korea (조기 정년퇴직자의 정신. 육체. 행위적 경향연구)

  • Duk-Sung Kim;Sae-Kwon Kong;Kong-Kyun Ro
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.204-229
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    • 1988
  • This paper documents and discusses trends and differentials in youth's participation in the labor force and employment. Youth in this study is defined asthe young aged 15-29. Youth passes through a series of life-course transitions,which include school completion own family formation(marriage and childbirth) .mandatory service in the army (by males) , and their economic activities are affectedby those life-course events. Accordingly we show how and to what extent youth'slabor force participation and employment varies with age and how the age patternhas changed over time.Throughout the 1980's and 1990's, youth's labor force participation showeddifferent trends by age group Labor fDrce participation rate of the 15-19 agedsteeply decreased, while that of the 25-29 steadily increased during the twodecades, the rate fsr the 20-24 aged showing not much variation. The former is dueto the increased rate of school enrollment among the age group, while the lattercould be attributed, in part, to the young women s increased and more steadyparticipation in the labor force over time.While labor force participation could be considered as a result of one's choicesand preferences, employment opportunities are more or less restricted by labormarket structure and institutions . This study documents how the structuralconstraints have interacted with individual and group attributes to differentiateemployment opportunities between individuals (educational background) and groups(especially sex diffrences) . One of the most salient feature of youth's em[ploymentstructure is the recent high unemployment rate of the college graduates. We discusshow that is related to the'credential society'in which one's educational credentials and it's social status play major role in determining who gets what in terms of job opportunities. Also is discussed the discordance between school and labor marketsupply and demand system, which is apparent in the prolonged oversupply of thecollege graduates, which is due to the consistently high rate of college entranceobserved since the early 1980's. Theoretically the job market for college graduates isviewed not as the'neoclassical'wage competition market but as job competition market in which one's (good) job opportunity is determined by one s position in thejob queue, which is in turn heavily dependent on from which college one get shis/her college degree as well as one's sex.

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