• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wistar Rat

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Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix on the Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 (UGT1A1) in Rat Liver

  • Moon, A-Ree;Lee, Song-Deuk
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.280-284
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    • 1996
  • Licorice has been widely used in combination with other herbs or synthetic drugs for various disorders. In an effort to study the effect of licorice roots (Glycyrrhizae Radix, GR) and glycyrrhizin on the hepatic glucuronidation, we have previously found that the pretreatment of GR or glycyrrhizin for 6 days resulted in a marked increase in the enzymatic activity of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-inducible hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozyme that has high affinity toward phenolic substrates (p-nitrophenol form, UGTIA) in Sprague-Dawley rats. As an approach to elucidate the mechanism for the enzyme activation by licorice in rat liver, we examined the levels of hepatocellular mRNAs for UGTIA upon the treatment of GR or glycyrrhizin. The hepatic mRNAs were extracted from Sprague-Dawley rats and Wistar rats after the treatment of the methanol extract of GR (1 g/kg, p.o.), glycyrrhizin (23 mg/kg, p.o.) for 6 days, or 3-MC (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days. Using the UGT1A1 CDNA as a probe, we found that the mRNAs for the enzyme were induced by 3-MC treatment while those were influenced neither by GR nor by glycyrrhizin in both strains of rats. These results indicate that the activation of rat liver UGTI A by licorice and glycyrrhizin was not due to the induction of mRNAs for the enzyme.

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Characteristics of Voltage-Dependent Clacium Uptake and Norepinephrine Release in Hypothalamus of SHR

  • Yi, Sook-Young;Kim, Yun-Tai;Kim, Kyeong-Man;Ko, Kwang-Ho
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.226-230
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    • 1994
  • The characteristics of voltage-dependent ^{45}Calcium$ uptake and norepinephrine release as factors controlling neural activities in the hypothalamus which is an important regulatory site for cardiovascular function wre studied. Two groups of animals : male spontaneously hyperterisive rat (SHR) and age-matched nomotensive wistar rat (NW) were used in this study. Animals at 4, 6 and 16 weeks of age were sacrificed by decapitiation and the hypothalamus was dissected out. Voltage-dependent calcium uptake and norepinephrine release were determined from hypothalamic synaptosomes either in low potassium (5 mM) or high potassium (41 mM) stimulatory conditions by using ^{45}Ca$ isotope and HPLC-ECD techniques. Degrees of voltage-dependent ^{45}Calcium$ uptake and norepinephrine release evoked by calcium uptake in the hypothalamus of prehypertensive phase (4 weeks old) of SHR were significantly smaller than those in NW of the same age. However, in the developmental phase (6 weeks old) and the established phase (16 weeks old) of hyperrtension in SHR, degrees of voltage-dependent ^{45}Calcium$ uptake and norepinephrine release were similar to those of age-matched normotensive wistae eats. These data imply that the deficit in hypothalamic norepinephrine release might be an important underlying factor for the development of hypertension in SHR.

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Study of acupuncture stimulation on experimental osteopenia

  • Kanai, Shigeyuki;Taniguchi, Norimasa;Kanda, Kayo;Higashino, Hideaki
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2006
  • In order to study the effect of acupuncture stimulation on bone mineral density (BMD), using the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured the level of locomotor activity using a metabolism measuring system, and performed histological studies of bone tissue. Twenty-four female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160 - 180 g)were divided into three groups. Rats in the OVX-A group underwent ovariectomy followed by acupuncture stimulation. The OVX rats in the Vehicle control group were not treated with acupuncture as a control. The rats in the control group received neither ovariectomy nor acupuncture. Acupuncture stimulation for 12 weeks in the OVX-A group inhibited the reduction in BMD of the femoral bones caused by ovariectomy. Moreover, in the two OVX groups, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases prior to acupuncture stimulation in each rat, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After acupuncture stimulation of the OVX-A rats, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the Control group. On histological studies, the continuity of trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher in the OVX-A group than in the vehicle control group. These results suggest that the increased locomotor activity that had been induced by acupuncture stimulation increased the BMD.

Inhibitory effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Rubia cordifolia Linn. on egg albumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis in rats

  • Rishit, Zalawadia;Chintan, Gandhi;Vaibhav, Patel;Balaraman, R
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2009
  • Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common allergic disease. These diseases are severe & frequent which requires search of new treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Tinospora cordifolia (TC), Rubia cordifolia Linn. (RC) on experimentally induced allergic conjunctivitis in rats. In this study, dried water soluble extracts of TC and RC. (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days) were evaluated for their antiallergic activity in Wistar rats. They were tested for inhibition of egg albumin-induced vascular permeability, inhibition of histamine release from the rat conjunctiva as well as in histamine content in tears. TC and RC showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibition in vascular permeability, inhibition in histamine release from the rat conjunctiva which is reflected by reduced level of histamine content in tears. The activities were found to be comparable to azelastine hydrochloride. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect on egg albumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis in rat may be due to the antihistaminic activity of TC and RC. Our studies provide evidence that TC and RC may be beneficial in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

Folic acid inhibits necrosis and apoptosis in ischemic and reperfusion induced injury in rat liver

  • Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh;Shukla, Gunjan;Wahi, Arun Kumar
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2009
  • Temporary clamping of the portal triad is a common strategy to minimize bleeding during liver transplantation. Increasing evidences suggests that oxygen derived free radicals and reintroduction of oxygen in ischemic tissue lead to ischemic and reperfusion injury (I/R) and lead to apoptosis and necrosis. Adult Wistar rat subjected to 60 min of partial liver ischemia followed by three hour reperfusion. Eighteen Wister rats were divided into sham-operated control group (I) (n = 6), ischemia and reperfusion group (II) (n = 6), folic acid treated group (1 mg/kg body weight/daily by oral route for 7 days before induced ischemia reperfusion maneuver) (III) (n = 6). Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes, mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes were measured. Liver injury was assessed by alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), liver histopathology and electron microscopy. An ischemic and reperfusion hepatocellular injury was indicated by increased serum-ALT, AST, histopathology and electron microscopy studies. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were increased which was revealed by flow cytometry in I/R group. Pre- treatment with folic acid significantly decreased serum -ALT, AST levels, apoptotic and necrotic cells after 1 h ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Histopathology and TEM studies showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in folic acid pretreated rats during the hepatic I/R, which reached a level comparable to saline-treated rat of sham operated group. On the basis of our findings it may be concluded that folic acid afforded significant protection from necrosis and apoptosis in I/R injury.

Cleistocalyx nervosum Extract Ameliorates Chemical-Induced Oxidative Stress in Early Stages of Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis

  • Taya, Sirinya;Punvittayagul, Charatda;Inboot, Wanida;Fukushima, Shoji;Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2825-2830
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To study the effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum extract (CE) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB) induced oxidative stress in early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, with Group 1 as a negative control and Group 2 was a positive control receiving DEN injections once a week and PB in drinking water for 6 weeks. Two weeks before DEN initiation and PB treatment, Groups 3 and 4, were fed with 500 and 1000 mg/kg of CEs, respectively, for 8 weeks. Results: A number of GST-P-positive foci, preneoplastic lesions, in the liver were markedly increased in carcinogen administered rats, but was comparatively decreased in rats treated with 1000 mg/kg of CE. The CE reduced malondialdehyde in serum and in the livers of rats treated with DEN and PB. Moreover, CE significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in rat liver. Conclusions: CE appeared to exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating antioxidant status during DEN and PB induced early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

Micro-computed tomography analysis of changes in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone proper induced by occlusal hypofunction of rat molars

  • Shimizu, Yasuhiro;Hosomichi, Jun;Nakamura, Saeko;Ono, Takashi
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To three-dimensionally elucidate the effects of occlusal hypofunction on the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone proper of rat molars by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods: Occlusal function in the molar area was restricted by attaching an anterior bite plate on the maxillary incisors and a metal cap on the mandibular incisors of 5-week-old male Wistar rats for 1 week. The periodontal ligament space and alveolar bone proper around roots of the mandibular first molar were assessed by histology and micro-CT. Results: The periodontal ligament space was narrower and the alveolar bone proper was sparser and less continuous in the hypofunction group than in the control group. Further, both the volume of the periodontal ligament and the volumetric ratio of the alveolar bone proper to the total tissue in the region of interest were significantly lower in the hypofunction group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Occlusal hypofunction induces atrophic changes in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone proper of rat molars.

Some Aberrations of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat에 있어서 Renin-Angiotensin계의 변조에 관하여)

  • Chung, Sung K.;Cho, Kyung W.
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.189-202
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    • 1985
  • Enhanced activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been suggested as a cause of the high blood pressure in certain forms of experimental hypertension. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, however, increased activity of the system has not been found, and even suppressed renin angiotensin system has been reported in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the present experiments it was attempted to explore the possible alteration of the short loop negative feedback control in the hypertensive rat. Experiments have been done in the anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) as well as in normotensive Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats as control. Responses of the plasma renin activity to the intravenous L-isoproterenol were dose dependent, in both SHR and normotensive control rats. Hypotensive responses to smaller do sea of L-isoproterenol were more accentuated in SHR than in the normotensive control rats. Angiotensin If given intravenously suppressed plasma renin activity in a dose dependent fashion in both groups. However, these suppressive responses were significantly attenuated in SHR as compared with the normotensive control rats. Treatment with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor did not correct the attenuated responses of the plasma renin activity to angiotensin II in SHR. Intravenous infusion of arginine vasopressin also produced a dose-dependent suppression of plasma renin activity in both groups. The responses to arginine vasopressin were also significantly attenuated to the normotensive control rats. In the sodium-depleted SHR, arginine vasopressin did not suppress plasma renin activity, whereas the suppressive responses to arginine vasopressin in the normotensive control rats were not different from the untreated control rats. These data suggest that there may be a derangement in the short loop negative feedback control of the renin-angiotensin system in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

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Antioxidative Effects of Lycium chinense Miller on Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats (Cisplatin으로 유도된 급성신부전증에 대한 지골피(地骨皮)의 항산화효과)

  • Jung, Yu-Sun;Park, Chan-Hum;Shin, Hyeon-Cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.92-105
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : Cisplatin is a widely used cancer therapy drug. However, nephrotoxicity resulting in increased oxidative stress is a major side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy, thereby limiting its chemotherapeutic use. Lycium chinense Miller (LCM) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in various febrile and inflammatory diseases such as night sweat, cough, nosebleed, bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc. In this study we investigated the protective and antioxidative potential of LCM against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods : Twenty-four 8-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normal untreated; cisplatin treatment only; LCM 10 mg/kg plus cisplatin treatment; and LCM 30 mg/kg plus cisplatin treatment. Twenty-four hours after the last cisplatin injection, all the rats were sacrificed, and serological changes were evaluated. The levels of NF-${\kappa}B$ activity and NOX-4, $p47^{phox}$, $p22^{phox}$, COX-2, iNOS, SOD, catalase expressions were analyzed in Western blot analysis. Results : Cisplatin injection caused an increase in the BUN level, which is a reliable indicator of renal toxicity. The levels of BUN, renal ROS, and renal TBARS were significantly reduced in the LCM groups compared with the cisplatin-only groups. The levels of $p47^{phox}$ and $p22^{phox}$, which are NADPH oxidase subunits, were increased in the cisplatin-only groups, whereas they were decreased in the LCM groups. The levels of renal NF-${\kappa}B$ activity and COX-2, iNOS expressions were increased significantly in the cisplatin-only groups compared with the normal groups, whereas they were decreased in the LCM groups. Compared with the cisplatin-only groups, renal GSH and GSH/GSSG increased in the LCM groups. Also, the administration of LCM increased levels of SOD and catalase as compared with the cisplatin-only groups. Conclusions : These results suggest that LCM protects cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via a mechanism that may involves the inhibition of oxidative stress by the activation of antioxidants.

The effects of antibodies and complement in macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity on metacercariae of the lung fluke, Paragonimus westeymani (폐흡충(Paragonimus Tuestermani) 피낭유충에 대한 대식세포의 세포독성에 있어서 항체 및 보체가 미치는 영향)

  • 민득영;안명희
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 1990
  • Paragonimus westermani is a tissue migrating parasite in the early stage until arriving at lung, and most of the parasites spend their life spans there. Considerable immune responses including activation of macrophages are taken place during the residence of parasites in the host. However, concerning the immunologic defense mechanisms of the host against this parasite, only a few document is available so far. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of peritoneal macrophages under the presence of antibody and/or complement against metacercariae of F. westermani was investigated in vitro. Metacercarlae were collected from the crayfish, Cambaroides similis and hatched out in Tyrode solution (pH 7.4). Plastic adherent cells from normal or infected rat (Wistar) peritoneal exudates were used as experimental macrophages. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained from infected rats and a cat. Cat IgG was fractioned with ion exchange chromatography. Fresh rabbit complement was used according to experimental scheme. Various combinations of peritoneal macrophages, normal or infected rat serum, complement and cat IgG were incubated at $36^{\circ}C$ in 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 6, 14, 24 and 48 hours. The results obtained were as follows: 1. P. westermani infection activated peritoneal macrophages non-specifically and this activation induced increases of cell adherence and cytotoxicity on metacercariae. 2. In the presence of infected rat serum the antibody.dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of peritoneal macrophages on metacercariae was significantly increased and showed a peak at 6-hour incubation. But the cytotoxic effect was markedly reduced after inactivation of complement and heat.labile IgE antibody by the heating of infected serum at 56$^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes. 3. The highest cytotoxic effect (100%) of concomitant incubation with IgG and complement showed 24 hours after incubation, although cell adherence was relatively low at 6-hour incubation and 0% at 24-hour incubation. 4. Coordinative functions of complement with serum and IgG were effective in cell adherence and in cytotoxicity, but it is not clear the independent role of complement on the macrophage- mediated cytotoxicity in this study- With these results it is assumed that P. westermani infection can induce the non-specific activation of peritoneal macrophages, and strum antibodies including IgE antibody might enhance the cytotoxicity by macrophages,

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