• Title, Summary, Keyword: Winter coverage crop

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Effects of Winter Cover Crop of Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Soil Conservation Practices on Soil Erosion and Quality in the Sloping Uplands

  • Kim, Su-Jung;Yang, Jae-E.;Park, Chol-Soo;Jung, Yeong-Sang;Cho, Byong-Ok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2007
  • Most of the uplands in alpine regions during off-season are left as bare soil and thus vulnerable to severe erosion due to the inherent topographical conditions. Appropriate management strategy to cope with this problem is urgently needed, yet few researches have been reported on the effects of winter cover crop and management on soil erosion. We assessed effects of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) as cover crop, green manure or mulching residue on soil erosion and quality through field and segment plot lysimeter experiments in alpine uplands. Ryegrass successfully adopted to winter in alpine region based on biomass, nutrient contents, and vigors of top and root systems. Incorporation of ryegrass into soil maintained soil fertility, nutrient uptake, and yield of cabbage exerting potential use as green manure. Cultivation of ryegrass suppressed occurrence of Chinese cabbage pests. Surface coverage by ryegrass as cover crop and mulching residue significantly reduced soil loss up to 96%, when combined with soil conservation management practices. Results revealed maintaining cover crop over winter was beneficial in reducing soil erosion, and sustaining soil quality and Chinese cabbage productivity. This study suggested winter cover crop, followed by green manure and mulching, and conservation tillage system could be one of the best management practices in alpine sloping uplands cultivating Chinese cabbage.

Effect of Winter Rye Cultivation to Improve Soil Fertility and Crop production in Alpine Upland in Korea (동계호밀재배가 고랭지 밭토양의 비옥도 증진에 미치는 영향)

  • Zhang, Yong-Seon;Lee, Gye-Jun;Joo, Jin-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Ahn, Jae-Hoon;Park, Chol-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.300-305
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    • 2007
  • Soil erosion is one of the most serious problems in alpine upland in Korea. Soil fertility has continuously decreased due to serious soil erosion. To increase soil fertility, new sources of organic matter should be inputted. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to select winter cover crop as new sources of organic matter and to investigate the effect of winter cover crop on soil property changes, major crop productivity (Chinese cabbage, potato) production in highland, and disease occurrence with different cropping systems. Among 17 candidates for winter coverage crop, rye was most suitable due to it's soil covering rate, and over-wintering rate. The optimum sowing period for rye ranged from late August to late September. Soil porosity and organic matter content increased with rye cultivation. Rye cultivation during winter increased amounts of crop (both Chinese cabbage and potato) productivity up to 8%. There was little difference on amount of crop productivity depending on cropping systems such as monoculture (Chinese cabbage or potato) and Chinese cabbage-potato rotation.

Effect of Mechanical Working System on Labor-Saving in Wheat Cultivation (밀 기계화 작업체계에 의한 노력 절감 효과)

  • Kim, Hag-Sin;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Lee, Kwang-Won;Shin, Sang-Hyun;Cheong, Young-Keun;Park, Ki-Hoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.331-336
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the wheat cultivation system to reduce costs and mechanize wheat production. A field study was conducted for 2 years (2009 to 2010) at the National institute of crop science, Iksan, Korea. We used working system I and working system II for the experiment. Working system I is used a multiple machine attached with a spreader tractor (seeding, fertilization, seed coverage, and weed control functionality) and working system II is used a multiple machine with a tractor which works for simultaneous job when seeding step (seeding, fertilization, and seed coverage). Sowing to harvesting operation time is 118 hours/ha for mechanize with conventional planting. Working system I is a multiple machine and a combine machine with a tractor, which worked 26 hours/ha lower than conventional planting. Working system II is 18 hours/ha lower than conventional planting. The reduced work efforts of working system I and II were 78% and 85% respectively. The growth and yield of wheat according to working system I and II is lower than conventional planting. Therefore, a multiple machine needs to study for appropriate seeding rate. Mechanization cost in consideration of the mechanical break-even point when the working system I is 3.7 ha and working system II is 4.2 ha. The farm income is enhanced by working system I (778,110 won/ha) and working system II (849,930 won/ha). The results showed that application of a multiple machine lowered costs of wheat production.

Cost Analysis of Wrap Silage Production in the Paddy Field for Forage Crop Cropping System (답리작 사료작물의 랩사일리지 생산비 분석)

  • Ha, Yu-Shin;Park, Kyung-Kyoo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2012
  • Mechanized operation model and mechanical cultivation technology for winter barley, rye, Italian ryegrass and sudan grass wrap silage production system at the paddy field for cropping system was developed. Also, a series of experiment were performed and lots of data were collected and analyzed to develope mechanical technology, coverage area, and optimum size of the farm (break-even point) for wrap silage production system. The coverage area for winter barley or rye wrap-silage production system is determined around 61.9, 73.4, 77.5, 88.2 ha in the case of drill seeding and different ripening species by tractor power 50, 75, 100, 130 ps, respectably. The break-even point of the farming size is analyzed as 20 ha and its production cost is estimated around 367, 383, 430, 443 won/TDN-kg in the case of winter barley wrap-silage by tractor power 50, 75, 100, 130 ps, respectably. The break-even point of the farming size is analyzed as coverage area and its production cost is estimated around 237, 215 won/TDN-kg in the case of winter barley wrap silage and sudan grass by the tractor power 50, 100 ps, respectably.

Phenological Changes of Wheat Cultivars with Plant Type and Plant Spacing

  • Lee Choon-Woo;Baek Seong-Bum;She Sea-Jung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.332-335
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    • 2005
  • The three Korean wheat cultivars with different plant types; the erect, the middle and the creeping growth habit, were studied for their utilization to solar radiation, temperature changes on the furrow and to provide optimum planting space for producing the high yield in 2003. The average solar radiation rate was lowest for creeping type ($39.2\%$) and highest for erect type ($75.8\%$) The correlation coefficient between the coverage rate and the solar transmission rate was r = 0.8624 which was significant at $5\%$ level. The relative growth of the plant, tiller rate and leaf size was increased in the erect and the middle type at lower plant density, while no change on plant growth at creeping type regardless of plant density. The increase of leaf size in the lower plant density was due to longer flag and the first leaf than those of other plant types. The temperature on the furrow of growing plants was changed by the canopy. The changes in temperature pattern on the furrow according to plant types during winter season was different compared to the non plant ground. The temperature of the nonplant ground was the lowest due to solar reduction increasing the amount of cool air flowing in the furrow.

Crop Analysis through Growth Survey after Wintering of Winter Annual Forages Grown from 2014 to 2015 (2014 / 2015년 동계 사료작물의 월동 후 생육조사를 통한 작황 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Won-Ho;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Park, Hyung-Soo;Kim, Ki-Yong;Ji, Hee-Chung;Choi, Ki-Choon;Lee, Sang-Hak;Jung, Jeong-Sung;Kim, Ji-Hea;Hwang, Tae-Young;Lee, Ki-Won;Kim, Hyeon-Shup;Choi, Gi-Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2015
  • In order to identify the causes of various problems related to forage crop growth, such as winter survival, coldness, rainfall, drought etc., and to provide basic data for the stable production and supply of forage year round, we performed a growth survey after the wintering of winter forage crops grown from mid-Sep. 2014 to late-Feb. 2015. The growth of winter forage crops after wintering in the country was generally bad. As shown in the regional distribution in the country, regions with 80% or higher winter survival rates comprised 66%, regions with 79 to 50% winter survival comprised 24.9% and regions with less than 50% winter survival comprised 9.1%. In conclusion, the average winter survival rate was 79% in the country. Winter survival rate and coverage rate after the wintering of winter forage crops under installed drain channels in paddy fields were good at 83% and 80%, respectively. However, the rates without installed drain channels were bad at 67% and 66%, respectively. It was predicted that the crop production of winter forage crops was reduced by 10-15% in Gangwon, Chungbuk, Chungnam, Gyeongnam and Jeonnam regions, reduced by 30% in Gyeonggi, Gyeongbuk and Jeonbuk regions and reduced overall by approximately 19% nationwide.

Growth Characteristics and Green Manure Productivities of Hairy Vetch and Woolly Pod Vetch under Different Sowing Seasons in the Highland Area (고랭지에서 파종시기에 따른 헤어리베치와 울리포드베치의 생육특성 및 녹비생산성)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.409-420
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    • 2008
  • The highland area remained bare for the winter and spring seasons and this condition has resulted in soil erosion. In this areas, crop rotation by legume has not been commonly practiced. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the growth characteristics and nitrogen yield as a green manure crop according to sowing seasons of hairy vetch and woolly pod vetch. In this experiment, we was investigated the growth characteristics, winter tolerance, soil coverage and productivities of hairy vetch and woolly pod vetch. We cultivated two hairy vetch(Madison, H1) and two woolly pod vetch(Naomi, Haymaker) varieties in the highland area from 2006 to 2007. The result are summarized as follows; The plant height of hairy vetch increased with the progress of growth stage until flowering stage. The wintering rate of hairy vetch was $79{\sim}83%$ in highland area. But, the wintering rate of woolly pod vetch was $29.5{\sim}39.2%$. The 100% soil coverage of hairy vetch was reached between end of May and beginning of June under autumn sowing, and between end of June and beginning of July under spring sowing. The weeds density of hairy vetch field under autumn sowing was lower than that under spring sowing. Dry matter yield of hairy vetch was significantly higher than that of woolly pod vetch under autumn sowing. The dry matter yield of hairy vetch and woolly pod vetch were $5,255{\sim}5,405kg/ha$ and $3,520{\sim}3,640kg/ha$, respectively. But, hairy vetch in spring sowing was not significantly higher fresh matter yield than that of woolly pod vetch. The nitrogen content in hairy vetch and woolly pod vetch was $2.98{\sim}3.08$ and $2.74{\sim}3.21%$, respectively. There were no significant difference in nitrogen content of the hairy vetch and woolly pod vetch under the spring sowing. N-uptake of hairy vetch was significantly higher than that of woolly pod vetch in autumn sowing. The N uptake was $156{\sim}164\;kg/ha$ in hairy vetch and $96{\sim}101\;kg/ha$ in woolly pod vetch under autumn sowing. It was thought that hairy vetch was better than woolly pod vetch as a green manure crop in autumn sowing considering wintering rate and yield of dry matter in highland area. And woolly pod vetch could use as a green manure crop under spring sowing in highland area.

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Analysis of Agricultural Climatology in Cheju Island I. Distribution of Daily Minimum Temperature in Winter Season Estimated from a Topoclimatological Method (제주도의 농업기후 분석 I. 지형기후 추정법과 동계 일최저기온 분포)

  • 윤진일;유근배;이민영;정귀원
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.261-269
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    • 1989
  • Agricultural activities in Chejudo require more specialized weather services in this region. The meteorological information available from the Korea Meteorological Service (KMS) is limited in its areal coverage because the KMS stations are located along the narrow band of coastal area. topoclimatological technique which makes use of empirical relationships between the topography and the weather can be applied to produce reasonable estimates of the climatic variables such as air temperature and precipitation over remote land area where routine observations are rare. Presentation of these estimates in a from of fine-mesh grid map can also be helpful to upgrade the quality of weather services in this region. Altitude values of the 250 m grid points were read from a 1: 25000 topographic map and the mean altitude, the mean slope, and the aspect of the slope were determined for each 1 km$^2$ land area from these altitude data. Daily minimum air temperature data were collected from 18 points in Chejudo during the winter period from November 1987 to February 1988. The data were grouped into 3 sets based on synoptic pressure pattern. Departures from the KMS observations were regressed to the topographical variables to delineate empirical relationships between the local minimum temperature under specific pressure patterns and the site topography. The selected regression equations were used to calculate the daily minimum temperature for each 1 km$^2$ land area under the specific pressure patterns. The outputs were presented in a fine-mesh grid map with a 6-level contour capability.

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Benthic Marine Algae in the East Coast of Korea : Flora, Distribution and Community Structure (한국 동해 연안역의 저서 해조류 : 해조상, 분포 및 군집구조)

  • NAM Ki Wan;KIM Young Sik;KIM Young Hwan;SOHN Chul Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.727-743
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    • 1996
  • To know the floristic composition, vortical distribution and community structure of marine benthic algae inhabiting in the intertidal and subtidal zones of Yongil Bay, east coast of Korea, the study has performed using the quadrat method along a transect line from July, 1995 to June, 1996. In this area, a total of 144 species including 2 new red algae to Korea was found: 5 blue-green, 18 green, 20 brown and 101 red algae. The representative species throughout the year were Ulva pertusa, Gelidium amansii and Symphyocladia latiuscula. Dominant species were Sargassum thunbergii in spring, U. pertusa in summer and autumn. In winter, Chondrus ocellatus and Monostroma grevillei occurred dominantly. The standing crop exhibited mean value as $185.8g/m^2$ dry weight. Maximum value was recorded in spring $(267.3g/m^2)$ and minimum was observed in winter $(93.7g/m^2)$. Shannon's species diversity (H') and evenness (J') as maximum value were recorded in spring, whereas minimum values were shown in winter. Vertical distribution, rerognized by cluster analysis based on relative coverage of the species, could be divided into two or three algal groups except spring. In general, green algae (M. grevillei, Capsosiphon fulvescens, U. pefusa, Enteromorpha compressa) and brown algae (Sargassum fulvellum, S. thunbergii) were represented in the upper and middle zone and red algae (G. amansii, C. ocellatus, S. latiuscula, Crateloupia okamurae, Pachymeniopsis eilliptica) in the lower zone. The algal community varied according to season and environmental conditions. Particularly, seasonal variation of vortical distribution seemed to be affected primarily by water temperature. Also seasonal tidal level and tolerance of algal species to desiccation appeared to be associated with it in this area.

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