• Title, Summary, Keyword: Winter Kimchi

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The Quality Characteristics of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi around Masan Area (마산 지역 배추김치의 품질특성)

  • 박우포;김종현;조재선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.535-538
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    • 1996
  • To investigate the quality characteristics of kimchi around Masan area, home made and commercial kimchi samples were collected from December 1994 to June 1995. The weight of a head of Chinese cabbage was 3.0kg after purchasing and reduced to 2.36kg after salting. Home made kimchi showed a little higher pH and titratable acidity than those of commercial kimchi in winter. Salt concentration of home made kimchi in winter was 3.69%, and higher than that of commercial kimchi. Color of home made kimchi was higher in L, a and b than that of commercial kimchi in winter and spring. The pH of commercial kimchi was lower about 0.3 than that of home made kimchi in spring. Home made kimchi in spring showed about 0.3% higher salt concentration than that of commercial kimchi.

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A Nationwide Survey on the Preference Characteristics of Minor Ingredients for Winter Kimchi (김장김치 담금시 부재료 특성 및 지역별 기호도 조사)

  • 차용준;이영미;정연정;정은정;김소정;박승영;윤성숙;김은정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.555-561
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    • 2003
  • This study was attempted to investigate preference characteristics affecting for winter kimchi. Questionnaire were collected by 646 nationwide households during 3 months from December 2000 in Korea, and the data were analyzed by SPSS program. The results were as follows: (1) Seven minor ingredients including red pepper, garlic, ginger, green onion, paste (e.g. glutinous rice, rice and/or wheat flour paste), sugar and sesame were user in high preference for making winter kimchi in that odor. Seafoods (oyster, shrimp, Alaska pollack, yellow corvenia, squid and hairtail) were also utilized for making winter kimchi related with regional characteristics. (2) Two jeotkals, anchovy and anchovy juice, were popular ingredients for winter kimchi in southern region, while shrimp jeotkal in middle region including Seoul, Chungnam, Chungbuk, Daejeon, Daegu, Gwangju and Jeju northern sand lance juice jeotkal in western region, respectively. (3) Two kimchi, green onion and leek kimchi were high favored by people in spring regardless of region, and baby radish kimchi and cucumber kimchi in summer, pony-tail kimchi and gutjuli (fresh kimchi) in autumn, respectively. Except for winter cabbage kimchi, however, dongchimi and godulbaegi (Korean lettuce kimchi) were high favorite kimchi in winter. It was estimated that Koreans consume about 80 g of kimchi per person per day.

A Survey on the Preparation Methods of the Winter Kimchi (김장김치류의 담금방법에 관한 조사 연구)

  • Gang, Geun-Ok;Lee, Hyeon-Ja;Cha, Bo-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.289-292
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    • 1995
  • A survey study was carried out on the preparation methods of the Winter Kimchies in Seoul. Chung Cheong and Kang Won area by questioning 203 homes Individually. The results showed that the cabbage Kimchi was prepared more than 95o of total Kimchi a good heads of the Chinese cabbage were selected as proper quality of the cabbage. The cabbage were brined for 7∼10 hours with using sun-dried salts mostly(66∼78%) In Seoul and Chung Cheong area the quality of Chinese cabbage was regarded as the primary factor and the seasoning materials in Kang Won area for good quality of Kimchi, more than 70eA of the residents prepared Kimchi in Kimchi jar, and the correlation between the jar use kind of resident such as house or apartment was significantly high (p< 0.000)

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A Survey on the Dietary Life toy Kimchi of Housewives in Wonju Area (김치에 관한 원주지역 주부들의 식생활 실태조사)

  • 노정미
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.319-337
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary life about Kimchi of the housewives. Self-administrated questionnaires were completed by 322 housewives in Wonju area. The results were as follows: In the point of housewives' domestic duties, over 50% of housewives took care of their domestic duties alone, and the rate who learned how to manage domestic duties from their mothers before marriage decreased as the age got younger. 77.6% of housewives responded that both man and woman could manage a dietary life at home in the future, and the rate of such response was higher as their educational careers were higher and they were younger. In the point of housewives' basic situation about Kimchi, the rate of housewives who knew how to prepare kimchi was high as they were older, and the holding rate of a refrigerator for Kimchi was high as much as 72.4%. In the point of preparation for Kimchi, the rate who made Kimchi by themselves was high, but the rate of preparing Kimchi by their parents for them was higher in the twenties. Frequency of making Kimchi, an amount or a kind of Kimchi were notably different according to housewives' age, a type of their family, the number of their family, and their having a job or not. Housewives' opinion of a market kimchi was that it was expensive, and not sanitary, and rate of purchasing Kimchi was also low. In the point of the prepartion method of Kimchi for the winter, the rate who gained Kimchi from their parents was higher as they lived in an apartment, and had a nuclear family, and had the lesser family members. In an amount of Kimchi prepared for the winter, 11∼22 heads were 23.9% and 21∼30 heads were 21.9%. In the point of the method preparing Kimchi in the future, 53.8% of housewives responded that they would make by themselves, and 28.0% answered they would prepare or purchase. 77.4% of housewives answered that they would teach how to make Kimchi to their children. In conclusion, in housewives of Wonju area, wanted to make Kimchi by themselves and wanted their children to learn how to make Kimchi.

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Quality Characteristics of Winter Chinese Cabbage and Changes of Quality During the Kimchi Fermentation (월동배추의 품질 특성 및 김치 발효 중 이화학적 변화)

  • 정석태;김지강;강은주
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 1999
  • This study were comparison the quality characteristics of winter Chinese cabbage and investigation the physicochemical properties during Kimchi fermentation. External characteristics of three cultivars winter Chinese cabbage were compared, total weight of "Manpung" cultivar showed the heaviest in Chinese cabbages, but edible portion weight of "Seolwang" cultivar showed the heaviest in Chinese cabbages. Kimchi made of winter Chinese cabbage were fermented at 5$^{\circ}C$ for 40 days, of which pH, acidity, free sugar and organic acid were measured. The hardness of "Manpung" cultivar continued highly during the Kimchi fermentation at 5$^{\circ}C$. The pH and total acid in Kimchi fermentation, of the "Manpung" cultivar changed more than those of others. At the initial stage of Kimchi fermentation the major organic acid was citric acid, but lactic acid and acetic acid were increased rapidly during fermentation of Kimchi. The major organic acid of Kimchi fermented for 30 days was lactic acid, and the lactic acid contents of Kimchi prepared with "Manpung" cultivar was 6,796.6$\mu\textrm{g}$/g account for 69.6% of total organic acid.

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The Study on the Salinity of Kimchi and Subjective Perception of Salinity in Pusan Area (부산지역의 김치 염도 및 김치 염도에 대한 인식도)

  • 문갑순;송영선;이치간;김성경;류복미;전영수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 1997
  • To investigate the salinity of Kimchi and subjective perception of salinity on Kimchi in Pusan area, questionaire and sampling of Kimchis was performed twice during summer and winter, 1996 and 1997. Most of subjects attend in this survey were in their thirties and fourties, graduated from high school and their monthly income was in the range of one million to two million won. Above 90% of subjects live in Pusan and Kyung-nam area and most of them learned how to make Kimchi from their mother and believed that the salinity of home-made Kimchi is constant through the year. The survey on the subjective perception of salinity of summer Kimchi showed that salinity of Kimchi perceived as less salty was 2.46${\pm}$0.24% by housewives and 2.57${\pm}$0.23% by their family members, salinity of summer Kimchi perceived as appropriate was 2.61${\pm}$0.51% and 2.65${\pm}$0.57%, salinity of Kimchi perceived as salty was 2.77${\pm}$0.61% and 2.62${\pm}$0.47%, respectively. These data shows that salinity and subjective perception of salinity of summer Kimchi are correlated. The salinity of winter Kimchi perceived as less salty was 2.98${\pm}$0.83% by housewives and 3.02${\pm}$0.71% by this family members. The salinity of winter Kimchi perceived as appropriate was 2.82${\pm}$0.49% and 2.94${\pm}$0.53%, and the salinity of winter Kimchi perceived as salty was 3.20${\pm}$0.61% and 3.25${\pm}$0.49%, respectively. These data does not show salinity and subjective perception of salinity of winter Kimchi is correlated. Average salinity of summer Kimchi was 2.55${\pm}$0.44%, while average salinity of winter Kimchis was 2.97${\pm}$0.54%, which is for preservation during winter time. Furthermore, most of subjects believed that salinity of Kimchi may affects the occurrence of diseases, such as hypefention. 80% of subjects answered that it is better to eat Kimchi perceived as less salty. Therefore it is recommended to make Kimchi with below 3%o of salinity in factory scale in the near future.

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The Study of Menu Patterns in Korean Rural Areas (II) - Compared by the Area - (우리나라 농촌지역의 메뉴패턴에 관한 연구 (II) - 지역별 비교 -)

  • 문현경;이삼순;이정숙;박송이;한귀정;유춘희;백희영;정금주
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.658-667
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate frequently consumed menu patterns by the area and season, using the 24-hour recall method. Subjects were 1,041 living in five different Korean rural areas for the spring, autumn and winter. The purpose of this study is to suggest the menu pattern in rural areas for the basic data of the nutrition education program and nutrition intervention project by the area and season. The result are following : Most frequently used basic menu patterns, excluding side dishes, were rice+soup in Yeoju, Hoensung and Jungup, rice+stew in Ulsan, and only rice in Chungju. The most frequent menu pattern by the number of side dish was rice+soup+kimchi+1 side dish in Yeoju and Ulsan were rice+stew+kimchi in Hoengsung, and was rice+soup+2 side dish in Chungju and Frequently used menu patterns by the kind of side dish weer rice+soup+kimchi>rice+stew+kimch>rice+kimchi>noodle+kimchi in the order The most frequent menu pattern was rice+soup+kimchi in spring and autumn, and was rice+stew+kimchi in winter. The mean adequacy ratio(MAR) in spring and autumn was higher than that in winter. MAR in Ulsan is higher than that of other areas. With these results, we can conclude that there are difference in menu pattern by the season and area. For the nutrition program in the community, menu patterns should be carefully examined by the season and area. The results from this study can be used as basic data for nutrition education program in Korean rural areas.

Optimal Conditions for Mechanized Salting Process of Salt-Inserting Method for Winter Cabbage to Produce Kimchi (김치용 월동배추 속소금 살포에 의한 적정 기계화 절임조건)

  • Kim, Hang-Oh;Suh, Sang-Ryong;Choi, Yeong-Soo;Yoo, Soo-Nam;Kim, Young-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.695-701
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to develop a standard methods of mechanized salt-inserting salting process for winter cabbage to produce kimchi. Mid or large scaled mechanized kimchi plants were surveyed to select dominant variables of the mechanized salting process. Salt concentration of salting water, salting time and dewatering time were selected as the dominant variables of the salting process. A series of laboratorial experiment was performed with winter cabbage to determine desirable conditions for the variables. A supplementary experiment with cabbages of the other seasons was executed also to compare the determined conditions each other. Finally the determined conditions of the salting process were tested by plant scale experiments with winter cabbage and proved their validity.

A Survey on the Notion and Intake of Kimchi among College Women (여대생의 김치에 대한 의식과 섭취실태 조사)

  • 김은희;김성로
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.513-520
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    • 1998
  • A survey of the notion and intake on Kimchi among college women in Pusan was conducted to get some basic information on kimchi. Two hundred sixty seven students in Pusan participated in this survey. Seventy five percent of students answered that they like kimchi. They preferred well-fermented kimchi with anchovy extracts, refreshing taste and crispy texture the saltly and sweet. Chinese cabbage kimchi (87.6%) was found to be the most favored kimchi and Kakdugi(seasoned pickles of cubed radish), Nabak kimchi and Chonggak kimchi (ponytail kimchi) were followed in the order. The most favorite food made from kimchi was stir fried kimchi with rice. They disliked traditional special kimchi, such as Puchu kimchi (leek kimchi), Pa kimchi (green onion kimchi), Kkennip kimchi (perilla leaf kimchi), Godulbaegi kimch (Korea wild lettuce kimchi) and Gat kimchi (Leaf mustard kimchi). About 93 grams of kimchi was consumed daily and this amount was a little. Seventy percent of students did not have any experiences preparing kimchi. Experiences of kimchi preparation were given by mother through kimchii-making event for the winter(71.7%), cooking practice in middle or high school (14.1%) and college(10.9%) and general cooking education (33%). They preferred to buy kimchi at the Agricultural Cooperative Association (48.5%) or a large kimch factory (32.75). College students believe that kimchi is a healthy food and are willing to learn how to make kimchi.

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Seasonal Changes in Quality of Chonggak Kimchi Fermented at Different Temperatures (계절별.발효온도별 총각김치의 품질 특성의 변화)

  • Noh, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Hyun-Ju;Kwon, Myung-Ja;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.742-749
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    • 2009
  • In order to establish the basic scientific data on the fermentation characteristics of chonggak kimchi (CGK), we studied with CGKs prepared at different seasons and stored at various temperatures ($5{\sim}23^{\circ}C$). Changes in pH and acidity of CGK fermented at different temperatures were typical. However, acidity of summer CGK stored under $15^{\circ}C$ did not reach 1.0% since the amount of reducing sugar in the summer radish was lower by over 1% than the ones from the other seasons. Growths for Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus spp. over 8.0 logCFU/mL were observed in CGKs fermented above $10^{\circ}C$. Changes in Max G, cutting force, of CGK from different seasons were apparent. Max Gs for spring and summer CGK were decreased immediately right after storage while Max Gs for winter CGKs were increased slowly during storage. According to the results of sensory evaluation, CGKs revealed the highest overall acceptability when acidity of kimchi reached $0.7{\pm}0.1%$ under the given fermentation condition. However, CGK prepared with radish from winter or summer season tasted better than the one made in the spring. But the edible periods for winter CGKs were longer, compared with summer CGKs fermented at the same temperature. In conclusion, CGK fermented at $10^{\circ}C$ in the winter season gives a better taste with longer edible duration than the other CGKs.