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Evaluation of Meteorological Elements Used for Reference Evapotranspiration Calculation of FAO Penman-Monteith Model (FAO Penman-Monteith 모형의 증발산량 산정에 이용되는 기상요소의 평가)

  • Hur, Seung-Oh;Jung, Kang-Ho;Ha, Sang-Keun;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2006
  • The exact estimation of crop evapotranspiration containing reference or potential evapotranspiration is necessary for decision of crop water requirements. This study was carried out for the evaluation and application of various meteorological elements used for the calculation of reference evapotranspiration (RET) by FAO Penman-Monteith (PM) model. Meteorological elements including temperature, net radiation, soil heat flux, albedo, relative humidity, wind speed measured by meteorological instruments are required for RET calculation by FAO PM model. The average of albedo measured for crop growing period was 0.20, ranging from 0.12 to 0.23, and was slightly lower than 0.23. Determinant coefficients by measured albedo and green grass albedo were 0.97, 0.95 and standard errors were 0.74, 0.80 respectively. Usefulness of deductive regression models was admitted. To assess an influence of soil heat flux (G) on FAO PM, RET with G=0 was compared with RETs using G at 5cm soil depth ($G_{5cm}$) and G at surface ($G_{0cm}$). As the results, RET estimated by G=0 was well agreed with RET calculated by measured G. Therefore, estimated net radiation, G=0 and albedo of green grass could be used for RET calculation by FAO PM.

Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of the Haines Index related to the Wildland Fire Growth Potential over the Korean Peninsula (한반도 산불 확장 잠재도와 관련된 Haines Index의 시.공간적 특징)

  • Choi Cwang-Yong;Kim Jun-Su;Won Myoung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.168-187
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    • 2006
  • Windy meteorological conditions and dried fire fuels due to higher atmospheric instability and dryness in the lower troposphere can exacerbate fire controls and result in more losses of forest resources and residential properties due to enhanced large wildland fires. Long-term (1979-2005) climatology of the Haines Index reconstructed in this study reveals that spatial patterns and intra-annual variability of the atmospheric instability and dryness in the lower troposphere affect the frequency of wildland fire incidences over the Korean Peninsula. Exponential regression models verify that daily high Haines Index and its monthly frequency has statistically significant correlations with the frequency of the wildland fire occurrences during the fire season (December-April) in South Korea. According to the climatic maps of the Haines Index created by the Geographic Information System (GIS) using the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), the lowlands below 500m from the mean sea level in the northwestern regions of the Korean Peninsula demonstrates the high frequency of the Haines Index equal to or greater than five in April and May. The annual frequency of the high Haines Index represents an increasing trend across the Korean Peninsula since the mid-1990s, particularly in Gyeongsangbuk-do and along the eastern coastal areas. The composite of synoptic weather maps at 500hPa for extreme events, in which the high Haines Index lasted for several days consecutively, illustrates that the cold low pressure system developed around the Sea of Okhotsk in the extreme event period enhances the pressure gradient and westerly wind speed over the Korean Peninsula. These results demonstrate the need for further consideration of the spatial-temporal characteristics of vertical atmospheric components, such as atmospheric instability and dryness, in the current Korean fire prediction system.

Beneficial Effect of Heat Fans on Quality and Yield of Korean Melon Cultivated in Greenhouses at Winter Season (히터팬 처리가 저온기 하우스 참외의 품질 및 수량에 미치는 긍정적 영향)

  • Shin, Yong Seub;Lee, Ji Eun;Oh, Su Whan;Cheung, Joung Do;Sohn, Hyoung Rac;Do, Han Woo;Kim, Mi Kyung
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of environmental conditions and the quality and yield of melon fruit by heat fan operation in greenhouses at winter season. The average daily temperature inside the tunnels during January 1 to 31, 2017 was $0.9^{\circ}C$ higher than that of the control $17.8^{\circ}C$. The air flow rate of heater fan treatment was 4.8 times higher than the control (untreated $0.05m{\cdot}s^{-1}$) at 20cm above the ground where the korean melon grew. The temperature of the heater pan was $5.6^{\circ}C$ higher than that of the untreated at $35.3^{\circ}C$ and the relative humidity was 8.1% lower than that of the untreated at 39.1%. The flowering rate of the heater fan treatment was 96%, 5% higher than the control. The number of first harvest days of heater fan treatment was shortened by 4 days than that of untreated treatment. Fruit quality and marketable fruit yield increased by 3.4% and 38% compared to untreated respectively, the heater fan treatment increased the temperature inside the greenhouse and air flow rete, which were beneficial for growing the korean melon in greenhouses at winter season.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2016 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2016년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.327-340
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    • 2017
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2016. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of flow, heat and mass transfer, the reduction of pollutant exhaust gas, cooling and heating, the renewable energy system and the flow around buildings. CFD schemes were used more for all research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results of the long-term performance variation of the plate-type enthalpy exchange element made of paper, design optimization of an extruded-type cooling structure for reducing the weight of LED street lights, and hot plate welding of thermoplastic elastomer packing. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the heat transfer characteristics of a finned-tube heat exchanger in a PCM (phase change material) thermal energy storage system, influence of flow boiling heat transfer on fouling phenomenon in nanofluids, and PCM at the simultaneous charging and discharging condition were studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, one-dimensional flow network model and porous-media model, and R245fa in a plate-shell heat exchanger were studied. (3) Various studies were published in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, subjects include mobile cold storage heat exchanger, compressor reliability, indirect refrigeration system with $CO_2$ as secondary fluid, heat pump for fuel-cell vehicle, heat recovery from hybrid drier and heat exchangers with two-port and flat tubes. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, subjects include membrane module for dehumidification refrigeration, desiccant-assisted low-temperature drying, regenerative evaporative cooler and ejector-assisted multi-stage evaporation. In the system control category, subjects include multi-refrigeration system control, emergency cooling of data center and variable-speed compressor control. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, fifteenth studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, renewable energies, etc. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which could be help for improving the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the analyses of indoor thermal environments controlled by portable cooler, the effects of outdoor wind pressure in airflow at high-rise buildings, window air tightness related to the filling piece shapes, stack effect in core type's office building and the development of a movable drawer-type light shelf with adjustable depth of the reflector. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy consumption analysis in office building, the prediction of exit air temperature of horizontal geothermal heat exchanger, LS-SVM based modeling of hot water supply load for district heating system, the energy saving effect of ERV system using night purge control method and the effect of strengthened insulation level to the building heating and cooling load.

Movement of Cold Water Mass in the Northern East China Sea in Summer (하계 동중국해 북부 해역에서 저층 냉수괴의 거동)

  • Jang, Sung-Tae;Lee, Jae-Hak;Kim, Cheol-Ho;Jang, Chan-Joo;Jang, Young-Suk
    • The Sea
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2011
  • The Yellow Sea Cold Water (YSCW) is formed by cold and dry wind in the previous winter, and is known to spread southward along the central trough of the Yellow Sea in summer. Water characteristics of the YSCW and its movement in the northern East China Sea (ECS) are investigated by analyzing CTD (conductivity-Temperature-Depth) data collected from summertime hydrographic surveys between 2003 and 2009. By water mass analysis, we newly define the North Western Cold Water (NWCW) as a cold water mass observed in the study area. It is characterized by temperature below $13.2^{\circ}C$, salinity of 32.6~33.7 psu, and density (${\sigma}_t$) of 24.7~25.5. The NWCW appears to flow southward at about a speed less than 2 cm/s according to the geostrophic calculation. The newly defined NWCW shows an interannual variation in the range of temperature and occupied area, which is in close relation with the sea surface temperature (SST) over the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the previous winter season. The winter SST is determined by winter air temperature, which shows a high correlation with the winter-mean Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. The negative winter-mean AO causes the low winter SST over the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, resulting in the summertime expansion and lower temperature of the NWCW in the study area. This study shows a dynamic relation among the winter-mean AO index, SST, and NWCW, which helps to predict the movement of NWCW in the northern ECS in summer.

Manufacture of Spent Layer Chicken Meat Products by Natural Freeze-Drying during Winter (겨울철 자연 동결 건조에 의한 노계 육제품의 제조)

  • Lee, Sung-Ki;Kang, Sun-Moon;Lee, Ik-Sun;Seo, Dong-Kwan;Kwon, Il-Kyung;Pan, Jo-No;Kim, Hee-Ju;Ga, Cheon-Heung;Pak, Jae-In
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to manufacture spent layer chicken meat products by natural freeze-drying. The spent layers of chickens that were slaughtered at 80 wk were obtained from a local slaughter house and separated into two halves of carcasses. The samples were divided into the following groups: 1) control (non-curing), 2) curing, and 3) curing with 2% trehalose before drying. The cured meats were placed at $2^{\circ}C$ for 7 d and then transferred to a natural drying spot located in Injae City, Gangwondo, Korea. The experiment was conducted from January to March in 2008. The average temperature, RH, and wind speed were $-1.5^{\circ}C$, 63%, and 1.8 m/sec, respectively. The cured treatments showed higher pH, lower Aw and lower shear force value compared with the control. Based on the results of TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and volatile basic nitrogen value, lipid oxidation and protein deterioration were inhibited in curing treatments during drying. Trehalose acted as a humectant because it maintained a lower water activity despite the relatively higher moisture content during drying. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content and sensory attributes were higher in cured treatments than in the control during drying. Most of the bacterial counts in the treated groups were lower by 2 Log CFU/g after 1 mon of drying, and Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not found in any treatment. There was also no microbial safety problem associated with dried meat products. Based on the results of this experiment, dried meat products could be manufactured from precured spent layer chickens by natural freeze-drying during winter.

Vegetation on Basic, Alkaloid, Arid Land of the Whole Area of Baicheng City, Jilin Province, China (중국(中國) 길림성(吉林省) 백성시(白城市) 일대의 염성(鹽性), 알칼리성 건조지(乾操地) 식생(植生)에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Young-Hee;Wang, Bai-Cheng;Jin, Ying-Hua;Choe, Chang-Young;Xuan, Yong-Nan;Song, Dong-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2009
  • Every spring, Korea is always plagued by sandy dust from the western region of China and Mongolia. Yellow sand is causing an environmental problem to Japan and far into the American continent, let alone Korea. At present, the western region of China is going under desertification at a great speed due to climatic change and humans' damaging activities. To cope with this, each country including China is considering ecological restoration of deserts through planting. Accordingly, this research conducted a vegetation survey on Baicheng district which is a representative dry land of western China to obtain a basic data for ecological restoration of a desert. The survey revealed that Setaria viridis which invaded an arid land made a succession into Setaria viridis-Cannabis sativa var. fruderalis community together with Artemisia mongolica-Setaria viridis community due to the increase in salt concentration and alkalization subsequent to dryness. It was also found out that there finally formed Artemisia mongolica community on a flat intense in harsh wind and dryness with the continuous worsening of environmental conditions. There appeared a different type of vegetation on hilly districts where sporadic shade could come into being because the air humidity could be available relatively there. Frequently, typically appearing at the whole survey area, the Tributlus terrestris community was found to make succession into Tribulus terrestris-Cleisrogenes squarrosa community due to the aggravation of soil environment. In addition, with the worsening of the environment at hilly districts, there formed Clesirogenes squarrosa community resistant to dryness, salinity in soil and strong alkalinity. Further, there appeared higher plant life totalling to 62 taxa comprising 58 species and 4 varieties with 27 families and 49 genuses at the whole survey area. Among these, Compositae plants excellent in resistance to environment was surveyed the most, accounting for 27%.

A Study on the Effects of Meterological Factors on the Distribution of Agricultural Products: Focused on the Distribution of Chinese Cabbages (기상요인이 농산물 유통에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 배추 유통 사례를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Hyunjoung;Hong, Jinhwan
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.59-83
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    • 2012
  • Agriculture is a primary industry that influenced by the weather or meterological factors more than other industry. Global warming and worldwide climate changes, and unusual weather phenomena are fatal in agricultural industry and human life. Therefore, many previous studies have been made to find the relationship between weather and the productivity of agriculture. Meterological factors also influence on the distribution of agricultural product. For example, price of agricultural product is determined in the market, and also influenced by the weather of the market. However, there is only a few study was made to find this link. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of meterological factors on the distribution of agricultural products, focusing on the distribution of chinese cabbages. Chinese cabbage is a main ingredient of Kimchi, and basic essential vegetable in Korean dinner table. However, the production of chinese cabbages is influenced by weather and very fluctuating so that the variation of its price is so unstable. Therefore, both consumers and farmers do not feel comfortable at the unstable price of chinese cabbages. In this study, we analyze the real transaction data of chinese cabbage in wholesale markets and meterological factors depending on the variety and geography. We collect and analyze data of meterological factors such as temperatures, humidity, cloudiness, rainfall, snowfall, wind speed, insolation, sunshine duration in producing and consuming region of chinese cabbages. The result of this study shows that the meterological factors such as temperature and humidity significantly influence on the volume and price of chinese cabbage transaction in wholesale market. Especially, the weather of consuming region has greater correlation effects on transaction than that of producing region in all types of chinese cabbages. Among the whole agricultural lifecycle of chinese cabbages, 'seeding - harvest - shipment - wholesale', meterological factors such as temperature and rainfall in shipment and wholesale period are significantly correlated with transaction volume and price of crops. Based on the result of correlation analysis, we make a regression analysis to verify the meterological factors' effects on the volume and price of chines cabbage transaction in wholesale market. The results of stepwise regression analysis are shown in

    and
    . The type of chinese cabbages are categorized by 5 types, i.e. alpine, gimjang for winter, spring, summer, and winter crop, and all of the regression models are shown significant relationship. In addition, meterological factors in shipment and wholesale period are entered more in regression model than those in seeding and harvest period. This result implies that weather in consuming region is also important in the distribution of chinese cabbages. Based on the result of this study, we find several implications and recommendations for policy makers of agricultural product distribution. The goal of agricultural product distribution policy is to insure proper price and production cost for farmers and provide proper price and quality, and stable supply for consumers. Therefore, coping with the uncertainty of weather is very essential to make a fruitful effect of the policy. In reality, very big part of consumer price of chinese cabbage is made up of the margin of intermediaries, because they take the risk. In addition, policy makers make efforts for farmers to utilize AWIS (Agricultural Weather Information System). In order to do that, it should integrate the relevant information including distribution and marketing as well as production. Offering a consulting service to farmers about weather management is also expected to be a good option in agriculture and weather industry. Reflecting on the result of this study, the distribution authorities can offer the guideline for the timing and volume of harvest, and it is expected to contribute to the stable equilibrium of supply and demand of agricultural products.

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  • A Study on Scenario to establish Coastal Inundation Prediction Map due to Storm Surge (폭풍해일에 의한 해안침수예상도 작성 시나리오 연구)

    • Moon, Seung-Rok;Kang, Tae-Soon;Nam, Soo-Yong;Hwang, Joon
      • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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      • v.19 no.5
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      • pp.492-501
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      • 2007
    • Coastal disasters have become one of the most important issues in every coastal country. In Korea, coastal disasters such as storm surge, sea level rise and extreme weather have placed many coastal regions in danger of being exposed or damaged during subsequent storms and gradual shoreline retreat. A storm surge is an onshore gush of water associated with a tow pressure weather system, typically in typhoon season. However, it is very difficult to predict storm surge height and inundation due to the irregularity of the course and intensity of a typhoon. To provide a new scheme of typhoon damage prediction model, the scenario which changes the central pressure, the maximum wind radius, the track and the proceeding speed by corresponding previous typhoon database, was composed. The virtual typhoon scenario database was constructed with individual scenario simulation and evaluation, in which it extracted the result from the scenario database of information of the hereafter typhoon and information due to climate change. This virtual typhoon scenario database will apply damage prediction information about a typhoon. This study performed construction and analysis of the simulation system with the storm surge/coastal inundation model at Masan coastal areas, and applied method for predicting using the scenario of the storm surge.

    Structure and Variation of Tidal Flat Temperature in Gomso Bay, West Coast of Korea (서해안 곰소만 갯벌 온도의 구조 및 변화)

    • Lee, Sang-Ho;Cho, Yang-Ki;You, Kwang-Woo;Kim, Young-Gon;Choi, Hyun-Yong
      • The Sea
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      • v.10 no.1
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      • pp.100-112
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      • 2005
    • Soil temperature was measured from the surface to 40 cm depth at three stations with different heights in tidal flat of Gomso Bay, west coast of Korea, for one month in every season 2004 to examine the thermal structure and the variation. Mean temperature in surface layer was higher in summer and lower in winter than in lower layer, reflecting the seasonal variation of vertically propagating structure of temperature by heating and cooling from the tidal flat surface. Standard deviation of temperature decreased from the surface to lower layer. Periodic variations of solar radiation energy and tide mainly caused short term variation of soil temperature, which was also intermittently influenced by precipitation and wind. Time series analysis showed the power spectral energy peaks at the periods of 24, 12 and 8 hours, and the strongest peak appeared at 24 hour period. These peaks can be interpreted as temperature waves forced by variations of solar radiation, diurnal tide and interaction of both variations, respectively. EOF analysis showed that the first and the second modes resolved 96% of variation of vertical temperature structure. The first mode was interpreted as the heating antl cooling from tidal flat surface and the second mode as the effect of phase lag produced by temperature wave propagation in the soil. The phase of heat transfer by 24 hour period wave, analyzed by cross spectrum, showed that mean phase difference of the temperature wave increased almost linearly with the soil depth. The time lags by the phase difference from surface to 10, 20 and 40cm were 3.2,6.5 and 9.8 hours, respectively. Vertical thermal diffusivity of temperature wave of 24 hour period was estimated using one dimensional thermal diffusion model. Average diffusivity over the soil depths and seasons resulted in $0.70{\times}10^{-6}m^2/s$ at the middle station and $0.57{\times}10^{-6}m^2/s$ at the lowest station. The depth-averaged diffusivity was large in spring and small in summer and the seasonal mean diffusivity vertically increased from 2 cm to 10 cm and decreased from 10 cm to 40 cm. Thermal propagation speeds were estimated by $8.75{\times}10^{-4}cm/s,\;3.8{\times}10{-4}cm/s,\;and\;1.7{\times}10^{-4}cm/s$ from 2 cm to 10 cm, 20 cm and 40 cm, respectively, indicating the speed reduction with depth increasing from the surface.