• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wind damage

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Reconstruction of a near-surface tornado wind field from observed building damage

  • Luo, Jianjun;Liang, Daan;Weiss, Christopher
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.389-404
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    • 2015
  • In this study, residential building damage states observed from a post-tornado damage survey in Joplin after a 2011 EF 5 tornado were used to reconstruct the near-surface wind field. It was based on well-studied relationships between Degrees of Damage (DOD) of building and wind speeds in the Enhanced Fujita (EF) scale. A total of 4,166 one- or two-family residences (FR12) located in the study area were selected and their DODs were recorded. Then, the wind speeds were estimated with the EF scale. The peak wind speed profile estimated from damage of buildings was used to fit a translating analytical vortex model. Agreement between simulated peak wind speeds and observed damages confirms the feasibility of using post-tornado damage surveys for reconstructing the near-surface wind field. In addition to peak wind speeds, the model can create the time history of wind speed and direction at any given point, offering opportunity to better understand tornado parameters and wind field structures. Future work could extend the method to tornadoes of different characteristics and therefore improve model's generalizability.

Estimation of Surface Wind Speed on the Strong Wind Damage by Typhoon (태풍으로 인한 강풍 피해 추정을 위한 지상풍 산정 연구(Ⅰ))

  • Park, Jong-Kil;Jung, Woo-Sik;Choi, Hyo-Jin
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.85-88
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    • 2008
  • Damage from typhoon disaster can be mitigated by grasping and dealing with the damage promptly for the regions in typhoon track. What is this work, a technique to analyzed dangerousness of typhoon should be presupposed. This study estimated 10m level wind speed using 700hPa wind by typhoon, referring to GPS dropwindsonde study of Franklin(2003). For 700hPa wind, 30km resolution data of Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System(RDAPS) were used. For roughness length in estimating wind of 10m level, landuse data of USGS are employed. For 10m level wind speed of Typhoon Rusa in 2002, we sampled AWS point of $7.4\sim30km$ distant from typhoon center and compare them with observational data. The results show that the 10m level wind speed is the estimation of maximum wind speed which can appear in surface by typhoon and it cannot be compared with general hourly observational data. Wind load on domestic buildings relies on probability distributions of extreme wind speed. Hence, calculated 10m level wind speed is useful for estimating the damage structure from typhoon.

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Vulnerability model of an Australian high-set house subjected to cyclonic wind loading

  • Henderson, D.J.;Ginger, J.D.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.269-285
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    • 2007
  • This paper assesses the damage to high-set rectangular-plan houses with low-pitch gable roofs (built in the 1960 and 70s in the northern parts of Australia) to wind speeds experienced in tropical cyclones. The study estimates the likely failure mode and percentage of failure for a representative proportion of houses with increasing wind speed. Structural reliability concepts are used to determine the levels of damage. The wind load and the component connection strengths are treated as random variables with log-normal distributions. These variables are derived from experiments, structural analysis, damage investigations and experience. This study also incorporates progressive failures and considers the inter-dependency between the structural components in the house, when estimating the types and percentages of the overall failures in the population of these houses. The progressively increasing percentage of houses being subjected to high internal pressures resulting from damage to the envelope is considered. Results from this study also compare favourably with levels of damage and related modes of failure for high-set houses observed in post-cyclone damage surveys.

Structural Health Monitoring Technique for Tripod Support Structure of Offshore Wind Turbine (해상풍력터빈 트라이포드 지지구조물의 건전성 모니터링 기법)

  • Lee, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Wind Energy
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2018
  • A damage detection method for the tripod support structure of offshore wind turbines is presented for structural health monitoring. A finite element model of a prototype tripod support structure is established and the modal properties are calculated. The degree and location of the damage are estimated based on the neural network technique using the changes of natural frequencies and mode shape due to the damage. The stress distribution occurring in the support structure is obtained by a dynamic analysis for the wind turbine system to select the output data of the neural network. The natural frequencies and mode shapes for 36 possible damage scenarios were used for the input data of the learned neural network for damage assessment. The estimated damages agreed reasonably well with the accurate ones. The presented method could be effectively applied for damage detection and structural health monitoring of various types of support structures of offshore wind turbines.

Vibration-based damage alarming criteria for wind turbine towers

  • Nguyen, Cong-Uy;Huynh, Thanh-Canh;Dang, Ngoc-Loi;Kim, Jeong-Tae
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.221-236
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the feasibility of vibration-based damage alarming algorithms are numerically evaluated for wind turbine tower structures which are subjected to harmonic force excitation. Firstly, the algorithm of vibration-based damage alarming for the wind turbine tower (WTT) is visited. The natural frequency change, modal assurance criterion (MAC) and frequency-response-ratio assurance criterion (FRRAC) are utilized to recognize changes in dynamic characteristics due to a structural damage. Secondly, a finite element model based on a real wind turbine tower is established in a structural analysis program, Midas FEA. The harmonic force is applied at the rotor level as presence of excitation. Several structural damage scenarios are numerically simulated in segmental joints of the wind turbine model. Finally, the natural frequency change, MAC and FRRAC algorithm are employed to identify the structural damage occurred in the finite element model. The results show that these criteria could be used as promising damage existence indicators for the damage alarming in wind turbine supporting structures.

A Comparative Study on Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Damage to Wind Turbines of Jeju and Gangwon Region (제주와 강원 지역의 낙뢰특성 및 풍력발전기의 낙뢰피해 비교 연구)

  • Yang, Dal-Seung;Kim, Kyoung-Bo;Ko, Kyung-Nam
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2014
  • An investigation on lightning characteristics and damage to wind turbines was performed on Jeju and Gangwon regions. The lightning data from January 2010 to September 2013 detected by IMPACT ESP were collected and analyzed in detail. Hangyeong and Seongsan wind farms of Jeju province and Taebaek, Changjuk, Taegisan and Gangwon wind farms of Gangwon province were selected for this study. Lightning rates and lightning damage events at the six wind farms were compared with each other. Lightning maps for the two regions were drawn using lightning frequency data. As a result, lightning frequency of Gangwon region was higher than that of Jeju region, while lightning strength of Gangwon was weaker than that of Jeju. Lightning rates were assessed to be good for all of the six wind farms. No lightning damage to wind turbines occurred at the two wind farms of Jeju, while some lightning damage to wind turbines took place at the four wind farms of Gangwon.

Numerical evaluation for vibration-based damage detection in wind turbine tower structure

  • Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong;Huynh, Thanh-Canh;Kim, Jeong-Tae
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.657-675
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the feasibility of vibration-based damage detection methods for the wind turbine tower (WTT) structure is evaluated. First, a frequency-based damage detection (FBDD) is outlined. A damage-localization algorithm is visited to locate damage from changes in natural frequencies. Second, a mode-shape-based damage detection (MBDD) method is outlined. A damage index algorithm is utilized to localize damage from estimating changes in modal strain energies. Third, a finite element (FE) model based on a real WTT is established by using commercial software, Midas FEA. Several damage scenarios are numerically simulated in the FE model of the WTT. Finally, both FBDD and MBDD methods are employed to identify the damage scenarios simulated in the WTT. Damage regions are chosen close to the bolt connection of WTT segments; from there, the stiffness of damage elements are reduced.

Some recent extreme wind events in New Zealand

  • Turner, R.;Revell, M.;Reese, S.;Moore, S.;Reid, S.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.163-176
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    • 2012
  • Damaging winds, associated with a variety of weather phenomena, are frequently experienced in New Zealand. Observations and modelling of two recent extreme wind events; the Taranaki tornado outbreak of July 2007, and the Greymouth down-slope easterly wind storm of July 2008 are described in detail here. Post-event engineering damage surveys, rare for New Zealand, were done for these storms and the results are summarized here. Finally, the issue of sampling extreme wind events is raised and the need to include detailed numerical modelling analysis to understand wind gust climatologies at observing sites and extending these to wider regions is discussed.

An Application Method and Review of Lightning Protection for Wind Turbines (풍력발전기의 낙뢰피해 대책 검토 및 적용방안)

  • Han, Ji-Hoon;Ko, Kyung-Nam;Huh, Jong-Chul
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2015
  • This investigation presents reviews of many research results on lightning damage to wind turbines and lightning protection strategies from IEC Standard, Europe, USA, Japan and Korea. There have been few studies on lightning protection of wind turbines in Korea, while various investigations have been performed in the other countries. It is necessary to apply some good lightning protection strategies of IEC Standard and the other countries to Korea. Those are as follows: The guideline for lightning protection of wind turbines should be established based on IEC Standards. It needs to be carried out both development of software and experimental studies for understanding the types of lightning damage to wind turbines and compiling the database. In order to minimize the lightning damage to wind turbines, it is a key factor for wind farm owners and researchers to provide the information about the damage cases and wind farm operation technique.

The Study on the Strong Wind Damage Prediction for Estimation Surface Wind Speed of Typhoon Season(I) (태풍시기의 강풍피해 예측을 위한 지상풍 산정에 관한 연구(I))

  • Park, Jong-Kil;Jung, Woo-Sik;Choi, Hyo-Jin
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2008
  • Damage from typhoon disaster can be mitigated by grasping and dealing with the damage promptly for the regions in typhoon track. What is this work, a technique to analyzed dangerousness of typhoon should be presupposed. This study estimated 10 m level wind speed using 700 hPa wind by typhoon, referring to GPS dropwindsonde study of Franklin(2003). For 700 hPa wind, 30 km resolution data of Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System(RDAPS) were used. For roughness length in estimating wind of 10 m level, landuse data of USGS are employed. For 10 m level wind speed of Typhoon Rusa in 2002, we sampled AWS site of $7.4{\sim}30km$ distant from typhoon center and compare them with observational data. The results show that the 10 m level wind speed is the estimation of maximum wind speed which can appear in surface by typhoon and it cannot be compared with general hourly observational data. Wind load on domestic buildings relies on probability distributions of extreme wind speed. Hence, calculated 10 m level wind speed is useful for estimating the damage structure from typhoon.