• Title, Summary, Keyword: Williamson

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Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Test of Williamson's Hypothesis (Williamson 가설검정에 의한 중국의 도시화와 경제성장에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Sup
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.323-341
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    • 2012
  • In the recent year, the urbanization is emerging as important issue for sustainable development in China. Like the most of the world, urbanization of China is closely related with the domestic market development, the innovation of industrial structure, and the reduction of income cap among regions, urban-rural region and so on. This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on economic growth using cross section data and time series data of the eastern coastal regions in China. Based on the existing literature, we establish a hypothesis, which is basically the same as Williamson(1965)'s hypothesis, that urbanization promotes the economic growth at the early stages of development but has adverse effects in economies that have reached a certain income level. The results of study are as follows: Using 10-provinces data of the eastern coastal region in China, this paper examines the impact of urbanization on economic growth. Regression results suggest that Williamson's hypothesis is not verified, regardless of estimation methods in two models. Hence, the results show that the impact of urbanization on economic growth has not the inverse U-type function in the eastern coastal region of China.

A Study on the Regional Patterns of Income and Urban-Rural Disparity in China: Hypothesis Testing of Williamson and Amos (중국의 소득 및 도·농간 지역격차 패턴에 관한 연구 : Williamson과 Amos의 가설검증)

  • Kim, Jong-Sup;Jang, Hun;Zhang, Rui
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.67-88
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study empirically examines the pattern of regional disparities on the level of development in China's eastern, central, western and northeast regions for the period 1978-2012. To do this, it test Williamson's inverted-U hypothesis and Amos' augmented inverted-U hypothesis, focusing on polarization, polarization reversal, and spatial restructuring. Results of study are as follows: In the absolute economic disparity(AED) models of per capita income within a region, the Williamson's inverted-U hypothesis was supported in the eastern region, central region and inter-region model. The central region and the western region supports Williamson's hypothesis in the case of the relative economic disparity(RED). On the other hand, The inter-region model and the western region supports Amos' augmented inverted-U hypothesis in model of per capita income. In the urban-rural income economic disparity model, the inter-region model of AED and the central region of RED supports Amos' augmented inverted-U hypothesis. But the Williamson's inverted-U hypothesis was supported in the inter-region model and the western region in RED.

Effects of Urbanization on Economic Growth of Southeast Asia: based on the Williamson's Hypothesis (동남아시아의 도시화가 경제성장에 미치는 영향: Williamson의 가설을 활용하여)

  • RA, Hee-Ryang
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.45-80
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    • 2016
  • This paper examined, using three indicators, urban area rate, urbanization rate and urban population density upon the status of urbanization since the 2000s in Southeast Asia. This study also carried out an empirical analysis on the effects of urbanization on economic growth using the Williamson's inverted U-shape hypothesis. In addition, this study calculated the thresholds by which urbanization starts to have positive effects on economic growth by using estimated coefficients, and comparatively analyzed each Southeast Asian country's status. The empirical analysis results opposite to the Williamson's hypothesis. This means that the hypothesis asserting that urbanization has positive effects on economic growth in a country with low economic development phase and income level, but that urbanization can have negative effects on economic growth, if a country's income level is beyond a certain level(threshold), is not supported in this study. In summary, the economies of agglomeration represented as localization economy and urbanization economy is realized to some degree in terms of urbanization in Southeast Asia. Also, urbanization in Southeast Asia has positive effects on economic growth through knowledge spillover, the active exchange of ideas and productivity improvement. In examining the meaning of Southeast Asia's urbanization, policy consideration needs to be conducted, and efforts should be made to maximize the positive effects of the economies of agglomeration and knowledge spillover on economic growth.

Sorites Paradox and Supervaluationism (더미의 역설과 초평가주의)

  • Lee, Jinhee
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.189-231
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this paper is to show that Williamson's counterexamples and Fara's paradox do not conclusively refute supervaluationism. I will achieve this purpose on the basis of local validity. In general, people regard supervaluational validity as global validity. And D-introduction, which is premise of Williamson's counterexamples and Fara's paradox, is justified only if we assume global validity. But it cannot correctly grasp supervaluational semantics, especially semantic character of D-operator. So I will show that validity of supervaluationism is local and define global validity by local validity. Strategy of this paper is to protect supervaluationism against Williamson's counterexamples and Fara's paradox by minimal modification of supervaluationism and to prove that supervaluational logic is not revisionary and weak for solving the sorites paradox.

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Analysis of Bridge Team's Technical Behavior Pattern Appearing in Williamson's Turn (윌리암슨 선회법에 나타난 선교팀의 기술적 행동유형의 분석)

  • Yun, Chong-gum;Park, Deuk-Jin;Yim, Jeong-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.701-708
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    • 2018
  • Human error is an important cause of maritime accidents and the identification of human error is fundamental to maritime-accident preventions. In particular, the pattern of technical behavior taken in the circumstance of bridge teams(navigator & helmsman) provides important information to identify human error. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze technical behavior pattern of bridge teams using Williamson's turn for rescue of persons overboard. The focus of this study is to build and analyze a cognitive model of the human behavior factors of the bridge teams in the process of implementing the experiments. The experimental environment was constructed using a ship-handling simulator and conducted an experiment on participants from 24 bridge teams. As a result of the experiment, it was able to identify the behavior pattern of the ship's maneuvering and maintain trajectory using the rudder and engine. This study is expected to correct human error in the bridge teams application to the certification and training of seafarers.

Experimental Results of Ship's Maneuvering Test Using GPS

  • Yoo, Yun-Ja;Naknma, Yoshiyasu;Kouguchi, Nobuyoshi;Song, Chae-Uk
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2009
  • The Kinematic GPS is well known to provide a quite good accuracy of positioning within an level. Although kinematic GPS assures high precision measurement on the basis of an appreciable distance between a reference station and an observational point, it has measurable distance restriction within 20 km from a reference station on land. Therefore, it is necessary to make out a simple and low-cost method to obtain accurate positioning information without distance restriction In this paper, the velocity integration method to get the precise velocity information of a ship is explained. The experimental results of Zig-zag maneuver and Williamson turn as the ship's maneuvering test, and other experimental results of ship's movement during leaving and entering the port with low speed were shown. From the experimental results, ship's course, speed and position are compared with those obtained by kinematic-GPS, velocity integration method and dead reckoning position using Gyro-compass and Doppler-log.

Gab Theory and Minimal Intuition on Truth (간극이론과 진리에 대한 최소직관)

  • Lee, Jinhee
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.145-184
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    • 2016
  • Williamson(1994) proved incompatibility of Gab Theory and Tarski T-schema. But this does not means that Gab Theory could not involve intuition on truth that is expressed by T-schema. I will show that Gab Theory and mutual entailment of 'p' and 'it is true that p'(p⊨T

    and T

    ⊨p) are compatible. It will draw that Gab Theory can involve minimal intuition on truth. After all what I want to reveal is logical space for Gab Theory through the compatibility of the mutual entailment and negation of the Principle of Bivalence. To prove the compatibility, I will present a consequent relation which should be accepted whenever we accept Gab Theory and demonstrate Gab Theory and the mutual entailment imply following two thesis; 1) not-T

    and T are not equivalent. 2) p entails T

    but not-T

    does not entails not-p.

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Evaluation of Factors Used in AAPM TG-43 Formalism Using Segmented Sources Integration Method and Monte Carlo Simulation: Implementation of microSelectron HDR Ir-192 Source (미소선원 적분법과 몬테칼로 방법을 이용한 AAPM TG-43 선량계산 인자 평가: microSelectron HDR Ir-192 선원에 대한 적용)

  • Ahn, Woo-Sang;Jang, Won-Woo;Park, Sung-Ho;Jung, Sang-Hoon;Cho, Woon-Kap;Kim, Young-Seok;Ahn, Seung-Do
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2011
  • Currently, the dose distribution calculation used by commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) for high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is derived from point and line source approximation method recommended by AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43). However, the study of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is required in order to assess the accuracy of dose calculation around three-dimensional Ir-192 source. In this study, geometry factor was calculated using segmented sources integration method by dividing microSelectron HDR Ir-192 source into smaller parts. The Monte Carlo code (MCNPX 2.5.0) was used to calculate the dose rate $\dot{D}(r,\theta)$ at a point ($r,\theta$) away from a HDR Ir-192 source in spherical water phantom with 30 cm diameter. Finally, anisotropy function and radial dose function were calculated from obtained results. The obtained geometry factor was compared with that calculated from line source approximation. Similarly, obtained anisotropy function and radial dose function were compared with those derived from MCPT results by Williamson. The geometry factor calculated from segmented sources integration method and line source approximation was within 0.2% for $r{\geq}0.5$ cm and 1.33% for r=0.1 cm, respectively. The relative-root mean square error (R-RMSE) of anisotropy function obtained by this study and Williamson was 2.33% for r=0.25 cm and within 1% for r>0.5 cm, respectively. The R-RMSE of radial dose function was 0.46% at radial distance from 0.1 to 14.0 cm. The geometry factor acquired from segmented sources integration method and line source approximation was in good agreement for $r{\geq}0.1$ cm. However, application of segmented sources integration method seems to be valid, since this method using three-dimensional Ir-192 source provides more realistic geometry factor. The anisotropy function and radial dose function estimated from MCNPX in this study and MCPT by Williamson are in good agreement within uncertainty of Monte Carlo codes except at radial distance of r=0.25 cm. It is expected that Monte Carlo code used in this study could be applied to other sources utilized for brachytherapy.

Numerical Study of Entropy Generation with Nonlinear Thermal Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamics non-Newtonian Nanofluid Through a Porous Shrinking Sheet

  • Bhatti, M.M.;Abbas, T.;Rashidi, M.M.
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.468-475
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    • 2016
  • In this article, entropy generation on MHD Williamson nanofluid over a porous shrinking sheet has been analyzed. Nonlinear thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects are also taken into account with the help of energy and concentration equation. The fluid is electrically conducting by an external applied magnetic field while the induced magnetic field is assumed to be negligible due to small magnetic Reynolds number. The governing equations are first converted into the dimensionless expression with the help of similarity transformation variables. The solution of the highly nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equation has been obtained with the combination of Successive linearization method (SLM) and Chebyshev spectral collocation method. Influence of all the emerging parameters on entropy profile, temperature profile and concentration profile are plotted and discussed. Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also computed and analyzed. It is observed that entropy profile increases for all the physical parameters. Moreover, it is found that when the fluid depicts non-Newtonian (Williamson fluid) behavior then it causes reduction in the velocity of fluid, however, non-Newtonian behavior enhances the temperature and nanoparticle concentration profile.

Experimental Results of Ship's Maneuvering Test Using GPS

  • Yoo, Yun-Ja;Hou, Dai-Jin;Hamada, Masaaki;Nakama, Yoshiyasu;Kouguchi, Nobuyoshi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2006
  • Kinematic GPS provides quite good accuracy of position in cm level. Though K-GPS assures high precision measurement in cm level on the basis of an appreciable distance between a station and an observational point, but it has measurable distance restriction within 20 km from a reference station on land. So it is necessary to make out a simple and low-cost method to obtain accurate positioning information without distance restriction. In this paper, the velocity integration method to get the precise velocity information of ship is explained. Next two experimental results (Zig-zag maneuvering test and Williamson turn) as the ship's maneuvering test and also the experimental results of leaving and entering port as slow speed ship's movement were shown. In these experimental results, ship's course, speed and position are compared with those obtained by kinematic-GPS, velocity integration method and dead reckoning position using Gyro-compass and Doppler-log.

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