• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wild Ginseng

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A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts (자연산 산삼, 산양삼 및 인삼의 항산화능 비교연구)

  • Jang, Hae-Young;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Rhim, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein(DCF) fluorescence. Results: 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and $20{\mu}g$ extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05). 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of $FeSO_4$/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

The Comparison of Seasonal Ginsenoside Composition Contents in Korean Wild Simulated Ginseng (Panax ginseng) which were Cultivated in Different Areas and Various Ages

  • Yang, Byung Wook;Lee, Jae Bum;Lee, Jung Min;Jo, Min Su;Byun, Jae Kyung;Kim, Hyoung Chun;Ko, Sung Kwon
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2019
  • The ginsenoside content was compared with wild simulated ginseng (Panax ginseng) collected every season at 11 wild simulated ginseng plantations in Korea. As a result, the total saponin of 7 years old wild simulated ginseng showed the highest content of 4.5% in spring sampling wild simulated ginseng, 2.0% in summer sampling wild simulated ginseng, 1.2% in winter sampling wild simulated ginseng and 1.0% in autumn sampling wild simulated ginseng. And also, the total saponin of 10 years old wild simulated ginseng showed the highest content of 3.9% in spring sampling wild simulated ginseng, summer sampling wild simulated ginseng (1.8%), winter sampling wild simulated ginseng (1.6%) and autumn sampling wild simulated ginseng (0.6%). Therefore, the total saponin of spring sampling wild simulated ginseng was about 4.5 - 6.5 times higher than that of autumn sampling wild simulated ginseng regardless of cultivation period.

Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng (인삼.산양삼.자연산 산삼의 ginsenoside 함량 분석 및 홍삼화 후의 변화 관찰)

  • Jeong, H.S.;Lim, C.S.;Cha, B.C.;Choi, S.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-77
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of ginsenoside components in the process for making red ginseng. Methods: Comparative analysis of ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, $Rg_1,\;Rg_3,\;Rh_1$ and $Rh_2$ from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng were conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(hereafter HPLC). And the same analyses were conducted in the process of red ginseng. Results: 1. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_1$, Rc, Rd, Rf, $Rg_1$ and $Rh_1$, wild ginseng showed high content, followed cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 2. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_2$ and Re, cultivated ginseng 4 years showed high content, followed wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 3. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rg_3$, wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were only showed low content. 4. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rh_2$, cultivated wild ginseng was only showed low content. 5. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Re and $Rg_1$ were decreased in cultivated wild ginseng. 6. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside $Rb_2$, Rc, and Re were decreased in cultivated ginseng 4 years. 7. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rf and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Rc and Rd were decreased in cultivated ginseng 6 years. Conclusions: Distribution of ginsenoside contents to the cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng was similar and was not showed special characteristics between samples. And the change of ginsenoside to the process of red ginseng, cultivated ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were showed different aspect.

Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

  • Li, Guisheng;Cui, Yan;Wang, Hongtao;Kwon, Woo-Saeng;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.326-329
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    • 2017
  • Background: Cultivated ginseng is often introduced as a substitute and adulterant of Russian wild ginseng due to its lower cost or misidentification caused by similarity in appearance with wild ginseng. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to differentiate Russian wild ginseng from cultivated ginseng. Methods: The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7 (nad7) intron 3 regions of Russian wild ginseng and Chinese cultivated ginseng were analyzed. Based on the multiple sequence alignment result, a specific primer for Russian wild ginseng was designed by introducing additional mismatch and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for identification of wild ginseng. Real-time allele-specific PCR with endpoint analysis was used for validation of the developed Russian wild ginseng single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker. Results: An SNP site specific to Russian wild ginseng was exploited by multiple alignments of mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 regions of different ginseng samples. With the SNP-based specific primer, Russian wild ginseng was successfully discriminated from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng samples by allele-specific PCR. The reliability and specificity of the SNP marker was validated by checking 20 individuals of Russian wild ginseng samples with real-time allele-specific PCR assay. Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

The Comparative of Growth Characteristics and Ginsenoside Contents in Wild-simulated Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Different Years by Soil Properties of Cultivation Regions

  • Kim, Kiyoon;Huh, Jeong-Hoon;Um, Yurry;Jeon, Kwon Seok;Kim, Hyun-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.651-658
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative growth characteristics and ginenoside contents of wild-simulated ginseng on different years (7 and 13-year-old) by monitoring soil properties of cultivation regions. Plant and soil samples were collected from 6 different cultivation regions. Soil organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN) and cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) were significantly higher in 13-year-old wild-simulated ginseng cultivation regions compared to 7-year-old wild-simulated ginseng cultivation regions. Growth characteristics of wild-simulated ginseng had shown significantly higher in 13-year-old wild-simulated ginseng compared to 7-year-old wild-simulated ginseng. Ginsenoside G-Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1 were significantly higher in 13-year-old wild-simulated ginseng than 7-year-old wild-simulated ginseng. According to the results of correlation analysis, soil OM, TN and CEC of the cultivated regions were positively correlated with the growth of wild-simulated ginseng. In addition, the root length of wild-simulated ginseng showed positive correlation with ginsenoside content. Hence, this study was able to investigate the correlation between growth and ginsenoside content of wild-simulated ginseng based on soil characteristics of the cultivation regions.

인삼과 산양삼, 산삼의 HPLC를 이용한 부위별 성분 분석 비교

  • Han, Young-Ju;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Cha, Bae-Chun;Kwon, Oh-Man
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.37-53
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-$Rg_3$, ginsenoside-$Rh_2$, and ginsenosides $Rb_1$ and $Rg_1$ from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside $Rg_1$ than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides $Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$ than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside $Rb_1$. Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides $Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$ than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside $Rh_2$ was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

Characterization of Polyacetylene Contents in Wild Mountain Ginseng and Cultured Ginseng (산삼 및 재배인삼의 폴리아세틸렌 함량 특성)

  • 장문식;유병삼;변상요
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.440-442
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    • 2003
  • Panaxynol and panaxydol are major polyacetylene compounds in Ginseng and Wild Mountain Ginseng. Their contents in Korean wild mountain ginseng, Chinese mountain ginseng, and cultured ginseng were analysed by GC with FID. The content ratio of panaxynol to panaxydol was clearly different in various ginsengs. They were 1.81, 0.87, and 0.42 for Korean wild mountain ginseng, Chinese wild mountain ginseng, and cultured ginseng, respectively. The ratio difference could be used as a marker to identify various ginseng from different sources.

Proteomic analysis of amino acid metabolism differences between wild and cultivated Panax ginseng

  • Sun, Hang;Liu, Fangbing;Sun, Liwei;Liu, Jianzeng;Wang, Manying;Chen, Xuenan;Xu, Xiaohao;Ma, Rui;Feng, Kai;Jiang, Rui
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2016
  • Background: The present study aimed to compare the relative abundance of proteins and amino acid metabolites to explore the mechanisms underlying the difference between wild and cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) at the amino acid level. Methods: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation were used to identify the differential abundance of proteins between wild and cultivated ginseng. Total amino acids in wild and cultivated ginseng were compared using an automated amino acid analyzer. The activities of amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and the contents of intermediate metabolites between wild and cultivated ginseng were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spectrophotometric methods. Results: Our results showed that the contents of 14 types of amino acids were higher in wild ginseng compared with cultivated ginseng. The amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and their derivatives, such as glutamate decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine, all had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. The accumulation of sulfur amino acid synthesis-related proteins, such as methionine synthase, was also higher in wild ginseng. In addition, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related enzymes as well as their intermediates had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. Conclusion: This study elucidates the differences in amino acids between wild and cultivated ginseng. These results will provide a reference for further studies on the medicinal functions of wild ginseng.

Characterization of In vitro Propagated Plants Via Somatic Embryo Formation from Old Wild Panax ginseng

  • Bae, Kee Hwa;Choi, Yong Eui
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.405-411
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    • 2014
  • Wild Korean ginseng has been recognized as highly precious medicine since ancient times. Nowadays, the population of wild ginseng in the forest of Korean peninsula is very rare due to indiscreet harvest. In this work, we investigated the plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from embryogenic callus of old wild ginseng (more than 50 years-old) and compared the features of plants regenerated from 5-years old and 50 years-old ginseng. Induction of embryogenic callus from adventitious roots of 50 year-old wild ginseng required 83 weeks of culture, but only 10 weeks were sufficient for 5 year-old ginseng. Height and width of plants derived from the old wild ginseng was smaller and slender compared to the plantlets derived from 5 year-old ginseng. Total chlorophyll contents was 2-6 time lower in plantlets regenerated from 50 year-old wild ginseng than those from 5 year-old ginseng, but anthocyanin content was higher in 50 year-old ginseng. Our results revealed that plants regenerated from old wild ginseng have different morphological and physiological characters probably due to age-dependent phenomenon.

Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Kang, Won-Mo;Jeon, Eun-Mi;Jang, Jun-Hyeog
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.20-23
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    • 2012
  • Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs). One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a ${\beta}$subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.