• Title/Summary/Keyword: Wild Ginseng

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A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts (자연산 산삼, 산양삼 및 인삼의 항산화능 비교연구)

  • Jang, Hae-Young;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Rhim, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein(DCF) fluorescence. Results: 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and $20{\mu}g$ extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05). 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of $FeSO_4$/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

  • Li, Guisheng;Cui, Yan;Wang, Hongtao;Kwon, Woo-Saeng;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.326-329
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    • 2017
  • Background: Cultivated ginseng is often introduced as a substitute and adulterant of Russian wild ginseng due to its lower cost or misidentification caused by similarity in appearance with wild ginseng. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to differentiate Russian wild ginseng from cultivated ginseng. Methods: The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7 (nad7) intron 3 regions of Russian wild ginseng and Chinese cultivated ginseng were analyzed. Based on the multiple sequence alignment result, a specific primer for Russian wild ginseng was designed by introducing additional mismatch and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for identification of wild ginseng. Real-time allele-specific PCR with endpoint analysis was used for validation of the developed Russian wild ginseng single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker. Results: An SNP site specific to Russian wild ginseng was exploited by multiple alignments of mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 regions of different ginseng samples. With the SNP-based specific primer, Russian wild ginseng was successfully discriminated from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng samples by allele-specific PCR. The reliability and specificity of the SNP marker was validated by checking 20 individuals of Russian wild ginseng samples with real-time allele-specific PCR assay. Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng (인삼.산양삼.자연산 산삼의 ginsenoside 함량 분석 및 홍삼화 후의 변화 관찰)

  • Jeong, H.S.;Lim, C.S.;Cha, B.C.;Choi, S.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-77
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of ginsenoside components in the process for making red ginseng. Methods: Comparative analysis of ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, $Rg_1,\;Rg_3,\;Rh_1$ and $Rh_2$ from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng were conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(hereafter HPLC). And the same analyses were conducted in the process of red ginseng. Results: 1. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_1$, Rc, Rd, Rf, $Rg_1$ and $Rh_1$, wild ginseng showed high content, followed cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 2. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_2$ and Re, cultivated ginseng 4 years showed high content, followed wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 3. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rg_3$, wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were only showed low content. 4. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rh_2$, cultivated wild ginseng was only showed low content. 5. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Re and $Rg_1$ were decreased in cultivated wild ginseng. 6. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside $Rb_2$, Rc, and Re were decreased in cultivated ginseng 4 years. 7. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rf and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Rc and Rd were decreased in cultivated ginseng 6 years. Conclusions: Distribution of ginsenoside contents to the cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng was similar and was not showed special characteristics between samples. And the change of ginsenoside to the process of red ginseng, cultivated ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were showed different aspect.

인삼과 산양삼, 산삼의 HPLC를 이용한 부위별 성분 분석 비교

  • Han, Young-Ju;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Cha, Bae-Chun;Kwon, Oh-Man
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.37-53
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-$Rg_3$, ginsenoside-$Rh_2$, and ginsenosides $Rb_1$ and $Rg_1$ from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside $Rg_1$ than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides $Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$ than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside $Rb_1$. Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides $Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$ than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside $Rh_2$ was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

The Experimental Study on Inhibitory Effects of Wild Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Solution on Melanin Biosynthesis

  • Jo, Na Young
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2018
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture on melanin production in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. Methods: To determine the effect of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution on B16/F10 cells, cytotoxicity was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To observe B16/F10 cell growth, death, and morphological changes, Trypan blue solution was used. The Hosoi method was used to investigate the effect of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution on melanin production. The Martinez-Esparza method was used to investigate the effect of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution on tyrosinase activity. To determine the pathway involved in the melanogenesis in cells exposed to wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution, a cell-free tyrosinase was used. Results: Following treatment with $200{\mu}L$ of wild ginseng solution, the cell survival rate was $76.32{\pm}2.45%$ which significantly decreased with higher concentrations (${\mu}L$) of wild ginseng (up to $200{\mu}L$). When $100{\mu}L$ of wild ginseng was used, the cell survival rate was $89.95{\pm}2.07%$. No morphological changes or abnormalities were observed in the B16/F10 murine melanoma cells as observed in the Trypan blue test. Melanin production was significantly reduced to $72.17{\pm}3.74%$ at $100{\mu}L$. Using $100{\mu}L$ of wild ginseng solution, tyrosinase activity was significantly decreased to $80.15{\pm}1.05%$. Wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution reduced melanin production both directly and indirectly. Conclusion: This study suggests that wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution may be effective in inhibiting melanin production. Further studies are needed to determine safe and effective clinical applications.

산삼과 산양삼 추출물의 항암 및 항산화 효능

  • Ahn, Young-Min;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

Anti-metastatic mechanism of mountain cultivated wild ginseng in human cancer cell line

  • Jang, S.B.;Lim, C.S.;Jang, J.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2010
  • Objective : Ginseng is one of most widely used herbal medicine. Ginseng showed anti-metastasis activities. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are unknown. So we want to report the wild ginseng repress which plays key roles in neoplastic epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Methods : Treatment of the human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells and human gastric carcinoma SNU601 cells with the increased concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng extracts resulted in a gradual decrease in the AXIN2 gene expression. Results : Metastasis-suppressor genes, maspin and nm23 was not affected by the treatment of ginseng extracts in LOVO cells. Moreover, the mountain cultivated wild ginseng or mountain wild ginseng are similar in their inhibitory effects on the expression of AXIN2 gene, but are substantially stronger than cultivated ginseng. Conclusion : We described the novel mechanism of wild ginseng-induced anti-metastasis activity by repressing the expression of AXIN2 gene that plays key roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

The Effects of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) (산삼 약침이 정상인의 심박변이도(HRV)에 미치는 영향)

  • Roh, Jeong-Du;Kim, Lak-Hyung;Song, Beom-Yong;Yook, Tae-Han
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.55-69
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    • 2008
  • Objective : We investigated the effects of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on autonomic nervous system with the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in adult man. as well as we tried to observe how distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Method : We investigated the effects of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on autonomic nervous system with the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in adult man. as well as we tried to observe how distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. 1 healthy volunteers consisted of 31 subjects in experiment(distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture) group and 30 subjects in control(Normal Saline) group. Study form was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. 31 subjects in experiment group were injected distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at $GB_{21}$(Kyonjong) and 30 subjects in control group were injected Normal Saline at $GB_{21}$(Kyonjong). except of 2 subjects(in control group) who can't be measured and 11 subjects(7 in experiment group and 4 in control group) who move or make unforceable error during measuring. Finally 24 subject in experiment group and 24 subject in control group are studied. We measured HRV by PolyG-I on 7 times : before and after injection per 5 minutes during 30 minutes. The SPSS 10.0 for windows was used to analyze the data and the paired t-test(in group) and Student t-test(between two groups) were used to verify the result. Result : 1. After distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture injection, Mean HRV is significantly low only for first 5 minute, SDNN is significantly high after 5 minute, Complexity is significantly low after 5 minute, HRV index is significantly high after 10 minute and pNN50 is significantly low after 5 minute. 2. SDNN of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 20minute to 25minute, and pNN50 of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly decreased from 10minute to 15minute and 20 minute to 30 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. 3. After distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture injection, Ln(TP), Ln(VLF) and Ln(LF) are significantly high after 5 minute, normalized LF is significantly high after 5 minute and normalized HF is significantly low after 5 minute. 4. Ln(TP) and Ln(VLF) of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 20minute to 25 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. Conclusion : The results suggest that distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture in healthy adult man tend to activate the autonomic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system compared to Normal Saline within normal range.

A Clinical Study on the Effects of Intravenous Wild ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on the Human Body (정맥 주입용 산삼약침이 인체에 미치는 영향에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2004
  • Background : This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture developed for the intravenous use. Healthy male and female volunteers(n=57) went through Randomized Control Trials(RCT). Methods : For those who are under a medication due to common cold or other illnesses were excluded in the primary stage and the subjects with possible abnormalities in the pre-screening process were also excluded in the secondary stage. Then the examination groups were determined by random sampling. Experiment groups were divided into Normal saline injection group(control group), cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture group(experiment group 1) and natural wild ginseng herbal acupuncture group(experiment group 2) Blood tension, body temperature, pulse, and other criteria were measured and analyzed. Results : 1. Intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and natural wild ginseng herbal acupuncture didn't cause significant changes in the blood tension, pulse, body temperature, and etc. 2. No significant differences were witnessed in CBC, ESR, biochemistry of blood test and UA between the experiment groups. 3. No significant changes were noted in the thermography before and after the test in the experiment groups. 4. Some of the common physical changes occurring during and after the administration were fatigue, chest distension, and headache in all of the experiment groups. 5. Comparing general condition after one week from the termination of administration, the control group showed worst condition while as the natural wild ginseng herbal acupuncture group displayed best condition. Conclusion : From the above results, we can carefully deduce that the intravenous injection of the wild ginseng herbal acupuncture didn't show significant differences compared to injection of the normal saline. We can infer it is safe on the human body and further studies and reports must be followed.

Optimization of Extraction Condition of Methyl Jasmonate-treated Wild Ginseng Adventitious Root Cultures using Response Surface Methodology

  • Liu, Qing;Jo, Yang Hee;Ahn, Jong Hoon;Kim, Seon Beom;Paek, Kee-Yoeup;Hwang, Bang Yeon;Park, So-Young;Lee, Mi Kyeong
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2018
  • The usage of wild ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been limited due to short supply and high price. Therefore, sufficient production as well as efficient extraction of mountain ginseng are required for the development as products. In this study, wild ginseng adventitious root cultures were prepared for efficient production with advantages of fast growth and stable production. Treatment of methyl jasmonate (MJ) to wild ginseng adventitious root cultures increased the extraction yield and antioxidative activity. Further investigation on effect of extraction conditions suggested the importance of ethanol concentration on antioxidative activity and extraction yield of MJ-treated wild ginseng adventitious root cultures. Optimized extraction condition of MJ-treated wild ginseng adventitious root cultures for maximum extraction yield and antioxidative activity was determined using response surface methodology with three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD). Extraction of 1 g MJ-treated wild ginseng adventitious root culture with 30 ml of 9% ethanol at $30^{\circ}C$ produced 310.2 mg extract with 71.0% antioxidative activity at $100{\mu}g/ml$. Taken together, MJ-treated wild ginseng adventitious root culture is valuable source for wild ginseng usage and optimized extraction condition can be used for the development of functional products or folk remedies.