• Title, Summary, Keyword: Whole Crop Wheat

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Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

  • Choi, In-Duck;Kang, Chun-Sik;Cheong, Young-Keun;Hyun, Jong-Nae;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2012
  • Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

Effects of restricted feeding with fermented whole-crop barley and wheat on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristic, and fecal microbiota in finishing pigs

  • Lee, Chang Hee;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Ahn, Jung Hyun;Jung, Hyun Jung;Yun, Won;Lee, Ji Hwan;Kwak, Woo Gi;Oh, Han Jin;Liu, Shu Dong;An, Ji Seon;Song, Tae Hwa;Park, Tae Il;Kim, Doo Wan;Yu, Dong Jo;Song, Min Ho;Cho, Jin Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.665-675
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    • 2018
  • A total of 80 pigs [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] with an average body weight of $72.9{\pm}2.6kg$ were used in the present study to investigate the effects of fermented whole crop wheat and barley with or without supplementing inoculums throughout the restricted feeding in finishing pigs. There were 4 replicate pens per treatment. Pigs were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment as the control (CON), and the other four groups were restricted to 10% in the CON diet and fed ad libitum fermented whole crop cereals: fermented whole crop barley with inoculums; fermented whole crop barley without inoculums; fermented whole crop wheat with inoculums; and fermented whole crop wheat without inoculums. During the entire experiment, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in the fermented barley and fermented wheat groups compared to the CON, while no difference was observed in the average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (gain : feed ratio, G : F) between the control and fermented whole crop barley, wheat diet group. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility did not show a significant difference among the treatments. In the blood constituents, concentrations of blood urea nitrogen were significantly lower in pigs fed fermented whole crop barley without inoculum diets compared with the other treatments. In conclusion, restricted feeding with fermented whole crop barley and wheat regardless of the supplementing inoculums showed no significant difference in growth performance compared to the CON. This suggests that there is a possibility that fermented whole crop barley and wheat could replace part of the conventional diets.

Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on the Yields, Nutritive Value and Silage Fermentation Quality of Whole-crop Wheat

  • Li, C.J.;Xu, Z.H.;Dong, Z.X.;Shi, S.L.;Zhang, J.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1129-1135
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    • 2016
  • Whole-crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as forage has been extensively used in the world. In this study, the effects of N application rates on the yields, nutritive value and silage quality were investigated. The N application rates were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg/ha. The research results indicated that the dry matter yield of whole-crop wheat increased significantly with increasing N rate up to 150 kg/ha, and then leveled off. The crude protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility of whole-crop wheat increased significantly with increasing N up to 225 kg/ha, while they no longer increased at N 300 kg/ha. On the contrary, the content of various fibers tended to decrease with the increase of N application. The content of lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid in silages increased with the increase of N rate (p<0.05). The ammonia-N content of silages with higher N application rates (${\geq}225kg/ha$) was significantly higher than that with lower N application rates (${\leq}150kg/ha$). Whole-crop wheat applied with high levels of N accumulated more nitrate-N. In conclusion, taking account of yields, nutritive value, silage quality and safety, the optimum N application to whole-crop wheat should be about 150 kg/ha at the present experiment conditions.

Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

  • Xie, Z.L.;Zhang, T.F.;Chen, X.Z.;Li, G.D.;Zhang, J.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1374-1380
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    • 2012
  • The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at $1.0{\times}10^5$ colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and $NH_3$-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages.

Classification of 31 Korean Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars Based on the Chemical Compositions

  • Choi, Induck;Kang, Chon-Sik;Lee, Choon-Kee;Kim, Sun-Lim
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.393-397
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    • 2016
  • Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively. Using HCL efficiently classified wheat cultivars into 7 clusters. Namhae, Sukang, Gobun, and Joeun contained higher protein values (12.88%) and dietary fiber (13.74 %). Regarding multi-trait crop breeding, the variation in chemical compositions found between the clusters might be attributed to wheat genotypes, which was an important factor in accumulating those chemicals in wheat grains. Thus, once wheat cultivars with agronomic characteristics were identified, those properties might be included in the breeding process to develop a new variety of wheat with the trait.

Effects of Mixed Sowing with Legumes and Applying Cattle Manure on Productivity, Feed Values and Stock Carrying Capacity of Whole Crop Wheat in Gyeongbuk Regions (경북지역에서 콩과작물의 혼파와 우분 시용이 총체밀의 생산성, 사료가치 및 단위면적당 가축 사육능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwangbo, Soon;Jo, Ik Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to estimate the Hanwoo carrying capacity when whole crop wheat, as a winter forage crop, was grown on mixed-sowing of legume forage and by applying cattle manure on the productivity and feed value of whole crop wheat during the period of 2012~2013. The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of three different culture methods such as whole crop wheat and mixed sowing combination with hairy vetch or forage pea. The subplots consisted of four different applications of cattle manure (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha). The annual amount of dry matter (DM) of whole crop wheat in Gyeongju were higher than those of in Gyeongsan and Yeongju, and the mixed-sowing of hairy vetch mixture was the highest (p<0.05) compared with the single-sowing of whole crop wheat and mixed-sowing of legume in Gyeongju. The DM amounts were increased proportionately corresponded to the applying level of cattle manure, and was found to be significantly (p<0.05) high at the level of 100 and 150 kg/ha groups. With the feed value of forage, the crude protein (CP) contents tended to be higher in the mixed-sowing of legume than the single-sowing of whole crop wheat at the wintering experimental sites of legume. For whole crop wheat, total digestible nutrients (TDN) content was the highest in the mixed sowing plots of forage pea in Gyeongsan; however, there was no significant differences among the single-sowing of whole crop wheat. The carrying capacity of Hanwoo (head/ha) was higher (p<0.05) in Gyeongju (3.83 head) than that in Gyeongsan (3.11) and Yeongju (1.35). Further, the carrying capacity in the single-sowing of whole crop wheat was lower than that in the mixed-sowing of legume, and the hairy vetch was the highest among the mixed-sowing groups (p<0.05). Overall, the present results recommend taking into account the wintering for the mix-sowing of legume in Gyeongbuk province. The cattle manure may be applied for legume in the wintering unavailable regions. In addition, applying cattle manure at the level of 100~150 kg/ha and the mix-sowing of legume may increase the productivity per unit area and feed value, including the CP, for improving the carrying capacity of Hanwoo.

Evaluation of Feed Value and Fermentation Quality of New Wheat Cultivar, 'Taejoong' (밀 신품종 '태중'의 사료가치 및 발효품질 평가)

  • Song, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Cheong, Young-Keun;Son, Jae-Han;Park, Jong-Chul;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Jong-Ho;Kim, Yang-Kil;Kim, Kyong-Ho;Park, Tae-Il;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Kang, Chon-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2017
  • This experiment was conducted to obtain information of feed value and fermentative quality of wheat cultivar, 'Taejoong' to confirm availability as a whole crop silage. As a result, the heading date of 'Teajoong' is April 27, and plant height is longer than whole crop barley, 'Youngyang' or whole crop wheat, 'Cheongwoo', spike length are also large, fresh and dry matter yield are also high. In case of feed value, 'Taejoong' had higher crude protein content than whole crop barley, 'Youngyang' or whole crop wheat, 'Cheongwoo', lower NDF and ADF contents, and significantly higher digestible nutrient contents(p<0.05). In case of fermentation qulity, pH of 'Taejoong' was 4.2, and lactic acid content was lower than 'Cheongwoo' silage and significantly higher than 'Youngyang' silage(p<0.05). Acetic acid content was significantly lower than 'Youngyang' and 'Cheongwoo' silage(p<0.01), butyric acid content was significantly lower than that of 'Youngyang' silage (p<0.05). The final Flieg's score showed that 'Taejoong' silage was the best. Also income of 'Taejoong' improved than 'Youngyang' or 'Cheongwoo'. Therefore, 'Taejoong' is considered sufficiently available as whole crop for forage.

Effect of sugar content on fermentation characteristics and in vitro digestibility of whole crop wheat silage

  • Song, Tae Hwa;Oh, Young Jin;Park, Jong Ho;Kang, Chon Sik;Cheong, Young Keun;Son, Jea Han;Park, Jong Chul;Kim, Yang Kil;Kim, Kyong Ho;Kim, Bo Kyeong;Park, Tae Il
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.282-282
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    • 2017
  • The many factors such as sugar content, moisture, type of bacteria which predominate, buffering capacity, packing and sealing are known to be associated with silage fermentation quality. Among the sugar content are particularly important, because effective silage ensiling relies on the fermentation of sugar content to lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria. Sugar content is also known to affect the protein utilization of rumen. This study was conducted to observe the effect of water soluble carbohydrates on fermentation characteristics and in vitro digestibility of whole crop wheat silage. This experiment was used standard cultivars (Cheongwoo, Hordeum balgare L) and solid breeding line of whole crop wheat. The materials harvested at the 30 after heading day and chopped for making silage, and using this silage carried out in vitro digestibility for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. For the feed value, crude protein, NDF, ADF contents showed slightly higher than the before ensiling and TDN contents were slightly lower compared to the before ensiling, but did not show the significantly different. For the sugar contents, fructose and glucose contents were decreased in the after ensiling compared to the before ensiling, there were more reduced at the containing high sugar content wheat. The pH value was lower at containing high sugar content wheat. lactic acid content was significantly higher at the containing high sugar content wheat. Therefore, there was profitable to the production of high quality wheat silage at the higher the sugar content. In in vitro digestibility test, containing high sugar content HW34line showed significantly higher dry matter digestibility at 6 and 12 hours of incubation and amount of NH3-N lower other line in all incubation time. Therefore, there was profitable to the production of high quality wheat silage at the higher the sugar content.

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Natural Lactic Acid Bacteria Population and Silage Fermentation of Whole-crop Wheat

  • Ni, Kuikui;Wang, Yanping;Cai, Yimin;Pang, Huili
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1123-1132
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    • 2015
  • Winter wheat is a suitable crop to be ensiled for animal feed and China has the largest planting area of this crop in the world. During the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play the most important role in the fermentation. We investigated the natural population of LAB in whole-crop wheat (WCW) and examined the quality of whole-crop wheat silage (WCWS) with and without LAB inoculants. Two Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum strains, Zhengzhou University 1 (ZZU 1) selected from corn and forage and grass 1 (FG 1) from a commercial inoculant, were used as additives. The silages inoculated with LAB strains (ZZU 1 and FG 1) were better preserved than the control, with lower pH values (3.5 and 3.6, respectively) (p<0.05) and higher contents of lactic acid (37.5 and 34.0 g/kg of fresh matter (FM), respectively) (p<0.05) than the control. Sixty LAB strains were isolated from fresh material and WCWS without any LAB inoculation. These LAB strains were divided into the following four genera and six species based on their phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics: Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum. However, the prevalent LAB, which was predominantly heterofermentative (66.7%), consisted of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, and Lactobacillus buchneri. This study revealed that most of isolated LAB strains from control WCWS were heterofermentative and could not grow well at low pH condition; the selective inoculants of Lactobacillus strains, especially ZZU 1, could improve WCWS quality significantly.