• Title, Summary, Keyword: Whole Crop Rice

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Influence of Ripening Stages on the Quality of Whole Crop Silage and Grain Silage of Fodder Rice

  • Maruyama, S.;Yokoyama, I.;Asai, H.;Sakaguchi, S.;Ohtani, T.;Yokota, H.;Kita, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.340-344
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    • 2005
  • In high-income Asian countries like Korea and Japan, per capita rice consumption has declined because of the change in consumer' favorite foods from rice to high-cost quality foods. This has forced farmers to reduce rice production. Although fodder rice could be another option to be cultured by farmers, available information concerning rice grain silage has been limited. In the present study, therefore, the difference in the quality of fodder rice silage prepared from either whole crop or grain at different ripening stages was compared. Various supplements were also added into whole crop and grain silages of fodder rice before ensiling, and thereafter, the palatability of prepared silages was determined by beef cattle. At ear emergence stage, the pH values for both grain and whole crop silages were approximately 4.5. In both grain and whole crop silages, the pH values were significantly increased by progressing ripening stages from milk-ripe stage to yellow-ripe stages, and the increase in pH value for grain silage was faster than that for whole crop silage. In the grain silage, the higher lactic acid (LA) content in grain silage seemed to be, the lower pH value was. Both in grain and whole crop silages, pH was significantly decreased by supplementation with LA bacteria. There were no significant differences in feed intake among any treatment groups.

Effect of Rice Straw Application on Yield of Whole Crop Barley and Change in Soil Properties under Upland Condition in Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land

  • Lee, Su-Hwan;Shin, Pyeong;Bae, Hui-Su;Lee, Jang-Hee;Oh, Yang-Yeol;Lee, Sang-Hun;Rho, Tae-Hwan;Song, Beom-Heon;Cho, Jae-Yeong;Lee, Kyoung-Bo;Lee, Keon-Hui;Park, Ki-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.586-593
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    • 2014
  • Newly reclaimed tidal land is known to be in low status of soil fertility. The incorporation of crop residue is an effective method to improve soil properties and fertility in reclaimed saline soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of rice straw (RS) application to improve physico-chemical properties of saline-sodic soil and its contribution to productivity of whole crop barley. Increasing rate of rice straw improved growth parameter related to yield of whole crop barley, which increased tiller number significantly (p<0.05).The yield increased by 15% (F.W) and 9% (D.W) in rice straw-amended plots. The content of soil organic matter (SOM) in the surface soil (0-20cm) with rice straw incorporation increased by 5~9% (RS 2.5~RS 7.5) compared to RS 0, in which the content of SOM decreased after two consecutive cultivations. Rice straw incorporation promoted soil physico-chemical properties and nutrient-availability of the test crop, as indicated in change in soil bulk density, porosity and increased nutrient uptake of plant. Especially, the P content and uptake of whole crop barley increased with increasing the rate of rice straw application. In conclusion, the rice straw application at rates of $5.0-7.5ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ in reclaimed saline soils effectively improved soil properties and crop productivity, which has potentials to reduce the loss of chemical fertilizers and facilitate the favorable condition for crop growth under adverse soil condition.

Characterization of Biomass Production and Seedling Establishment of Direct-Seeded Nogyangbyeo, a Whole Crop Rice Variety for Animal Feed

  • Yang, Woon-Ho;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Kwak, Kang-Su;Park, Tae-Shik;Oh, Min-Hyuk;Shin, Jin-Chul;Kim, Jong-Geun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2007
  • Experiments were conducted with aims to (1) estimate the biomass yield potential, (2) characterize the biomass and digestible dry matter production, and (3) reveal the characteristic seedling establishment of a whole crop rice variety, Nogyangbyeo, in dry- and wet-seeded rice. Maximum aboveground total biomass of Nogyangbyeo was 18 t $ha^{-1}$ in dry-seeded rice and 20 t $ha^{-1}$ in wet-seeded rice. Biomass yield potential of Nogyangbyeo was lower than that of Dasanbyeo. Comparatively, Nogyangbyeo was straw-dependent and Dasanbyeo was grain-dependent for biomass accumulation. Percentage of digestible dry matter (DDM) was higher in panicles than straw. Digestible dry matter yield was determined mainly by biomass yield rather than DDM percentage. Number of seedling establishment in Nogyangbyeo was $73m^{-2}$ in dry-seeded rice and $109m^{-2}$ in wet-seeded rice. Poor seedling establishment of dry-seeded Nogyangbyeo in the field condition was the result of low seed germination under low temperature and poor seedling emergence by deep sowing. Low seedling emergence rate of Nogyangbyeo was attributed mainly to slow elongation growth by slow leaf development and partly to mesocotyl and 1st internode lengths, not to genetically defined leaf length. The slow elongation growth of Nogyangbyeo was the same even in the high daily mean temperature of $24^{\circ}C$. Results suggest DDM yield in rice can be improved simply by increasing biomass and whole crop rice varieties should be adaptable to direct-seeding.

Plant Height, Dry Matter Yield and Forge Quality at Different Maturity of Whole Crop Rice (수확시기가 사료용 벼의 초장, 건물수량 및 사료성분에 미치는 영향)

  • 성경일;홍석만;김병완
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2004
  • Recently, there has been a growing tendency to use whole crop rice for feeds as there is an increased rice supply and a decrease in the demand for rice in Korea. Little information, however, is available about the management and utilization of whole crop rice for feeds. This study was conducted to decide the optimum harvest date through examining the plant height, dry matter(DM) yield and feed composition of whole crop rice harvested at different maturity. Field study was established early in May until October 7th on a rice field at Yupori, Sinbuk-yeup, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do. "Ilpum" mutant rice was sown at 52 kg/ha, and N, P and K were applied at 209, 113 and 81 kg/ha, respectively. The rice was harvested at six different mature stages for analysis; booting stage; 17 Aug., milk-ripe stage; 27 Aug., dough stage; 7 Sep., yellow ripe stage; 17 Sep., dead ripe stage; 27 Sep. and full ripe stage; 7 Oct. Plant height was 77 cm in booting stage (P<0.05) which was lower when compared to the other stages among which the heights did not differ with average range of 93∼97 cm. The highest dry matter yield was observed in yellow ripe stage (22.8 T/ha), which was followed by dead ripe stage (19.3 T/ha), full ripe stage (19.3 T/ha), and dough stage (15.1 T/ha). Crude protein (CP) and Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations consistently decreased with maturity. The highest concentrations of CP and NDF were obtained in booting stage with 9 and 73.6%, respectively (P<0.05), and lowest in full ripe stage with 5.8 and 64.6%, respectively (P<0.05). The concentration of total digestible nutrient (TDN) was highest in booting stage (59.7%); however no significant difference was found among other stages. The concentrations of Ca and P were not different among mature stages. According to these results, the yellow ripe period is appropriate to harvest the whole crop rice for forage considering dry matter yields, feed compositions and TDN concentrations.

Effect of Growth Stage and Variety on the Quality of Whole Crop Rice Silage (수확시기 및 품종이 총체 벼 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Geun;Chung, Eui-Soo;Seo, Sung;Kim, Meing-Jung;Lee, Joung-Kyeong;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Lim, Young-Chul;Cho, Yong-Min
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted to study the effects of growth stage and variety on the quality of whole crop rice(WCR) silage at National Institute of Animal Science, RDA from 2004 to 2005. Two types of rice("Chucheong" for food and "Hamasari" for whole crop) were harvested at six different growth stages (heading, flowering, milk, dough, yellow ripen and fully ripen stage) and ensiled each harvest stages. Crude protein(CP) content of all whole crop rice silage was also decreased with progressed maturity at harvest and TDN(total digestible nutrient) content of WCR was increased. The average CP content of whole crop rice was higher than that of food rice. The contents of ADF(acid detergent fiber) and NDF(neutral detergent fiber) decreased with delayed harvest maturity. The content of TDN estimated from ADF content was increased with progressed maturity, but there was not found significant difference between rice varieties(p<0.05). The average pH value was 4.69 and it was increased with delayed harvest maturity. Acetic and butyric acid content were decreased, but lactic acid content was increased with progressed maturity. The experiments presented here show that all rice varieties may give a good quality silage. But some wrong practical method(grain loss, productivity, nutrient value, etc.) will make poor quality of rice silage. Therefore, dough stage of harvest maturity will be recommendable as proper harvest time for making high quality of whole crop rice silage in Korea.

Desalinization of Flooding Periods and Growth of Whole Crop Barley as Early Exposure Area in 'Saemangeum' Newly Reclaimed Land (새만금간척지 조기노출지역의 담수기간별 제염과 청보리 생육)

  • Choi, Weon-Young;Song, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Sun;Lee, Jang-Hee;Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Kim, Si-Ju;Lee, Kyeong-Bo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate upland crop at reclaimed sand land 'Saemangeum' for early desalination purpose and to investigate the growth and yield of whole crop barley, which was acceded after summer crop of corn and rice. Seedling establishment of whole crop barley were 216 seedlings/$m^2$(25%) for non-flooding, 43% for 1 month and 58% for 2, 3 month flooding. And it was 60% in rice cultivation. Soil salt concentration was 0.5% in non-flooding treatment, however flooding treatments decreased to 0.2% or less. In general soil salt concentration increased until the middle stage of growing, then became to similar level as the seeding time. Plant height, stem length and number of tiller were increased with flooding treatment. Whole crop barley yield was significantly reduced in non-flooding treatment but rapidly increased by flooding treatment. Yielding at 3 months increased by 504% compared to non-flooding, and rice cultivation was also increased by 536%. Protein and fiber content was low in 1 month flooding treatment, 3 months flooding and rice cultivation showed the similar results in terms of feed value. For desalination purpose in reclaimed land, 3 months flooding treatments of rice cultivation could result in higher yielding for upland crop, such as whole crop barley.

Application of a Simulation Model for Dairy Cattle Production Systems Integrated with Forage Crop Production: the Effects of Whole Crop Rice Silage Utilization on Nutrient Balances and Profitability

  • Kikuhara, K.;Hirooka, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.216-224
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    • 2009
  • In Japan, since rice consumption has been decreasing with the westernization of Japanese eating habits, surplus paddy fields have been increasing. If these surplus paddy fields can be utilized for forage rice production as feed for animal production and excretions (feces and urine) from animal production can be applied to the paddy fields as manure, then the problems of surplus paddy fields and excretions from animal production may be solved, and the environment kept sustainable. The objectives of the present study were to apply a bio-economic model to dairy and forage rice integration systems in Japan and to examine the merit of introducing whole crop rice silage (WCRS), as well as economic and environmental effects of various economic and management options in the systems. Five simulations were conducted using this model. The use of WCRS as a home-grown feed increased environmental loads and decreased economic benefit because of the higher amount of purchased feed, when compared to the use of typical crops such as maize, alfalfa and timothy silage (simulation 1). Higher economic benefits from higher forage rice yields and higher milk production of a dairy cow were obtained (simulations 2, 3). There were no economic and environmental incentives for utilizing crude protein (CP) rich WCRS, because an increase in the CP content in WCRS led to the use of more chemical fertilizers, resulting in high production costs and nitrogen outputs (simulation 4). When evaluated under the situation of a fixed herd size, increasing forage rice yields decreased the total benefit of the production, in spite of the fact that the amount of subsidies per unit of land increased (simulation 5). It was indicated that excess subsidy support may not promote yield of forage rice. It was, however, observed in most cases that dairy and forage rice integration systems could not be economically established without subsidies.

Evaluation of Feed Values for Whole Crop Rice Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외선분광법을 이용한 사료용 벼의 사료가치 평가)

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Lee, Ki-Won;Oh, Mirae;Park, Hyung Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.292-297
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    • 2019
  • In this study, whole crop rice samples were used to develop near-infrared reflectance (NIR) equations to estimate six forage quality parameters: Moisture, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), Ash and relative feed value (RFV). A population of 564 whole crop rice representing a wide range in chemical parameters was used in this study. Undried finely chopped whole crop rice samples were scanned at 1 nm intervals over the wavelength range 680-2500 nm and the optical data recorded as log 1/Reflectance (log 1/R). NIRS calibrations were developed by means of partial least-squares (PLS) regression. The correlation coefficients of cross-validation (R2cv) and standard error of cross-validation (SECV) for whole crop rice calibration were 0.98 (SECV 1.81%) for moisture, 0.89 (SECV 0.50%) for CP, 0.86 (SECV 1.79%) for NDF, 0.89 (SECV 0.86%) for ash, and 0.84 (SECV 5.21%) for RFV on a dry matter (%), respectively. The NIRS calibration equations developed in this study will be useful in predicting whole crop rice quality for these six quality parameters.

Effect of Harvest Time and Cultivars on Forage Yield and Quality of Whole Crop Barley (청보리 품종의 적정 수확시기 및 사료가치 평가)

  • Yun, Seong-Kun;Park, Tae-Il;Seo, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Song, Tai-Hua;Park, Ki-Hun;Han, Ouk-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2009
  • A field study was conducted from 2007 to 2008 at Department Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA, to evaluate the effects of harvest time and cultivar on forage yield and quality. Four whole crop barley cultivars ('Youngyang', 'Wooho', 'Yuyeon' and 'Dami') were selected and harvested on five separate growth stages (heading, and intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after heading) in split plot design with three replications. Results from this experiment indicated significant differences due to harvest time and cultivar in dry matter yield and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield for forage. The interaction between harvest time and cultivar was not significant. The TDN yield trends were increasing with later harvest time due to higher dry matter yield and TDN content. This experiment provides some interesting results with respects to optimum harvest time, feed value and ultimately yield for the different whole crop barley cultivars.

Study on Nutritive Value and In Situ Ruminal Degradability of Whole Crop Rice Silage Prepared Using Chucheongbyeo (추청벼 총체 사일리지의 사료가치 및 부위별 In situ 분해율에 관한 연구)

  • Ki, Kwang Seok;Park, Su Bum;Lim, Dong Hyun;Park, Seong Min;Kim, Sang Bum;Kwon, Eung Gi;Lee, Se Young;Choi, Ki Chon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.240-244
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    • 2013
  • We investigated the nutritive value and ruminal in situ dry matter degradability of whole crop rice silage prepared using Chucheongbyeo (WCRS) as a roughage source for ruminants. The crude protein (7.54%), acid detergent fiber (29.63%), neutral detergent fiber (62.98%), and total digestible nutrient (TDN) (57.88%) found higher in WCRS than those of rice straw. Manganese content in the WCRS was the highest, followed by carbon, iron, zinc, and copper, but magnesium content was the lowest. Glutamic acid content in WCRS was the highest, followed by leucine, asparagine, alanine, valine, arginine, and methionine content was the lowest. We examined ruminal in situ digestibility from total whole crop rice (TWCR), rice husks containing rice (RHR), whole crop rice except RHR (WER), and husked grain (HG) for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Ruminal in situ digestibility in the HG was the highest, followed by RHR, TWCR, and WER. Therefore, we suggest that ruminal in situ degradability was influenced by parts of whole crop rice, and the content of manganese and glutamic acid were the highest in WCRS.