• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wheat Screening

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Effect of Chemical Composition and Dietary Enzyme Supplementation on Metabolisable Energy of Wheat Screenings

  • Mazhari, M.;Golian, A.;Kermanshahi, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.386-393
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    • 2011
  • Three trials were conducted to determine the available energy of different wheat screening varieties collected from different locations of Khorasan in Iran. In experiment 1, chemical composition and the nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy (TMEn) were evaluated. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, in which, each wheat screening sample was tube fed to adult roosters, and the excreta were collected for 48-h. In Exp. 2 and 3, five and two wheat screening verities-based diets with or without xylanase and phytase were fed to 16-day old battery reared chicks respectively, and total feed consumption and excreta were measured during next three days. The variable nature of wheat screening varieties led to significant differences in mean TMEn values (p<0.01). The TMEn values of samples determined with adult roosters varied by ${\pm}5.03%$ of the mean value ($3,097.65{\pm}49.32\;kcal/kg$) and ranged from 2,734.90 to 3,245.12 kcal/kg. There was a significant correlation (p<0.05) between crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) with TMEn, and the greatest correlation coefficient was observed between NDF and TMEn (r = -0.947; p<0.001). The optimal equation in terms of $R^2$ from using a single chemical analysis was obtained with NDF: TMEn = 4,152.09-27.80 NDF ($R^2$ = 0.90, p<0.0001), and the TME prediction equation was improved by the addition of the crude protein (CP) and ASH content to sequential analysis: TMEn = 3,656.97-28.65 NDF+32.54 CP+38.70 ASH ($R^2$ = 0.98, p<0.0001). The average AMEn values of 5 and 2 wheat screening varieties determined with young broiler chickens were $2,968.41{\pm}25.70\;kcal/kg$ and $2,976.38{\pm}8.34\;kcal/kg$ in Exp. 2 and Exp. 3, respectively. Addition of xylanase and phytase to wheat screenings resulted in significant (p<0.01) improvement in AMEn by 4.21 and 2.92%, respectively.

Effect of Prochloraz on Electrolytic Leakage and Spore Germination of Puccinia recondita Causing Wheat Leaf Rust

  • Kim, Heung-Tae;Jang, Kyung-Soo;Park, Gyung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Woo;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2003
  • The effects of prochloraz on membrane permeability and germination of uredospores of Puccinia recondita were investigated to determine its potential mode of action on wheat leaf rust control activity. Disease control activity of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) and their activities on uredospore membrane permeability and germination were examined with wheat leaf rust pathogen, both in vitro and in vivo. While wheat leaf rust was not controlled by prochloraz, electrolytic leakage and spore germination of P. recondita uredospore was the highest with the use of prochloraz among the eight fungicides tested. Prochloraz stimulated uredospore of P. recondita to germinate at a higher ratio. Although certain EBIs, such as hexaconazole, showed excellent control activity, their effects on uredospore membrane permeability and germination was much inferior to prochloraz. Therefore, results of this study suggest that effects of EBIs on membrane permeability and germination of uredospore are not always correlated with their disease control activity.

Analysis of Kernel Hardness of Korean Wheat Cultivars

  • Hong, Byung-Hee;Park, Chul-Soo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 1999
  • To investigate kernel hardness, a compression test which is widely used to measure the hardness of individual kernels as a physical testing method was made simultaneously with the measurement of friabilin (15KDa) which is strongly associated with kernel hardness and was recently developed as a biochemical marker for evaluating kernel hardness in 79 Korean wheat varieties and experimental lines. With the scattered diagram based on the principal component analysis from the parameters of the compression test, 79 Korean wheat varieties were classified into three groups based on the principal component analysis. Since conventional methods required large amount of flour samples for analysis of friabilin due to the relatively small amount of friabilin in wheat kernels, those methods had limitations for quality prediction in wheat breeding programs. An extraction of friabilin from the starch of a single kernel through cesium chloride gradient centrifugation was successful in this experiment. Among 79 Korean wheat varieties and experimental lines 50 lines (63.3%) exhibited a friabilin band and 29 lines (36.7%) did not show a friabilin band. In this study, lines that contained high maximum force and the lower ratio of minimum force to maximum force showed the absence of the friabilin band. Identification of friabilin, which is the product of a major gene, could be applied in the screening procedures of kernel hardness. The single kernel analysis system for friabilin was found to be an easy, simple and effective screening method for early generation materials in a wheat breeding program for quality improvement.

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Antifungal Activity of Streptomyces sp. Against Puccinia recondita Causing Wheat Leaf Rust

  • Yi, Yong-Sub;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Min-Woo;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Song, Jae-Kyeong;Lim, Yoong-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.422-425
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    • 2004
  • To discover a potent strain against wheat leaf rust, soil samples collected from Ilgamho, Seoul, Korea were tested in vivo and a strain belonging to Streptomyces sp. was found to show good antifungal activity when fermented in a broth. The identification of the strain was carried out based on 16S rDNA analysis, and the active compound was separated from the fermented broth. Even though its structure was not determined completely, the authors report the results obtained so far indicate that the fermented broth of the strain showed activity against wheat leaf rust. Therefore, we propose that this may be a potential novel strain showing antifangal activity against Puccinia recondita.

An Antifungal Property of Burkholderia ambifaria Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

  • Lee Chul-Hoon;Kim Min-Woo;Kim Hye-Sook;Ahn Joong-Hoon;Yi Yong-Sub;Kang Kyung-Rae;Yoon Young-Dae;Choi Gyung-Ja;Cho Kwang-Yun;Lim Yoong-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.465-468
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    • 2006
  • Even though many pesticides are known for barley powdery mildew and wheat leaf rust, alternative controls are necessary, because of consumer rejection of chemical pesticides and the appearance of fungi resistant to fungicides. To discover biopesticides, many broths of microorganisms were screened. Of those, a culture broth of Burkholderia ambifaria showed an excellent antifungal activity against both Erysiphe graminis and Puccinia recondita, which cause barley powdery mildew and wheat leaf rust, respectively.

Studies on antibiotics against Wheat black rust (I) (밀의 항흑수병 항생물질의 연구 1)

  • 정영기
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 1981
  • In order to isolate microorganisms which produce antibiotics aganist wheat black rust, some bacteria, molds, and actinomycetes were isolated from soils and screened for the production of antibiptics against wheat black rust. Beacuse wheat black rust-puccinia graminis--is a complete parsitic mold which can't grow in artifical medium, new method for the screening of antibiotic producing microorgsnisms against wheat black rust developed by using live leaves of wheat. With new method, a strain No. $480HS_{20}$ which produces a substnace having strong and Puccinia graminis activity and very narrow antimicrobial spectrum was isolated. the substance produced by the strain No.$480HS_{20}$ had better anti Puccinia graminis activity than any other known antifungal antibotics such as kasurgamycin, balasticidins, actidione, antimycin, ologomycin. And the substance was observed to be very stable at heat and ultraviolet light. The strain was indentified as Bacillus subtilis.

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Syntheses of Pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole Carboxanilides and Their Selective Antifungal Activities against Rice Blast and Wheat Leaf Rust (Pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole 카르복스아닐라이드 유도체의 합성 및 그들의 벼 도열병균과 밀 붉은녹병균에 대한 선택적인 항균활성)

  • Hahn, Hoh-Gyu;Nam, Kee-Dal;Yang, Bum-Seung;Choe, Gyeong-Ja;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Lee, Seon-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 2005
  • For development of new agrochemical fungicide, syntheses of pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole carboxanilide derivatives 9 and antifungal screening against 6 kinds of plant pathogens were carried out. Functionalization of carboxylic acid on C-2 into carboxanilide in the pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole resulted in new 20 candidates, in which are ${\alpha},{\beta}$-unsaturated carboxanilide and methyl groups that are in cis relationship. Treatment of acetoxy-1,4-thiazin with magnesium in refluxing methanol gave pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole ethyl ester 4 in higher yield than that of the previous report. Hydrolysis of this compound afforded the corresponding acid 5, which reacted with aniline derivatives in the presence of coupling reagent, DIC to give pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole carboxanilides 9. As the result of in vivo antifungal assay of 9 against rice blast, rice sheath blight, cucumber gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and barley powdery mildew, some compounds showed selectively antifungal activities against the rice blast and wheat leaf rust.

Antimicrobial Activities of 1,4-Benzoquinones and Wheat Germ Extract

  • Kim, Myung-Hee;Jo, Sung-Hoon;Ha, Kyoung-Soo;Song, Ji-Hye;Jang, Hae-Dong;Kwon, Young-In
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1204-1209
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    • 2010
  • We evaluated the antibacterial activities of selected edible Korean plant seeds against the food-borne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1927, Escherichia coli KCTC2593, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC2054, and Bacillus cereus KCTC1014. While screening for antibacterial agents, we discovered that wheat germ extract contains 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) and is highly inhibitory to S. aureus and B. cereus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of wheat germ extract. We also investigated the antibacterial activities of the 1,4-benzoquinone standards 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), hydroquinone (HQ), methoxybenzoquinone (MBQ), and 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ). DMBQ and BQ were the most highly inhibitory to S. aureus and S. typhimurium, followed by MBQ and HQ. MICs for DMBQ and BQ ranged between 8 and 64 ${\mu}g/ml$ against the four foodborne pathogens tested. DMBQ and BQ showed significant antibacterial activity; the most sensitive organism was S. aureus with an MIC of 8 ${\mu}g/ml$. BQ exhibited good activity against S. typhimurium (32 ${\mu}g/ml$) and B. cereus (32 ${\mu}g/ml$). The results suggest that wheat germ extract has potential for the development of natural antimicrobials and food preservatives for controlling foodborne pathogens.

Detection of Gamma-Irradiated Grains by Using DEFT/APC Method (곡류의 감마선 조사 검지를 위한 DEFT/APC 방법의 이용)

  • Oh, Kyeung-Nam;Lee, Sook-Young;Yang, Jae-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.380-384
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    • 2002
  • For the screening of gamma-irradiated grains, domestic rice, glutinous rice, barley, and wheat were irradiated with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 kGy and screened using the DEFT/APC (Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique/Aerobic Plate Count) method. The log DEFT/APT units increased with the dose increment in all samples, whereas the log APC unit decreased gradually. For rice, barley, and wheat, unirradiated and irradiated samples with below 0.3 kGy had 2.0 or lower logarithmic units, whereas those with 0.5 kGy or higher had 2.0 or higher logarithmic units. For glutinous rice, the sample irradiated with 0.5 kGy showed 1.92 logarithmic unit and those with 0.7 kGy or higher had 2.0 or higher logarithmic units. These results suggest that if the grains show 2.0 or higher logarithmic units, they could be assumed to have been irradiated at a dose level of at least 0.5 kGy. In conclusion, grains could be easily screened through the DEFT/APC method.

A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum

  • Shin, Sanghyun;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Kang, Chon-Sik;Cho, Kwang-Min;Park, Chul Soo;Okagaki, Ron;Park, Jong-Chul
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2014
  • Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed or seedling inoculation assay, and to compare these assays with whole plant resistance of twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars to FHB. The clip-dipping assay consists of cutting off the coleoptiles apex, dipping the coleoptiles apex in conidial suspension, covering in plastic bag for 3 days, and measuring the lengths of lesions 7 days after inoculation. There were significant cultivar differences after inoculation with F. graminearum in seedling relative to the controls. Correlation coefficients between the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation and FHB Type II resistance from adult plants were significant (r=0.45; P<0.05). Results from two other seedling inoculation methods, spraying and pin-point inoculation, were not correlated with adult FHB resistance. Single linear correlation was not significant between seed germination assays (soaking and soak-dry) and FHB resistance (Type I and Type II), respectively. These results showed that clip-dipping inoculation method using F. graminearum may offer a real possibility of simple, rapid, and reliable for the early screening of FHB resistance in wheat.