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The Nutritive Value of Thin Stillage and Wet Distillers' Grains for Ruminants - Review -

  • Mustafa, A.F.;McKinnon, J.J.;Christensen, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1609-1618
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    • 2000
  • Thin stillage and distillers' grains are byproducts remaining after alcohol distillation from a fermented cereal grain mash. Both byproducts are used as energy and protein sources for ruminants. Due to its liquid nature, more than 50% of thin stillage bypasses the rumen. Thin stillage can be fed alone or in combination with distillers' grains. However, a better utilization by beef cattle is anticipated when thin stillage replaces water as a fluid source. Ruminal undegraded protein content of distillers' grains is greatly affected by type of cereal grain and by drying. Corn distillers' grains have a higher ruminal undegraded protein content than wheat distillers' grains while dried distillers' grains have a higher ruminal undegraded protein content than the wet distillers' grains. Wet and dried distillers' grains can replace up to 50% of corn grain in beef cattle diets without affecting animal performance. The estimated NEg of corn distillers' grains for beef cattle ranges from 100 to 169% of that of corn. In general, wet corn distillers' grains have a higher NEg value than dried corn distillers' grains and the addition of thin stillage improves the NEg of distillers' grains. Improved performance of ruminats fed distillers' byproducts can be attributed to high digestible fiber content, improved rumen environment and a shift in organic matter digestion from the rumen to the small intestine.

Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

  • Kim, Ill Young;Ahn, Gyu Chul;Kwak, Hyung Jun;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Sang Suk;Kim, Jeong Hoon;Park, Keun Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.632-638
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    • 2015
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months ($495.1{\pm}91kg$) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up to 20% in TMR did not show any negative effect on the performance of Hanwoo steers.

Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers' Grains in Tibet

  • Yuan, Xianjun;Yu, Chengqun;Shimojo, M.;Shao, Tao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.479-485
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    • 2012
  • In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers' grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%.

Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

  • Ahn, Gyu Chul;Kwak, Hyung Jun;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Jang, Sun Sik;Lee, Sang Suk;Park, Keun Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.530-538
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    • 2016
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months ($641{\pm}123kg$) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not different among treatments except the albumin concentration. In carcass characteristics, WDG 15 (30%) showed higher frequency of A-carcass yield grade than WDG 28 (15%) and control (7%), and WDG 28 (61%) showed higher frequency of $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$-carcass quality grade than WDG 15 (40%) and control (60%). In conclusion, using WDG up to 28% in TMR did not show any negative effect on the performance and blood metabolites, and improved carcass quality of Hanwoo steers. Therefore, WDG can be a useful feed ingredient for Hanwoo steers in mid-fattening period to slaughter.

Review of Literature on Food Preservation of the Early Joseon Dynasty (조선전기 고문헌에 수록된 식품저장법에 대한 문헌고찰)

  • Kim, MyeongJun;Cha, GyungHee;Chung, HyeJung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.28-54
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to investigate the food preservation methods adopted by the Joseon Dynasty, which existed before the 17th century. A total of 232 food preservation methods were discovered in 25 books, and could be classified by their targeted food types: vegetables (84), sea foods (60), meats (41), fruits (37), and others (10). Depending on the preservation method applied, they are classified as food drying, soaking, mud cellar preservation, and other preservation. Food drying is further classified into 8 sub-types: drying, sun-drying, shadow-drying, wind-drying, dry heat, combined drying, smoking, and others. Soaking could be sub-divided into using salt, ash, dry sand, bran, fermented paste, wet distillers grains, oil, and others. Mud cellar preservation is sub-classified into installing shelf inside the mud cellar, making the mud cellar for food preservation, and making hole or underground tunnel for food preservation. Other food preservation methods include minimizing moisture loss by applying beeswax on a section of the vegetable stem, and cutting the vegetables or fruits with their branches and leaves for food preservation.

Effects of Bifidus Enhancer Yogurt on Relief from Loperamide-induced Constipation

  • Choi, Jin-Hee;Jeong, Seung-Hwan;Cho, Young-Hoon;Cho, Yun-Kyung;Choi, Hae-Yeon;Kim, Sun-Im
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the effects of bifidus enhancer yogurt (BEY) on loperamide-induced constipation in rats. The bifidus enhancer, made of rice-DDGS (Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles), improved proliferation of bifidobacteria (BB-12). Male SD rats were induced with constipation using loperamide and were then used to test the effectiveness of BEY in relieving constipation. The rats were divided into four groups: normal group (NOR), loperamide-treated group (LOP), bifidus enhancer yogurt and loperamide-treated group (L-BEY), and commercial yogurt and loperamide-treated group (L-CY). Treatment of loperamide reduced the wet weight and water content of fecal pellets, but increased the number of fecal pellets in the distal colon. Meanwhile, the fecal weight of the L-BEY group showed an increase of 43% and 23% versus the LOP and L-CY group, respectively. Also, the fecal water content in the L-BEY group was 14.5% and 6.8% higher than that in the LOP and L-CY group, respectively. In addition, the L-BEY group had the fewest fecal pellets in the distal colon. In the serum lipid parameters, the LOP group had a HDL/total cholesterol ratio that was 43% lower than the NOR group, but the L-BEY group had 27% lower than NOR group. These results suggest that bifidus enhancer yogurt has superior effects when it comes to relieving loperamide-induced constipation in rats.