• Title, Summary, Keyword: Western Architecture

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Vision and Responsiveness : The Problem of Experience in the Architectures of the East and the West (시각(視覺)과 감응(感應) : 동서양건축에서의 경험의 문제)

  • Kim, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.35-54
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    • 2004
  • Perception of architectural experience is different in different culture. This paper aims to identify how the experience of architecture is understood to be different in Eastern and Western culture. The discussion is based on the idea that the Western architecture placed more emphasis on visual perception, while the Eastern, on mutual responsiveness between man and built environment. The fact that the Western culture is more visually oriented than other culture, and therefore visual aspect of architecture, too, is considered to be very important, is already widely agreed among scholars. But, then, what had been considered to be important in the architectural experience in the East? It is the degree and quality of mutual responsiveness between man and architectural environment. This fact influenced much on the making of architecture of course, and the same fact played the key role in making the Eastern architecture different from that of the West. We are so used to the way of architecture of the West, that the quality of responsiveness is unknown if not forgotten. However, it is not the quality that was useful only in traditional society of the East, but necessary in our modem period as well. The quality for responsiveness, therefore, should be rediscovered and restored as the prime value and quality of architecture in the future architecture.

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Mapping the Concept of Modernism in Architecture -Functionalism, Formalism and Artistic Avantgardism- (근대건축의 개념에 대한 비판적 소고 -기능(술)주의, 형식주의, 예술주의와 전망-)

  • Lee, Sang-Hun
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 1999
  • Modernism in architecture is a very complex and contradictory phenomena. So much so that it has been defined in various ways throughout the history, depending on one's position in the cultural and historical circumstances. It is thus necessary to map out the various concepts of modernism and their relationships in order to have a more comprehensive understanding of modern architecture. This paper attempts to define the various positions as functionalism, formalism and artistic avant-gardism, and to trace their history from the early twentieth century to the present. The change of the concept of modernism from functionalism to artistic avant-gardism seems a logical process in the history of western modem culture. The tendency of contemporary architecture to be more abstract and self referential artistic practice reflects the fragmentation of modern culture and the separation of art and technology. The validity of this position, of course, depends on how one evaluates the role of modern art in the situation of modern culture. It could be viewed either negatively or positively. However, this position is problematic in that it disregards the fundamental differences between architecture and other arts and distanced architecture farther from its material base. Given this historical perspective on the concept of modernism, modernism in Korea should not viewed simply identical to the western modernism, nor should western modernism be imported uncritically. The characteristics of her modernization and their differences from the west should be considered, along with the different status and role of architecture in korean modern society.

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Research Trends concerning History of Landscape Architecture in the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture (한국조경학회지 게재논문 조경사 분야의 연구경향)

  • 신상섭
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.146-152
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this research is an analysis of research trends concerning history of landscape architecture found in the Journal of Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture (KILA). To do this, I reviewed the 905 articles from the journal from 1973 to 2003, from Which 104 journals were selected. In the articles, there were numerous studies on Oriental history and there was a lack of studies on Western history. Many of the oriental landscape history articles featured the landscape architecture history of the Korean Choseon Dynasty. There was much difference between the 1980s and 1990s. The topics of the 1980s were usually royal palaces, villages and temples, whereas those of 1990s expanded to include confucian memorial halls, walled towns and historical landscape areas. Also the topics of the 1990s included Japanese, Chinese ,md Western landscape architecture. Nevertheless, we had almost no focus on preservation and inheritance of historical cultural landscape sites. To solve this problem, we can find our motivation in the studies in history of landscape architecture.

A Study on the Acceptance of Western timber structure and the Interior space of Church buildings in the early modern period in Korea - Focused on the roof structure of church architecture in the Flowering and Japanese occupation period - (한국 근대초기 서양 목구조의 수용과 교회 내부공간형태에 관한 연구 - 개화기와 일제강점기 교회건축의 지붕틀 구조를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim Jung-Shin
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2005
  • This Study is concerned with the acceptance of Western timber structure and the interior space of church buildings in the early modern period in Korea. Timber roofs have represented a wide variety of constructional forms and have been fundamental to any technological appraisal of the evolution of both of Western and Eastern architecture. Especially the roof structure of the church buildings reflects the technological level, aesthetic sense, and spacial concepts of the age. Between Western timber structure and Korean timber structure, there are many differences in not only structural form but also form of roof, members, load, frame system and etc. And there were various types of framing technique such as timber truss, timber arch, timber vault in the western style church architecture in the early modern period in Korea. I have summarized the character of the acceptance process of Western timber structure and the influences on the interior space of church buildings.

A Study on the Formation and Character of Cheong Ju Presbyterian Missionary Architecture from 1900 to 1945 (미국(美國) 북장로회(北長老會) 청주선교부(淸州宣敎部) 건축(建築)의 형성(形成)과 특성(特性))

  • Dho, SunBoong;Han, KyuYoung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.25-40
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    • 2001
  • In this study, I investigate the formation process of the American presbyterian missionary architecture in Cheong Ju area from 1900 to 1945, which we may think 'the part of Korean modern architecture'. I have examined and analyzed the 18 buildings for the sake of the interpretation with the words of formation process and characteristics . And I can put my idea in order as follows. Firstly, the formation process is 1) buy and modify a Korean style (thatch or tile roofed) building for their need and use it as a gate quaters or house, church, hospital, school, book store, 2) build a Korean style (tile roofed) building and use it-house, hospital, school, 3) build a Western style (timber structured and zinc roofed) building and use it- church, 4) build a Western style (masonry structured and tile or zinc roofed) building and use ithouse, church, school and hospital. Secondly, the characteristics is 1) In the Korean style building, the missionaries change into the function to match with their purpose. they modify the Korean style timber structure by influx of building material-brick, glass, carpet etc. they occupy into the Korean existing residential area. 2) In the Western style building, the missionaries build the house correspond with their living pattern. they build the church with the eclectic of Western and Korean timber frame. and also build the house and hospital with the eclectic of Western and Korean masonry structure. their building located in the isolate hill separated from the existing Korean residential area.

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A Study on the Formation of Presbyterian Missionary Architecture in Andong Area (미국(美國) 북장로회(北長老會) 안동선교부(安東宣敎部) 건축형성과정(建築形成過程)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Dho, Sunboong;Han, Kyuyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.47-62
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze and explain the formation and character of presbyterian missionary architecture in Andong area from 1900 to 1945, which we may call "the modem architecture of Korea". I have surveyed and analyzed the 26 buildings. and so, the major findings of this study are as follows. Firstly, the phase of building is 1) buy the existing Korean traditional building and lot-a thatch roofed house. 2) modify the existing Korean traditional building-a thatch and tile roofed hose. 3) build the Korean style building-a thatch and tile roofed building. 4) build the Western style Building-a timber structured and zinc roofed building. 5) build the Western style Building- a masonry structured and zinc(or tile)roofed building. Secondly, the character of building is 1) In the Korean traditional building, the missionaries change the function for their purpose-office, church, school, hospital. they modify the existing Korean timber frame construction by introducing the material-brick, plaster, glass, Japanese style timber etc .. they live in the Korean existing residential area. 2) In the Western style building, the missionaries build the house according to their life style. they build the timber structured building-church, and the masonry (brick or stone)structured building such as a house, church, school and dormitory, and hospital. their building located on the hill depart from the existing Korean residential area.

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Proportion and Vitality -Aesthetic Viewpoints of the Architectures of the East and the West- (비례(比例)와 기운(氣韻) - 동서양 건축에서의 심미성 -)

  • Kim, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.103-142
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    • 2005
  • All architectures in the history have certain attitudes of aesthetic expression of their own. Depending on the culture, such aesthetic attitudes are not the same but different. This paper aims to identify the nature of the difference of aesthetic attitude in the architectures of the East and the West. As a way of approach for this purpose, two keywords are employed as representative concept. They are: 'proportion' and 'vitality'. Proportion, of course, represent the attitude of the Western, while, vitality, the Eastern. Although these two words are subjective selection, it is hoped that the nature of aesthetic attitudes could be observed through the windows of these two representative concepts. We all know that the architects and students of architecture of this period, are very much concerned about the aesthetic expression of their design. However, the value judgement of aesthetic quality seems quite confused in modem period. If the nature of aesthetic attitudes of the Eastern and the Western architecture is well understood, such understanding will help much for the direction of architectural aesthetic of future architecture.

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The Japanese Government-General of Korea: A Hermeneutic Understanding of the Effects of Historic Preservation from a Western Perspective

  • Seo, Myengsoo
    • Architectural research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2016
  • This paper investigates the characteristics of preservation of Korean modern architecture through Western historic preservation theories and philosophies. This research focuses on the Japanese Government-General of Korea (1926-1995) which was built in 1926 and used as the chief administrative building in Seoul (Keijo in Japanese) during the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945). After Korea was liberated from Japanese rule in 1945, this building was used until 1995 for the South Korean National Assembly, the United States Army Military Government in Korea, and the National Museum of South Korea. Although it served a variety of roles, this building was the most controversial case of historic preservation in Korean modern architecture. To analyze the peculiarities and characteristics of Korean modern architecture and its preservation, this research applied Western historic preservation theories, not exclusively from classical historic preservation theories developed by Viollet-le-Duc and John Ruskin, but also from modern historic preservation theories by Theodore H. M. Prudon, Daniel Blunstone, and Frances A. Yates. This cross-cultural and comparative study of historic preservation helps identify Korean modern architecture's characteristics. It can also be a useful reference in finding the origins of Korean modern architectural identity.

A Study on the Types of the Modern Architecture by the Builders in Taegu Province (대구지역(大邱地域) 근대건축(近代建築)의 건립주체별(建立主體別) 유형분석(類型分析)에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Jae-Woong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.129-141
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate type of the modern architecture in Daegu province, based on 91 buildings which were built from 1886 to 1945 in Daegu province. The results of this study could be summarized as follows : The modern buildings were built by the western missionary, Japanese, Chineses and Korean. The catholic, built Korean style cathedral and parsonage early in the missionary period, then changed to build Gothic revival and georgian style masonary buildings. The protestant built eclectic buildings. With masonary structure and Korean roof style. Then from 1930's, they started to build Gothic revival style buildings. Japanese built eclectic buildings which mixed with Western and Japan type during the first period. Then, they also started to build Western eclectic building. Chinese built only two buildings during the whole periods and those were Western eclectic style buildings. Korean started to build commercial and school buildings which were Western style from the middle of the second period by nationalist and local commercialist.

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A Research of that Architectural Influence of Bruno Taut on Japanese Modern Architecture (건축가 브르노 타우트가 일본 근대건축에 미친 영향에 관한 고찰)

  • 김기수
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2004
  • This paper aims at researching the characteristics in Bruno Taut of architecture and its influence In Japanese modern architecture. We also can study how to harmonize Japanese traditional architecture with western architecture through activities of Bruno Taut in Japan. Especially, Japanese architectural society had a dispute on their national architectural style in 1910. During the 1930's, however, the rationalist architects denied this 'Jaegwan' style architecture, and insisted a different new Japanese architectural style. Thus Japanese modem architecture adapted two axis of Western and Japan, it had been developed with their conflict and harmony by turns. This activities of Bruno Taut in Japan deeply and freshly influenced on the contemporary Japanese Architectural situation.