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Actual Status of Constipation and Life Factors Affecting Constipation by Diagnosis of Rome in Female University Students in Korea (일부 한국여대생의 로마진단기준에 의한 변비 실태조사 및 변비에 영향을 미치는 생활요인)

  • Jung, Su-Jin;Chae, Soo-Wan;Sohn, Hee-Sook;Kim, Sook-Bae;Rho, Jeong-Ok;Baik, Sang-Ho;Kang, Myung-Hee;Kim, Gun-Hee;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Park, Eun-Ju;Heo, Young-Ran;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.428-442
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated the actual status of constipation. In total, 978 female students in Korea participated. We identified the relationship among constipation and life style, clothing patterns, housing patterns, dietary habits, and dietary intake in a constipation symptom group and a normal group. The actual constipation rate based on the Rome II criteria was 27.0% (n = 264). Body weight (p < 0.05) and body mass index (p < 0.05) in the constipation group were significantly higher than those in the normal group. The incidence of functional bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome in the constipation group were significantly higher than those in the normal group. The discomfort of wearing underwear was significantly higher in the constipation group than that in the normal group. The constipation group revealed a significantly higher rate of irregular dietary habits than those in the normal group. The dietary diversity score of the normal group was 4.22 (p < 0.05), which was significantly higher than that of constipation group (4.12). No significant difference in life style factors was observed. It is necessary for university female students to correct their dietary habits, maintain food intake of three times per day, and select diverse foods. Furthermore, it is necessary for university female students to wear comfortable clothing to lessen symptoms and improve constipation rates.

Analysis of the Eyeglasses Supply System for Ametropes in ROK Military (한국군 비정시자용 안경의 보급체계 분석)

  • Jin, Yong-Gab;Koo, Bon-Yeop;Lee, Woo-Chul;Yoon, Moon-Soo;Park, Jin-Tae;Lee, Hang-Seok;Lee, Kyo-Eun;Leem, Hyun-Sung;Jang, Jae-Young;Mah, Ki-Choong
    • The Korean Journal of Vision Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.579-588
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    • 2018
  • Purpose : To analyze the eyeglasses supply system for ametropic soldiers in ROK military. Methods : We investigated and analyzed the supply system of eyeglasses for the ametropic soldiers provided by the Korean military. The refractive powers and corrected visual acuity were measured for 37 ametropic soldiers who wear insert glasses for ballistic protective and gas-masks supplied by the military based on their habitual prescriptions. Full correction of refractive error was prescribed for subjects having less than 1.0 of distance visual acuity, and comparison was held for inspecting the changes in corrected visual acuity. Suggestions were provided for solving the issues regarding current supplying system, and this study investigated the applicabilities for utilizing professional optometric manpower. Results : The new glasses supplied by army for ametropic soldiers were duplicated from the glasses they worn when entering the army. The spherical equivalent refractive powers of the conventional, ballistic protective and gas-mask insert glasses supplied for 37 ametropic soldiers were $-3.47{\pm}1.69D$, $-3.52{\pm}1.66D$ and $-3.55{\pm}1.63D$, respectively, and the spherical equivalent refractive power of full corrected glasses was $-3.79{\pm}1.66D$, which showed a significant difference(p<0.05). The distant corrected visual acuity measured at high and low contrast(logMAR) of conventional, ballistic protective and gas-mask insert glasses were $0.06{\pm}0.80$, $0.21{\pm}0.82$, $0.15{\pm}0.74$, $0.34{\pm}0.89$, $0.10{\pm}0.70$ and $0.22{\pm}0.27$, respectively, while the corrected visual acuity by full corrected glasses were increased to $0.02{\pm}1.05$, $0.10{\pm}0.07$, $0.09{\pm}0.92$, $0.26{\pm}0.10$, $0.04{\pm}1.00$ and $0.19{\pm}1.00$, respectively. There was a significant difference(p<0.05) except for the case of the low contrast corrected visual acuity of the conventional and gas-mask insert glasses. The procedure for ordering, dispensing, and supplying military glasses consists of 5 steps, and it was found that approximately two weeks or more are required to supply from the initial examination. Conclusion : The procedure of supplying the military glasses showed three issues: 1) a lack of refraction for prescription system, 2) relatively long length of time required for supplying the glasses, 3) an inaccurate power of supplied glasses. In order to solve those issues, in the short term, education is necessarily required for soldiers on the measurement of the refractive powers, and in the near future, further standard procedures for prescription of glasses as well as the securement of optometric manpower are expected.

A Study on the Illumination of Household and Research on the Actual Conditions of Wearing Spectacles in Dwellers (주택의 조명과 거주자의 면경착용 실태조사연구)

  • 석호작;남철현
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.54-66
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    • 1991
  • As a result of measuring illumination and making up a question at home visit directly by investigator who trained over twenty days period from October 4 to 24, 1990, in order to render help which illumination problem against house, society against eyes or framing of health instruction potgram by seizing natural lighting actual conditions of house and actual conditions of wearing spectacles and by investigating interrelationship, I can summarize as follows. 1) In property of investigation subject, woman 66.9%, In an age, the twenties was largest of 27.4%, the forties was 20.2%, the fifties was 18.6%, the thirties was 17.4%. In academic career, those of upper secondary school grauates was largest of 28.6%, those who possess university career was 25.9%, those who middle school career was 20.9%, decoding of Korean alphabet was 2%. 2) By a residence area, a big city was 43.3%, farming and fishing villages were 20.3%, the rest was a small town and the administrative office of town, township. In positon of house, the middle area was 43.6%, resident of suburb area was 38.0%. In form of house, a Korean-style house was 40.8%, a western-style house was 34.8%, an apartment house was 11.0%. In the a standard of living, the middle classes 77.2%, the lower classes were 15.3%. In residential house unit of area, from 21 to 30 unit of area was largest of 31.5%, from 10 to 20 unit of area was 19.9%, from 31 to 40 was 18.7%. 3) The wearing spectacles rate of study user was 44.1%. By the area, those who wearing spectacles was more than a half of 50.8% in the resident of big city area. As passing from the farm area to the city, that is being resident of big city was high wearing spectacles rate. In position of house, as being residence in central street showed high wearing spectacles rate. (central street was 51.5%, the middle area was 44.5% and the suburb area was 40.1%.) It seemed similarity difference a variable by position of house from wearing spectacles in standard of 1%. By form of house, wearing spectacles rate those who resident in apartment house was 49.5%, that rate those who resident in a western-style house was high of 49.0%, that rate those who resident in a Korean-style house was the lowest 39.0%. By social position of resident in room, in students case who study showed very high, as university students were very high of 62.3% idn wearing spectacles rate, middle and high school students 'were 50.0%, members of society were 47.6%, workers 20.3%. It seemed similarity difference from academic career in standard of 1%. By an age, the thirties was high of 54.1% in wearing spectacles rate, the twenties was 43.2%, the teenage was the lowest of 11.8%. 4) In illumination of study, over 200Lux was high of 40.1%. but below 99Lux which inappropriate illumination to see the books was 32.4%. Average by area, below 99Lux was 22.7% and over 400Lux was 50.0% in case of wooden floor. As examine by area, below 99Lux was high of 27.0% a case of wooden floor in the big city area, it was not good in illumination passing from the farm area(15.0%) to the city(19.0%). Average illlumination by area of the main living room below 99Lux was high of 37.5%, less than 200Lux was 58.5% of whole. In general, illumination of the main livingroom was inappropriate. By area, the big city was 32.5% below 99Lux, the middle and small city area were 33.8%, town and township area were 45.0%, farming and fishing area were 42.8%. By area, in the big city, illumination of study was 52.5% over 200Lux and 28.9% below 99Lux. In case of the middle and small city, study user of below 99Lux was 38.8% and over 200Lux was 46.9%. In case of the seat of town township, below 99Lux was 34.1% and over 200Lux was 39.7%. In case of farming and fishing area, illumination of study was 33.4% below 99Lux and 48.4% over 200Lux. It tends to high rate of inappropriate illumination. 5) By position of house, in case of wooden floor, less than 100Lux was 24.5% in central street. It was bad illumination than others position of house. In case of the main livingroom, less than 100Lux was 40.4% in the suburb area. It was bad iliumnation than others position of house. In case of study, less than 100Lux was 35.4% in the middle area, it was worse in illumination. In case of the main living room, is seemed similarity difference in standard of 1%. 6) By form of house, in case of wooden floor, illumination of less than 100Lux was 23.8% in a western-style house, it was bad illumination than others form of house. In case of the main livingroom, illumination of less than 100Lux was 47.4% in a Korean-style house, it was remarkably bad illumination than others form of house. In case of study, a Korean-style house was 38.8%, it was very bad illumination than others form of house. In case of the main livingroom and study, it seemed similatrity difference each as P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 in standard of 1%. 7) The wearing spectacles rate of those who use room of illumination over 400Lux was 40.7%, and that of those who use room of illumination less than 100Lux was 28.1%. It seemed similarity differecce in standard of 1%. 8) In period of wearing spectacles, 21.3% of total investigator-highest-was from before five years, 8.6% was from before three years. Among those who use of illumintion less than 99Lux, 34.0% began to wear spectacles from before two years 31.7% was from before five years, 30.3% was from before four years. It seemed similarity difference from period of wearing spectacles by illumination in standard of 1 %. 9) Among cause which sight grow worse, the first was that it was each 33.2% and 27.4% in response rate because watch TV nearly to wearing spectacles person and non-wearing person. The second was that a lot of seeing books was 25.3% in wearing spectacles person and response rate for dark illumination was 7.4% in nonwearing spectacles person. It seemed similarity difference in standard of 1%. (P < 0.01). 10) In experience which take medicine good for eyes, it was 50.1% in wearing spectacles person and 8.5% in non-wearing spectacles person. It seemed similarity difference in standard of 1%(P < 0.01). As we have seen above, inappropriate illumination can be a cause of wearing spectacles. Nevertheless, actually, is realities to indifferent against illumination of house. So it must learn knowledge about health obstacle of illumination through society instruction and school eduction against students as well as general residents. In case that natural lighting is inappropriate structural of house, we must be able to maintain appropriate illumination through artificial illumination. And so eyes which is core of human life have to be protected, related the authorities, related group, and all health medical personnel will organically cooperate with and make efforts.

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