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Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Reproductive Traits in Yorkshire (요크셔종의 번식형질에 대한 유전모수 추정)

  • Song, Kwang-Lim;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Roh, Seung-Hee;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits using multivariate animal models in Yorkshire breed. For the study, 4,989 records for litter traits collected between the year 2001 and 2005 from Yorkshire pigs in K GGP were used. The effects of environmental factors such as farrowing year, parity, weaning to estrus interval (WEI), and suckling period were statistically significant (p<0.05), but farrowing season was not significant, for reproductive traits. The estimates genetic correlations and phenotypic correlations in total number of born and number of suckling, was shown to highly correlated. The genetic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlation. The estimates of heritabilities for reproductive traits, considering permanent environment effects (PE) were much lower than those obtained when permanent environment effects were not considered (NPE) in the model. The estimates of heritabilities were 0.240 and 0.076 for total number of born and 0.187 and 0.096 for number of suckling in NPE, and PE, respectively. These results itivcate that PE should be considered in the statistical mode to estimate more acco ate breeding values.

The Changes of Physiologic Parameters with Time in Steroid treated-Late Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients (스테로이드를 투여한 후기 급성호흡곤란증후군 환자에서 시간경과에 따른 생리학적 지표의 변화)

  • Jeon, Ik Soo;Suh, Gee Young;Koh, Won-Jung;Pyun, Yu Jang;Kang, Eun Hae;Ham, Hyoung Suk;Oui, Misook;Chung, Man Pyo;Kim, Hojoong;Kwon, O Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.429-438
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    • 2003
  • Background : The mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) is >40-50%. Although some prospective trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit of steroids in the early stages of ARDS, there are some reports showing some success with steroids in the later stages. This study observed the changes in the physiologic parameters with time in late ARDS patients who were treated with steroids. Methods : The medical charts of 28 intensive care unit patients(male:female=24:4; mean age 64 years), who had been diagnosed with refractory late ARDS ($PaO_2/FIO_2$ <200) and were treated with corticosteroids from December 1999 to July 2002, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: the weaned group(n=14), which included the patients who had been successfully weaned from a ventilator after corticosteroid therapy, and the failed group(n=14), which included the patients who had failed weaning. The physiologic parameters included the $PaO_2/FIO_2$ ratio, the positive end-expiratory pressure(PEEP) level, the $PaCO_2$, compliance, the sequential organ failure assessment(SOFA) score, the acute physiologic and the chronic health evaluation(APACHE) II score, and the Murray Lung Injury Score(LIS) in the two groups were compared from the day of mechanical ventilation(Dmv) to 7 days after the corticosteroid therapy. Results : There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics and the physiologic parameters between the two groups prior to the corticosteroid therapy except for the SOFA score at Dmv(weaned group : $6.6{\pm}2.5$ vs failed group : $8.8{\pm}2.9$, p=0.047). However, within 7 days after corticosteroid therapy, there was significant improvement in the $PaO_2/FIO_2$ ratio, the PEEP level, the $PaCO_2$, the SOFA score, the APACHE II score, and the LIS of the weaned group compared to the failed group. Conclusions : During corticosteroid therapy in late ARDS, the continuation of corticosteroid therapy should be determined carefully in patients who do not show improvement in their physiologic parameters by day 7.

A Study on the Nutritive Value and Utilization of Powdered Seaweeds (해조의 식용분말화에 관한 연구)

  • Yu, Jong-Yull;Lee, Ki-Yull;Kim, Sook-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.15-37
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    • 1975
  • I. Subject of the study A study on the nutritive value and utilization of powdered seaweeds. II. Purpose and Importance of the study A. In Korea the shortage of food will be inevitable by the rapidly growing population. It will be very important study to develop a new food from the seaweeds which were not used hitherto for human consumption. B. The several kinds of seaweeds have been used by man in Korea mainly as side-dishes. However, a properly powdered seaweed will enable itself to be a good supplement or mixture to certain cereal flours. C. By adding the powdered seaweed to any cereals which have long been staple foods in this country the two fold benefits; saving of cereals and change of dietary pattern, will be secured. III. Objects and scope of the study A. Objects of the study The objects will come under four items. 1. To develop a powdered seaweed as a new food from the seaweeds which have been not used for human consumption. 2. To evaluate the nutritional quality of the products the analysis for chemical composition and animal feeding experiment will be conducted. 3. Experimental cocking and accepability test will be conducted for the powdered products to evaluate the value as food stuff. 4. Sanitary test and also economical analysis will be conducted for the powdered products. B. Scope of the study 1. Production of seaweed powders Sargassum fulvellum growing in eastern coast and Sargassum patens C.A. in southern coast were used as the material for the powders. These algae, which have been not used for human consumption, were pulverized through the processes of washing, drying, pulverization, etc. 2. Nutritional experiments a. Chemical composition Proximate components (water, protein, fat, cellulose, sugar, ash, salt), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine), vitamins (A, $B_1,\;B_2$ niacin, C) and amino acids were analyzed for the seaweed powders. b. Animal feeding experiment Weaning 160 rats (80 male and 80 female rats) were used as experimental animals, dividing them into 16 groups, 10 rats each group. Each group was fed for 12 weeks on cereal diet (Wheat flour, rice powder, barley powder, potato powder, corn flour) with the supplementary levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% of the seaweed powder. After the feeding the growth, feed efficiency ratio, protain efficiency ratio and ,organs weights were checked and urine analysis, feces analysis and serum analysis were also conducted. 3. Experimental cooking and acceptability test a. Several basic studies were conducted to find the characteristics of the seaweed powder. b. 17 kinds of Korean dishes and 9 kinds of foreign dishes were prepared with cereal flours (wheat, rice, barley, potato, corn) with the supplementary levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% of the seaweed powder. c. Acceptability test for the dishes was conducted according to plank's Form. 4. Sanitary test The heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, Hg) in the seaweed powders were determined. 5. Economical analysis The retail price of the seaweed powder was compared with those of other cereals in the market. And also economical analysis was made from the nutritional point of view, calculating the body weight gained in grams per unit price of each feeding diet. IV. Results of the study and the suggestion for application A. Chemical composition 1. There is no any big difference in proximate components between powders of Sargassum fulvellum in eastern coast and Sargassum patens C.A. in southern coast. Seasonal difference is also not significant. Higher levels of protein, cellulose, ash and salt were found in the powders compared with common cereal foods. 2. The levels of calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in the powders were significantly higher than common cereal foods and also rich in iodine (I). Existence of vitamin A and vitamin C in the Powders is different point from cereal foods. Vitamin $B_1\;and\;B_2$ are also relatively rich in the powders.'Vitamin A in ·Sargassum fulvellum is high and the levels of some minerals and vitamins are seemed4 to be some influenced by seasons. 3. In the amino acid composition methionine, isoleucine, Iysine and valine are limiting amino acids. The protein qualities of Sargassum fulvellum and Sargassum patens C.A. are seemed to be .almost same and generally ·good. Seasonal difference in amino acid composition was found. B. Animal feeding experiment 1. The best growth was found at.10% supplemental level of the seaweed Powder and lower growth rate was shown at 30% level. 2. It was shown that 15% supplemental level of the Seaweed powder seems to fulfil, to some extent the mineral requirement of the animals. 3. No any changes were found in organs development except that, in kidney, there found decreasing in weight by increasing the supplemental level of the seaweed powder. 4. There is no any significant changes in nitrogen retention, serum cholesterol, serum calcium and urinary calcium in each supplemental level of the seaweed powder. 5. In animal feeding experiment it was concluded that $5%{\sim}15%$ levels supplementation of the seaweed powder are possible. C. Experimental cooking and acceptability test 1. The seaweed powder showed to be utilized more excellently in foreign cookings than in Korean cookings. Higher supplemental level of seaweed was passible in foreign cookings. 2. Hae-Jo-Kang and Jeon-Byung were more excellent than Song-Pyun, wheat cake, Soo-Je-Bee and wheat noodle. Hae-Je-Kang was excellent in its quality even as high as 5% supplemental level. 3. The higher levels of supplementation were used the more sticky cooking products were obtained. Song-Pyun and wheat cake were palatable and lustrous in 2% supplementation level. 4. In drop cookie the higher levels of supplementation, the more crisp product was obtained, compared with other cookies. 5. Corn cake, thin rice gruel, rice gruel and potato Jeon-Byung were more excellent in their quality than potato Man-Doo and potato noodle. Corn cake, thin rice gruel and rice gruel were excellent even as high as 5% supplementation level. 6. In several cooking Porducts some seaweed-oder was perceived in case of 3% or more levels of supplementation. This may be much diminished by the use of proper condiments. D. Sanitary test It seems that there is no any heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, Hg) problem in these seaweed Powders in case these Powders are used as supplements to any cereal flours E. Economical analysis The price of the seaweed powder is lower than those of other cereals and that may be more lowered when mass production of the seaweed powder is made in future. The supplement of the seaweed powder to any cereals is also economical with the criterion of animal growth rate. F. It is recommended that these seaweed powders should be developed and used as supplement to any cereal flours or used as other food material. By doing so, both saving of cereals and improvement of individual's nutrition will greatly be achieved. It is also recommended that the feeding experiment for men would be conducted in future.

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Problems in the field of maternal and child health care and its improvement in rural Korea (우리나라 농촌(農村)의 모자보건(母子保健)의 문제점(問題點)과 개선방안(改善方案))

  • Lee, Sung-Kwan
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1976
  • Introduction Recently, changes in the patterns and concepts of maternity care, in both developing and developed countries have been accelerating. An outstanding development in this field is the number of deliveries taking place in hospitals or maternity centers. In Korea, however, more than 90% of deliveries are carried out at home with the help of untrained relatives or even without helpers. It is estimated that less than 10% of deliveries are assisted by professional persons such as a physician or a midwife. Taking into account the shortage of professional person i11 rural Korea, it is difficult to expect widespread prenatal, postnatal, and delivery care by professional persons in the near future, It is unrealistic, therefore, to expect rapid development of MCH care by professional persons in rural Korea due to economic and sociological reasons. Given these conditions. it is reasonable that an educated village women could used as a "maternity aid", serving simple and technically easy roles in the MCH field, if we could give such a women incentive to do so. The midwife and physician are assigned difficult problems in the MCH field which could not be solved by the village worker. However, with the application of the village worker system, we could expect to improve maternal and child hoalth through the replacement of untrained relatives as birth attendants with educated and trained maternity aides. We hope that this system will be a way of improving MCH care, which is only one part of the general health services offered at the local health centre level. Problems of MCH in rural Korea The field of MCH is not only the weakest point in the medical field in our country hut it has also dropped behind other developing countries. Regarding the knowledge about pregnancy and delivery, a large proportion of our respondents reported having only a little knowledge, while 29% reported that they had "sufficient" knowledge. The average number of pregnancies among women residing in rural areas was 4.3 while the rate of women with 5 or more pregnancies among general women and women who terminated childbearing were 43 and 80% respectively. The rate of unwanted pregnancy among general women was 19.7%. The total rate for complications during pregnancy was 15.4%, toxemia being the major complication. The rate of pregnant women with chronic disease was 7%. Regarding the interval of pregnancy, the rates of pregnancy within 12 months and within 36 months after last delivery were 9 and 49% respectively. Induced abortion has been increasing in rural areas, being as high as 30-50% in some locations. The maternal death rate was shown 10 times higher than in developed countries (35/10,000 live births). Prenatal care Most women had no consultation with a physician during the prenatal period. Of those women who did have prenatal care, the majority (63%) received such care only 1 or 2 times throughout the entire period of pregnancy. Also, in 80% of these women the first visit Game after 4 months of gestation. Delivery conditions This field is lagging behind other public health problems in our country. Namely, more than 95% of the women deliveried their baby at home, and delivery attendance by a professional person occurred only 11% of the time. Attendance rate by laymen was 78% while those receiving no care at all was 16%. For instruments used to cut the umbilical corn, sterilized scissors were used by 19%, non-sterilized scissors by 63% and 16% used sickles. Regarding delivery sheets, the rate of use of clean sheets was only 10%, unclean sheets, vinyl and papers 72%, and without sheets, 18%. The main reason for not using a hospital as a place of delivery was that the women felt they did not need it as they had previously experience easy deliveries outside hospitals. Difficult delivery composed about 5% of the total. Child health The main food for infants (95%) was breast milk. Regarding weaning time, the rates within one year, up to one and half, two, three and more than three years were 28,43,60,81 and 91% respectively, and even after the next pregnancy still continued lactation. The vaccination of children is the only service for child health in rural Korea. As shown in the Table, the rates of all kinds of vaccination were very low and insufficient. Infant death rate was 42 per 1,000 live births. Most of the deaths were caused by preventable diseases. Death of infants within the neonatal period was 83% meaning that deaths from communicable diseases decreased remarkably after that time. Infant deaths which occurred without medical care was 52%. Methods of improvement in the MCH field 1. Through the activities of village health workers (VHW) to detect pregnant women by home visiting and. after registration. visiting once a month to observe any abnormalities in pregnant women. If they find warning signs of abnormalities. they refer them to the public health nurse or midwife. Sterilized delivery kits were distributed to the expected mother 2 weeks prior to expected date of delivery by the VHW. If a delivery was expected to be difficult, then the VHW took the mother to a physician or call a physician to help after birth, the VHW visits the mother and baby to confirm health and to recommend the baby be given proper vaccination. 2. Through the midwife or public health nurse (aid nurse) Examination of pregnant women who are referred by the VHW to confirm abnormalities and to treat them. If the midwife or aid nurse could not solve the problems, they refer the pregnant women to the OB-GY specialist. The midwife and PHN will attend in the cases of normal deliveries and they help in the birth. The PHN will conduct vaccination for all infants and children under 5, years old. 3. The Physician will help only in those cases referred to him by the PHN or VHW. However, the physician should examine all pregnant women at least three times during their pregnancy. First, the physician will identify the pregnancy and conduct general physical examination to confirm any chronic disease that might disturb the continuity of the pregnancy. Second, if the pregnant woman shows any abnormalities the physician must examine and treat. Third, at 9 or 10 months of gestation (after sitting of the baby) the physician should examine the position of the fetus and measure the pelvis to recommend institutional delivery of those who are expected to have a difficult delivery. And of course. the medical care of both the mother and the infants are responsible of the physician. Overall, large areas of the field of MCH would be served by the VHW, PHN, or midwife so the physician is needed only as a parttime worker.

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The Changes of Brain Injury Markers(S100-$\beta$, Neuron-Specific enolase) After Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion Under Total Circulatory Arrest in Pigs (돼지에서 역행성 뇌관류 시행 후 혈청 및 소변의 뇌손상 관련지표(S100-$\beta$, Neuron-specific enolase)의 변화)

  • 김상윤;김만호;김경환
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.847-853
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    • 2002
  • We previously published the data that proved the safety of retrograde cerebral perfusion for 120 minutes. At this time, we planned to check the neuron-specific enolase and S100-$\beta$ in serum and urine to assess the possibility of early detection of cerebral injury. Material and Method: We used pigs(Landrace species) weighing 35 kg and performed RCP for 120 minutes. After the weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass, we observed the pigs for another 120 minutes. Systemic arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and serum and urine levels of neuron-specific enolose (NSE) and S100$\beta$ protein were checked. Central venous pressure during RCP was maintained in the range of 20 to 25 mmHg. Result: Serum levels of NSE(ng/$m\ell$) were 0.67$\pm$0.18(induction of anesthesia), 0.53$\pm$0.47(soon after CPB), 0.44$\pm$0.27(20min alter CPB), 0.24$\pm$0.09(RCP 20min), 0.37$\pm$0.35(RCP 40min), 0.33$\pm$0.21 (RCP 60min), 0.37$\pm$0.22(RCP 80min), 0.41$\pm$0.23(RCP 100 min), 0.48$\pm$0.26(RCP 120min), 0.42$\pm$0.29(30min after rewarming), 0.35 $\pm$0.32(60min after rewarming, 0.42$\pm$0.37(CPBoff 30min), 0.47$\pm$0.34(CPBOff 60min), 0.47$\pm$0.28(CPBOff 90min), and 0.57$\pm$0.29(CPBOff 120min). There was no statistically significant difference in levels between before and after RCP(ANOVA, p>0.05). Urine levels of NSE also showed no statistically significant difference in levels between before and after RCP. There was no correlation between urine and serum levels of NSE(Pearson correlation, p>0.05). Serum levels of S100$\beta$ protein(ng/$m\ell$) during the same time frames were 0.14$\pm$0.08, 0.15$\pm$0.07, 0.22$\pm$0.15, 0.23$\pm$0.07, 0.28$\pm$0.10, 0.40$\pm$0.05, 0.47$\pm$0.03, 0.49$\pm$0.12, 0.43$\pm$0.11, 0.46$\pm$0.15, 0.62$\pm$0.17, 0.77$\pm$0.21, 0.78$\pm$0.23, 0.77$\pm$0.23, and 0.82$\pm$0.33. There was statistically significant difference in levels between before and after RCP(ANOVA, p<0.05). Urine levels of NSE also showed statistically significant difference in levels between before and after RCP(ANOVA, p<0.05). There was significant correlation between urine and serum levels of NSE(Pearson correlation, p<0.05). Conclusion: The author observed the increase in serum and urine levels of S100$\beta$ after 120 minutes of RCP. Significant correlation between serum and urine levels was observed. The results were considered to be the fundamental data that could correlate this study with human-based study.

Surgical Results and Risk Facor Analysis of the Patients with Single Ventricle Associated with Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (총폐정맥연결이상증을 동반한 단심증 환아의 수술결과 및 위험인자 분석)

  • 이정렬;김창영;김홍관;이정상;김용진;노준량
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.862-870
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    • 2002
  • The surgical results of the patients with single ventricle(SV) associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection(TAPVC) has been reported with high mortality and morbidity due to their morphologic and hemodynamic complexity. A retrospective review was undertaken to report the outcome of the first-stage palliative surgery in our institution and to determine the factors influencing early death. Material and Method: Between January 1987 and June 2002, 39 patients with SV and TAPVC underwent surgical intervention with or without TAPVC repair. Age at operation ranged from 1day to 10.7months (median age, 2.4month), and 29 patients were male. Preoperative diagnosis included 20 right-dominant SV, 15 SV with endocardial cushion defect, 3 left-dominant SV, and 1 tricuspid atresia. The pulmonary venous connection was supracardiac in 22, cardiac in 5, infracardiac in 11, and mixed in 1, Obstructed TAPVC was present in 11. First-stage palliative surgery was performed in 37. Repair of TAPVC, either alone or in association with other procedures, was performed during the initial operation in 31. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the risk factors influencing the operative death. Result: A mean follow-up period of survivors was 34.3 $\pm$ 43.0(0.53 ~ 146.2)months. Overall early operative mortality was 43.6%(17/39). The causes were low cardiac output in 8, failure of weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in 3, sepsis in 2, pulmonary hypertensive crisis in 1, pulmonary edema in 1, pneumonia in 1, and postoperative arrhythmia in 1. Risk factors influencing early death in univariate analysis were body weight, surgical intervention in neonate, obstructive TAPVC, preoperative conditions including metabolic acidosis, and need for inotropic support, TAPVC repair in initial operation, operative time, and cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) time. In multivariable analysis, body weight, age at initial operation, surgical intervention in neonate, preoperative conditions including metabolic acidosis, need for inotropic support and CPB time were the risk factors. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the patients with SV and TAPVC had high perioperative mortality. Preoperative poor condition, young age, the length of operative and CPB time, the presence of obstructive TAPVC had been proven to be the risk factors. This fact suggests that the avoidance of unnecessarily additional procedures may improve the surgical outcomes of the first-stage palliative surgery. However further observation and collection of the data is mandatory to determine the ideal surgical strategy.

Effects of Thyroid Function on Lactation in Female Rats (흰쥐의 갑상선기능(甲狀腺機能)이 비유(泌乳)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Seo, Kil Woong;Kim, Duk Im
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was carried out to elucidate the effects of the thyroid function on lactation in female rats. One hundred and five female rats, whose body weight was approximately 250g with normal parturition, were divided into 3.5 THY, 35 PTU, and 35 CON. The $30{\mu}g$ L-thyroxine per rat was administered subcutaneously for the THY group with 3-days intervals arid 0.03% propylthiouracil solution was drunk for the PTU group. After the treatments body weight, thyroid weights and prolactin levels in serum, and histological changes in thyroid and mammary gland were investigated for 3 weeks with 3-days interval. The results obtained were as follows 1. The body weights of PTU group were lower than those of CON arid THY groups. The changes in body weights were significant between 3 and 6 days and between 15 and 18 days. 2. Differences in thyroid weight among the groups were significant after 9 days, The thyroid weights of PTU group were much higher than those of CON and THY group. 3. The follicular epithelia of PTU group after 6 days showed cuboidal phenomena which were accompanied by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and this phenomena continued until post weaning period. Those of THY group after 9 days showed a squamous degeneration together with pyknosis. 4. The prolactin concentrations of THY group were higher than the other groups after 12 days. and those of CON group were higher than the others after 18 days. However, those of PTU group were lower all through the period. 5. The secretary epithelial cells of THY and CON groups became cuboidal after 12 days, but after 15 days the differentiation of mammary tissue was progressing in THY group faster than CON group. The degeneration of mammary tissue were observed in PTU group as time lapses, so after 15 days the exfoliation of secretory epithelium and atrophy of alveolus were recognized. 6. The body weights of offspring for all experimental groups were increasing as time lapses, but the values for PTU group were markedly lower than the others.

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Effects of Natural Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) Venom Treatment on the Humoral Immune Response in Pigs (Beevenom 처리가 돼지의 체내 면역반응에 미치는 효과)

  • 조성구;김경수;이석천
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.933-942
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of honeybee venom treatment on the humoral immune response in pigs. Corresponding author : S. K. Cho, Dept. of Animal Sci. Chung-Buk National University, Kaesin-dong, Cheongju, 361-763, Korea. phone : 043-261-2551. E-mail : deercho@chungbuk.ac.kr To investigate effects of natural honeybee venom on the concentration of immunoglobulin G, A, and M, 20 piglets(LY×D) from 3 sows were allocated into two groups bee venom-treated group(10 piglets) and non-treated control(10 piglets). Natural honeybee venom was treated at 0, 3, 6 days after birth and the acupoints were Hai-men(ST-25), Du-kou(CV-8) and Jiao-chao(GV-1) points at 0, 3 days after birth and the regions of castration and tail amputation point at 6 days. Control group was injected 1㎖ of saline to the same site. Concentrations of IgG, A, and M were measured with immunoturbidimetric method at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. To investigate the effect of bee venom on the production of antibodies against hog cholera and atrophic rhinitis vaccines that were used as indicator antigens, 40 piglets(LYxD) from 5 sows were grouped as bee venom-treated group (20 piglets) and control group(20 piglets). Natural honeybee venom was treated at 0, 3days(castration, tail amputation) and 21days after birth. The acupoints were Hai-men(ST-25), Du-kou(CV-8) and Jiao-chao (GV-1) points at 0 day, the regions of castration and tail ampution at 3 days and Jiao-chao(GV-1) and Bai-hui(GV-20) points at 21days after birth(weaning). Control group was injected 1ml of saline to the same site. Atrophic rhinitis vaccine was injected twice at 24 and 44 days after birth and hog cholera vaccine was also injected twice at 44 and 64 days after birth. Antibody titers against Bordetella bronchiseptica and hog cholera virus were measured by using tube agglutination and ELISA tests at 24, 34, 44, 54 and 74 days after birth. Concentrations of IgG of treated group were 339.52, 366.48, 296.52, 242.06 and 219.06mg/dl at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after birth, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of IgG in control group were respectively 347.10, 334.14, 243.28, 205.18 and 191.58mg/dl during same periods with treated group. Concentrations of IgG at 0 day was not significantly different between the treated group and control group but treated group were significantly increased by 10.28% at 3 days after birth (P<0.02), 21.88% at 7 days after birth(P<0.01), 18.0% at 14 days after birth(P<0.07) and 14.3% at 21 days after birth(P<0.01). Concentrations of IgA and Ig M were not significantly different. Antibody titers against hog cholera virus were significantly increased by 57.0% at 24 days after birth(P<0.03), 74.6% at 34 days after birth (P<0.006), 48.6% at 44 days after birth(P<0.017), 45.0% at 54 days after birth(P<0.16) and 44.4% at 74 days after birth (P<0.006) in bee venom treated group in comparison with control group. Antibody titers against the Bordetella bronchiseptica was significantly increased in Beevenom treated group as 9.1% (P<0.32) at 24days, 39.7% (P<0.002) at 34days, 31.9% (P<0.02) at 44days, 33.4% (P<0.01) at 54days and 57.3% (P<0.007) at 74 days after birth when compared with those of control group pigs. Collecting together, the results in this study showed that immune responses were increased by treatment of natural honeybee venom to pigs. These results suggested that the treatment of bee venom could be used effectively for the increase of productivity in livestock industry.

The Three Types of Clinical Manifestation of Cow's Milk Allergy with Predominantly Intestinal Symptoms (위장관 증세 위주로 발현하는 영유아기 우유 알레르기 질환의 3가지 임상 유형에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jeong-Jin;Lee, Eun-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Hee;Choi, Eun-Jin;Hwang, Jin-Bok;Han, Chang-Ho;Chung, Hai-Lee;Kwon, Young-Dae;Kim, Yong-Jin
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: During the first year of life, cow's milk protein is the major offender causing food allergy. Cow's milk allergy (CMA) affects 2~7% of infants, of which approximately one-half show predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms. We studied the clinical types of cow's milk allergy with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms (CMA-GI) of childhood. Methods: The retrospective study was performed on 30 (male 22, female 8) patients who had diagnosed as CMA-GI during 2 years and 3 months from March 1995 to June 1997. Results: 1) Children with CMA-GI presented in the three types of clinical manifestation on the basis of time to reaction to milk ingestion: Quick (Q) onset (5 cases), Slow (S) onset (20 cases), Quick & Slow (Q&S) (5 cases). 2) Age on admission of the three groups was significantly different (p<0.05): (Q onset: $81.4{\pm}67.1$ days, S onset: $31.9{\pm}12.7$ days, Q&S: $366.0{\pm}65.0$ days). Although the body weight at birth was 10~95 percentile in all patients, body weight on admission was different: (Q onset: 10~50 percentile, S onset: below 10 percentile, Q&S: 10~25 percentile). S onset group was significantly different compared with other groups (p<0.05) and 90% of this one was failure to thrive below 3 percentile. 3) Peripheral leukocyte counts were as followings: (Q onset: $5,700{\sim}12,300/mm^3$, S onset: $10,000{\sim}33,400/mm^3$, Q&S: $5,200{\sim}14,900/mm^3$). Slow onset group was significantly different compared with other groups (p<0.05). Serum albumin levels on admission were as followings: (Q onset: $4.2{\pm}0.4\;g/dl$, S onset: $3.0{\pm}0.3\;g/dl$, Q&S: $4.0{\pm}0.3\;g/dl$). S onset group was significantly different compared with other groups (p<0.05) and 85% of this one was below 3.5 g/dl. 4) Although morphometrical analysis on small intestinal mucosa did not show enteropathy in Q onset and Q&S groups, all cases of S onset revealed enteropathy: 45% of this one showed subtotal villous atrophy, 55 % showed partial villous atrophy. 5) Allergic reaction test to other foods was not performed in S onset group because of ethical problem and high risk in general condition. In Q onset group, allergic reaction to one or two other foods: soy formula, weaning formula and eggs. Q&S goup revealed allergic reactions to several foods or to most of all foods except protein hydrolysate formula: eggs, potatos, some kinds of sea food, apples, carrots, beef and chicken. 6) Serum IgE level, peripheral eosinophil counts, milk RAST, soy RAST, skin test were not significantly different among groups. Conclusion: CMA-GI may present in three clinical ways on the basis of time to reaction to milk ingestion, typical clinical findings and morphologic changes in the small bowel mucosal biopsy specimens. This clinical subdivision might be helpful in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in CMA-GI. Early suspicion is mandatory especially in S onset type because of high risks with malnutrition and enteropathy.

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