• Title, Summary, Keyword: Weaning

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Acidifier as an Alternative Material to Antibiotics in Animal Feed

  • Kim, Y.Y.;Kil, D.Y.;Oh, H.K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1048-1060
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    • 2005
  • Dietary acidifiers appear to be a possible alternative to feed antibiotics in order to improve performance of weaning pigs. It is generally known that dietary acidifiers lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes, improved protein digestibility and inhibiting the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in GI tract. It is also hypothesized that acidifiers could be related to reduction of gastric emptying rate, energy source in intestine, chelation of minerals, stimulation of digestive enzymes and intermediate metabolism. However, the exact mode of action still remains questionable. Organic acidifiers have been widely used for weaning pigs' diets for decades and most common organic acidifiers contain fumaric, citric, formic and/or lactic acid. Many researchers have observed that dietary acidifier supplementation improved growth performance and health status in weaning pigs. Recently inorganic acidifiers as well as organic acidifiers have drawn much attention due to improving performance of weaning pigs with a low cost. Several researchers introduced the use of salt form of acidifiers because of convenient application and better effects than pure state acids. However, considerable variations in results of acidifier supplementation have been reported in response of weaning pigs. The inconsistent responses to dietary acidifiers could be explained by feed palatability, sources and composition of diet, supplementation level of acidifier and age of animals.

The Low Feed Intake in Newly-weaned Pigs: Problems and Possible Solutions

  • Dong, G.Z.;Pluske, J.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.440-452
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    • 2007
  • The low feed intake immediately after weaning is responsible for villous atrophy and reduced growth rate in newly-weaned pigs. Overcoming this drawback will produce beneficial results for swine producers, and this warrants an understanding of the factors affecting the feed intake in newly-weaned pigs. In fact, a plethora of factors exert influences on feed intake in newly-weaned pigs, and these factors encompass health status, creep feeding, weaning age, mixing of litters, environment, dietary nutrient level and balance, palatability of ingredients, forms of diet presentation, water supply and quality, and stockmanship. Due to the complexity of the factors that affect the feed intake of weaned pigs, a comprehensive approach should be adopted to overcome the low feed intake problem right after weaning. It warrants mention that it is almost impossible to completely restore the feed intake just after weaning to pre-weaning level in terms of energy intake through dietary means which are available for being practiced economically and/or technically in current swine production. However, a refined dietary regime will certainly alleviate the low feed intake problem in the immediate postweaning period.

A Comparative Study on Weaning Patterns and Methods of Health Care of Infants and Toddlers in the Farming Area and City, Bores (도시와 농촌에 있어서의 영유아의 양육 및 보건에 관한 비교연구 -이유와 이유식을 중심으로-)

  • 차옥희
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 1973
  • The study was conducted during the period of July, 1972 to June, 1973 in Seoul city and Choong Chung Buk Do area. The purpose of this study was to find out tile Weaning Patterns and investigate the habits of health care of the babies. The conclusions obtained were as follows: 1. 65 percent of the infants were sufficiently fed by mothers'milk. But, the other 35 percent were not enough to be breasted. 2. Over 50 percent of the mothers started the weaning when tile infants became 9-12 months of age. The period of time needed for weaning was between 6-18 months of age. 3. Majority of the mothers preferred to give infants corns as the major diets. 4. It was noted that many mothers did not know the importance of weaning. And it was felt that public health nurses have to instruct these mothers who are bringing up the babies why weaning is necessary. 5. Only half of the babies who were investigated were found to be regularly vaccinated with all the necessary preventive inoculation at Public Health Centers both in farming and city areas.

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ESTIMATES OF PHENOTYPIC AND GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS IN BALI BEEF CATTLE

  • Djegho, Y.;Blair, H.T.;Garrick, D.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 1992
  • Records on weaning (3803) and yearling weight (2990) of beef cattle (Bibos banteng) from the Bali Cattle Improvement Project were examined. A mixed model analysis involving all main non-genetic effects (village, year of birth, season of birth, age of dam, sex of calf, all significant interactions and age at weighing as a covariate) as fixed effects and sire nested within village as a random effect was undertaken. Variance components were estimated by Henderson's Method III. Paternal half-sib components of variance and covariance were used to estimate heritabilities of weaning and yearling weights, as well as their genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates ($\pm$ standard error) obtained by Henderson's Method III for weaning and yearling weights were $.11{\pm}.03$ and $.13{\pm}.04$, respectively while the phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated as .32 and $.64{\pm}.10$, respectively. The parameters estimated in this study were at the lower end of the range of reported values from various breeds. It is concluded that further information should be gathered to assist in estimating genetic parameters for other economic traits of Bali beef cattle and to provide more accurate estimates for weaning and yearling weights. These parameters should then be used to formulate a selection program to enable the genetic improvement of Bali Beef cattle.

Supplemental Fermented Milk Increases Growth Performance of Early-Weaned Pigs

  • Dunshea, F.R.;Kerton, D.J.;Eason, P.J.;King, R.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.511-515
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    • 2000
  • Early weaning is a means of breaking the disease cycle from sow to piglet as well as capitalising on the enormous growth potential of the pig. However, the transition from milk to dry diets results in a growth check. Feeding of supplemental milk, fermented to reduce pH and enterotoxigenic bactetial proliferation, may be a means of gradually weaning pigs on to solid feed. This study involved 216 pigs weaned from the sow at 12 days of age, allocated to groups of 6 males and 6 females per weaner pen and allowed ad libitum access to a pelleted diet. In addition, half the pigs were given supplemental fermented skim milk for the first 8 days after weaning. Feeding supplemental fermented milk increased feed intake (104 vs. 157 g DM/d, p=0.011), average daily gain (-3 vs. 112 g/d, p<0.001) and feed conversion efficiency (0.01 vs. 0.81, p=0.003) over the first 8 days after weaning. The improvements observed in the supplemented pigs continued to be augmented such that, by 42 days of age, the pigs that had received supplemental fermented milk were heavier (9.6 vs. 11.5 kg, p=0.003) than their unsupplemented counterparts. Feeding fermented supplemental milk to early-weaned pigs can improve growth performance in the immediate and subsequent post-weaning period.

Effects of Creep Feed with Varied Energy Density Diets on Litter Performance

  • Yan, L.;Jang, H.D.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1435-1439
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of creep feed with different energy densities on litter performance. A total of 30 sows (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) and their litters were randomly assigned with 1, 2, or 3+parities into 1 of 3 treatments (10 sows). Dietary treatments were: i) CON (no creep feed), ii) LE (creep feed (DE 4,000 kcal/kg) from 5 d of age until weaning (21 d)), and iii) HE (creep feed (DE 5,000 kcal/kg) from 5 d of age until weaning). Each piglet was weighed at d 5, 10, 15, 21 (weaning), and d 7 postweaning to determine ADG. Creep feeding reduced concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol compared with those in CON group (p<0.05). Creep feeding reduced (p<0.05) the weaning-to-oestrus interval in sows. Piglets in the HE groups evidenced greater ADG (p = 0.024) and ADFI (p = 0.001) post-weaning than those in CON treatments. Creep feeding decreased (p<0.05) the suckling time of piglet in this study. In conclusion, creep feeding increased growth and feed intake of pigs after weaning. It can decrease the oestrus interval of sows. There was no difference between providing a high energy or a low energy creep fed diet to the piglets.

Genotyping Based on Polymerase Chain Reaction of Enterobacter sakazakii Isolates from Powdered Infant Foods

  • Choi, Suk-Ho;Choi, Jae-Won;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1171-1177
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    • 2008
  • This study was undertaken to classify Enterobacter sakazakii isolates from 13 powdered infant formula products, 25 powdered weaning diet products, and 33 weaning diet ingredients on polymerse chain reaction (PCR) methods. The numbers of the isolates from 1 powdered infant formula product, 7 powdered weaning diet products, and 6 weaning diet ingredients were 1, 14, and 8, respectively. The contaminated ingredients were 1 rice powder, 2 millet powders, 2 vegetable powders, and 1 fruit and vegetable premix. PCR with the primer of repetitive extragenic palindromic element (REP-PCR) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA(RAPD) were effective in discriminating among the isolates, but tRNA-PCR and PCR with the primer of l6S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) were not. Some of E. sakazakii isolates from vegetable powders, fruit and vegetable premix, and millets powders were classified into the clonal groups based on the DNA patterns in the REP-PCR and RAPD analysis. A close genetic relationship among the isolates from some of the powdered weaning diet products and the rice powder was also detected in the cluster analysis based on the DNA patterns in RAPD.

Effects of semi-floor pens on growth performance and stress in weaning pigs (사육면적 증가를 위한 반층돈사의 활용이 이유자돈의 성장 및 스트레스에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Woolim;Lee, Geonil;Hong, Jinsu;Jeong, Jaehark;Kim, Yooyong
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to increased breeding area in same size pig pen and growth performance of weaning pigs. A total of 330 crossbred ($6.68{\pm}0.36kg$) weaning pigs were subjected to a 42-day feeding trial(3 pens/treatment) in which effects of the semi-floor were compared : NC; Negative control ($0.23m^2/pig$; 40 pigs/pen), PC; Positive control($0.30m^2/pig$; 30 pigs/pen) and Semi-floor($0.30m^2/pig$; 40 pigs/pen). There was a significant effect on BW at 6 week along all treatment(P<0.01). There was a effect of Semi-floor treatment on ADG(average daily gain) only during the first 3 week after weaning(P<0.01). No significant effect was observed in the ADFI during the experiment period. NC treatment had significantly lower BUN value than other treatments(P<0.05). The results from immune and stress response with semi-floor suggest that no negative effects in their blood analysis. Consequently, semi floor treatments increased additional breeding area and also growth performance rather than other treatments in weaning pigs.

Growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and blood metabolites of lambs fed diets supplemented with probiotics during pre- and post-weaning period

  • Saleem, A.M.;Zanouny, A.I.;Singer, A.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.523-530
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects on growth performance, digestibility, and blood metabolites of lambs during pre- and post-weaning period of inclusion of a commercial probiotic (PRO) containing a mixture of two strains of Pediococcus, Pediococcus acidilactici ($1{\times}10^6$ colony-forming unit [cfu]/g) and Pediococcus pentosaceus ($1.3{\times}10^6cfu/g$), with dextrose as the carrier compound compared to a diet based on concentrate mixture and wheat straw. Methods: In exp. 1, 24 male lambs of about $15{\pm}2.6$ d age and initial body weight (BW) of $5.52{\pm}0.6kg$ were randomly allocated into three groups. One group received control diet without additives, and remainders received control diet supplemented with 0.5 or 1 g PRO/lamb/d. Daily feed intake and biweekly BW were recorded. In exp. 2, five lambs, (initial $BW=29.72{\pm}1.15kg$, $age=6.54{\pm}0.32mo$) were used as experimental animals in a digestion trial. They were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. Results: The supplementation of PRO did not result in any significant differences in milk intake, average daily gain (ADG), or total gain between treatments during the pre-weaning period. Total dry matter intake tended to be greater (p = 0.07) with addition of PRO in the post-weaning diets. During post-weaning phase, the final BW, ADG, total gain, and feed conversion ratio of the lambs receiving PRO treatments tended to be greater ($p{\leq}0.10$) than the control group. Addition of PRO in post-weaning diet decreased ($p{\leq}0.01$) blood urea and cholesterol concentrations. With the exception of ether extract digestibility, all nutrients digestibility were improved with inclusion PRO in the post-weaning diets. Conclusion: Lambs that received PRO in post-weaning diet appeared to show a better performance than lambs in pre-weaning period. Addition of the probiotic in the post-weaning diet trended towards improved dry matter intake, growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and nutrients digestibility.

The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs

  • Cranston, L.M.;Kenyon, P.R.;Corner-Thomas, R.A.;Morris, S.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1270-1277
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS) (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods: On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning). The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM)/ha (Moderate) and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted). Results: There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p<0.05). Regardless of BCS group, Unrestricted treatment ewes had greater body condition and back-fat depth at weaning than Moderate treatment ewes (p<0.05). Ewes of BCS 2.0 group reared lighter lambs to weaning (p<0.05) and tended to have a lower total litter weight (p = 0.06) than BCS 3.0 group ewes. Conclusion: This study suggests farmers should aim to have all ewes with a BCS of 2.5 or 3 in late pregnancy for optimal lamb weaning performance. Furthermore, there is no benefit to lamb production of offering ewes pasture masses >1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.