• Title, Summary, Keyword: Weaning

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Effects of Weaning Period on Vocalization Frequency in Hanwoo Calf (이유시기가 한우 송아지의 발성빈도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyu-Ho;Yu, Jung-Won;Kim, Sang-Wook;Jung, Wang-Yong;Lee, One-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Rak
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.173-176
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning period on the vocalization frequency of Hanwoo calf. Twelve Hanwoo calves were allocated into 4 groups, control (forced weaning on 90days) and treatment (weaning on 70, 90 and 120days with 5 adaptation days). After weaning, behavior and vocalization of Hanwoo calves were recorded on 3 consecutive days with closed circuit television (DTC-R5254, Digite Co., Ltd., Korea) and digital audio tape recorder (SR-900, Idamtech Co., Ltd., Korea). Vocalization frequency of Hanwoo calf were not significance difference with control and treatment group. Thus, additional studies of feed intake and body weight gain were needed to determine the weaning period of Hanwoo calves.

A Study on Infant Weaning Practices Based on Maternal Education and Income Levels (양육인의 교육 및 수입정도에 따른 이유기 식생활관리에 대한 실태조사)

  • Kim, Song-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1000-1007
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    • 2005
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of maternal factors such as knowledge, attitude and practice of weaning with infant feeding. The subjects were 103 mothers visiting a public health center in Gumi, Kyungbook who filled out self-administered Questionnaires. First of all, about $90\%$ of the participants recognized the importance of complementary foods and proper weaning practices. The response for the recognition of the importance of infant weaning process showed a significant difference by education levels. Concerning an appropriate time for the introduction of weaning foods, $53\%$ of mothers had commenced weaning at age $4\~6$ months, while $38\%$ had done so at age $6\~8$ months. Approximately $76\%$ of mothers fed their babies without the knowledge of age-related weaning method and type of weaning foods. There were no statistical differences in maternal weaning knowledges between levels of education and house income. Mothers with higher levels of education and family income tended to show high perception scores regarding possibility of food allergies caused by baby foods. A demand for reliable sources and education related to nutritious weaning foods and weaning practices were strong in the group with higher education. Knowledge of weaning method and baby foods were obtained by 59 of the 103 mothers from mass media, 35 from friends caring babies, and 9 obtained advice from health professionals or family. Advice from the heath professionals was not the main influence on their decision to introduce weaning foods. Although commercial baby foods are the most commonly used as first weaning foods, those with higher education groups considered commercial baby food are not nutritionally better than home-maid foods. The current findings suggest to us that to improve weaning process, mothers should be educated on the selection and preparation of nutritious, balanced weaning foods and on good weaning practices. It is advised that supportive health professionals from community public health centers should lead the education of infant feeding practices based on maternal characteristics and on basic food and nutritional knowledge.

Effect of Different Feed Additives on Growth Performance and Blood Profiles of Korean Hanwoo Calves

  • Sarker, M.S.K.;Ko, S.Y.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, G.M.;Choi, J.K.;Yang, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted on 60 Hanwoo calves comprising five feed additive groups, with 12 calves in each group, to determine the effects of additives at pre- and post-weaning on growth performance and blood profile. The groups were control, antibiotic (Neomycin 110 ppm), illite (2%), fermented green tea probiotics (FGTP, 0.5%), and mixed additives (FGTP 0.25%, illite 1% and licorice 0.1%). The calves were offered experimental pellet feeds ad libitum and after one month were supplied with imported timothy hay. They moved freely within the group and suckled their mother' milk during the pre-weaning stage (birth to 3 months) and were separated from their dam during the post-weaning stage (4-5 months). During the pre-weaning stage, the highest average daily gain (ADG) was recorded in the antibiotic- and mixed additive-fed groups followed by FGTP, control and illite groups. In the post-weaning stage, significantly higher total weight gain and ADG were recorded in both the FGTP and mixed additive groups compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Feed efficiency of mixed additive- and illite-fed calves were almost similar with antibiotic-fed calves compared to the other two groups, but the ADG was lowest in illite-fed calves during the pre-weaning stage. In contrast, post-weaning calves fed FGTP and mixed additives showed better feed efficiency. The values of hematological indices, differential leukocyte count, blood proteins and immunoglobulin among the additive-fed calves were not significantly different (p>0.05), although hemoglobin and hematocrit values were lower in FGTP compared to control, but similar in mixed additive and antibiotic groups. These results indicate no detrimental effects of feed additives on the blood profile of calves at both pre- and post-weaning age. Serum albumin in post-weaning calves of all feed additive groups were similar but significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the control group. Post-weaning, IgM was significantly lower (p<0.05) in illite-fed calves compared to other treatment groups, but there was no difference at pre-weaning. Considering all factors, the mixed feed additives and FGTP can be the replacement feed formula for antibiotic for Hanwoo beef calf production, especially when used post- weaning.

A Study on Weaning Practice of Infants in Wonju area (원주지역 이유실천에 관한 연구)

  • 김영인;정낙원
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2002
  • foods. The most popular recipe of weaning foods at home was rice pudding with meats and vegetables(28.3%). The second popular recipe was mashed or grinded fruits(25.5%). The commercial weaning foods used by mothers were a various kinds of grinded cereals and bottle of puddings. And most of mothers get information through some materials such as books, TV and radio, etc.

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Sexual Dimorphism in Growth of Sucking and Growing Pigs

  • Dunshea, F.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1610-1615
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    • 2001
  • Three studies were conducted to determine the effect of sex on pre- and post-weaning performance of pigs. These studies were conducted in response to observations that female pigs appear to grow faster than male pigs after weaning. In addition, female pigs have been found to grow faster than male pigs when supplied with supplemental milk before weaning. The aims of the present work were to further characterise the ontogeny of sex differences growth of nursing and growing pigs. In the first study, piglets sucking 32 sows were crossfostered to produce litters of 10 boars (n=9), 10 gilts (n=l 1) or 5 boars and 5 gilts (n=12). Liveweight of the sucking pigs was then measured weekly until weaning at 4 weeks of age. In the second study, 80 boars and 80 gilts were weaned at 26 days of age and growth performance measured until 21 days post-weaning. In the third experiment, 40 boars and 40 gilts were weaned into groups of 5 pigs at either 17 or 25 days of age and pigs were weighed until they were approximately 90 kg liveweight. All-boar litters grew more slowly than the all-gilt and mixed litters such that by 14 days of age the all-boar litters were 10% lighter than the all-gilt or mixed litters (39 vs. 43.8 kg, p=0.050). The proportional difference in litter weight appeared to be maintained at 21 days of age (53.9 vs. 59.4 kg, p=0.063) but was diminished by 28 days of age (66.5 vs. 70.8 kg, p=0.28). In the second study, gilts grew more quickly than boars over the first 7 and 21 days post-weaning and as a consequence were 10% heavier than boars at 21 days after weaning (13.7 vs 12.48 kg, p=0.001). In the third study, gilts grew more quickly than boars in the immediate 7 days post-weaning (40 vs. 5 g/day, p=0.014) whereas from 7 until 35 days post-weaning there was no significant difference in growth rate (381 vs. 360 g/day, p=0.19). Gilts also grew more quickly than boars over the 14 days after being moved into the grower (631 vs. 570 g/day, p=0.013) and finisher (749 vs. 688 g/day, p=0.038) sheds. However, these differences were not maintained over the entire period in each shed. These data support the hypotheses that gilts handle the stresses of weaning and other transitions better than boars.

Shearing Pregnant Ewes to Improve Lamb Birth Weight Increases Milk Yield of Ewes and Lamb Weaning Weight

  • Cam, M.A.;Kuran, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1669-1673
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    • 2004
  • Milk yield, lamb birth weight and weaning weight responses to shearing during winter in sheep were investigated. A total of 46 Karayaka ewes were allocated into two treatment groups. Pregnant ewes in one group were shorn on day 100 of gestation (Shorn, n=24) and the remaining ewes were left unshorn to serve as controls (Unshorn, n=22). The ewes were maintained on pasture during the day and housed in the evenings. Lamb birth weight, weaning weight and ewes'' daily milk yield in fifteen dayintervals until weaning (75 days) were recorded. Shearing ewes on day 100 of pregnancy increased gestation length (p<0.01) compared to unshorn ewes (147.8${\pm}$0.45 vs. 145.9${\pm}$0.42 days). Birth weights of lambs from shorn ewes on day 100 of their pregnancy were higher (p<0.01) than those from unshorn ewes (3.7${\pm}$0.11 vs. 3.2${\pm}$0.07 kg). Shearing pregnant ewes increased (p<0.05) the lamb weaning weight at day 75 post-lambing (23.6${\pm}$1.10 vs. 19.5${\pm}$0.91). It also increased milk yield (p<0.05). Milk yields on day 75 of lactation were 302${\pm}$33 and 425${\pm}$25 g per day for unshorn and shorn ewes on day 100 of pregnancy, respectively. Lamb survival at weaning was higher (p<0.05) in lambs from shorn ewes compared to those from unshorn ewes. In conclusion, shearing pregnant ewes in winter months enhanced milk yield, lamb birth weight, lamb weaning weight and lamb survival. It is suggested that increasing both lamb birth weight and subsequent milk yield of dams by shearing ewes on day 100 of pregnancy during winter may improve postnatal lamb viability.

Estimates of Direct and Maternal Effects on Growth Traits in Angora Rabbits

  • Niranjan, S.K.;Sharma, S.R.;Gowane, G.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.981-986
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    • 2010
  • Genetic parameters of growth traits were estimated in the German Angora rabbit reared in the sub-temperate region of India. Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained for body weights at weaning (42 days) and post-weaning at 84, 126 and 168 days. A total of 8,324 animal records were used for the analysis of these traits. The data were analyzed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. A log likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Direct heritability estimates were observed to be moderate for the traits under study. Heritability estimates for weaning (42 d), 84, 126 and 168 d weights obtained from the best models were $0.25{\pm}0.05$, $0.17{\pm}0.05$, $0.21{\pm}0.06$ and $0.12{\pm}0.05$. Maternal effects had higher importance at weaning, and declined with the advancement of age. Significant maternal permanent environmental effect on weaning and post-weaning weights was a carryover effect of maternal influences during pre-weaning age. The estimated repeatabilities of doe effects on body weights were 0.37, 0.22, 0.18 and 0.28 at weaning, 84, 126 and 168 d body weight, respectively. Results indicated that modest rate of genetic progress is possible for body weight traits of Angora rabbit through selection. Similarly, these growth traits could be included in selection criteria along with wool traits for early selection of the animals.

A Comparison of Clinical Efficacy of Weaning Method Between the Mode of Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation and Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation Plus Pressure Support (기계적 호흡 치료로부터의 이탈방법으로서 Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation 단독 사용과 Pressure Support를 병용한 Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation의 비교)

  • Choi, Jeong-Eun;Koh, Youn-Suck;Cho, Won-Kyoung;Lim, Chae-Man;Kim, Woo-Sung;Park, Pyung-Hwan;Choi, Jong-Moo;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.372-378
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    • 1994
  • Background: Pressure support ventilation(PSV) is a new form of mechanical ventilatory support that assists spontaneous inspiraory effort of an intubated patient with a clinician-selected amount of positive airway pressure. Low level pressure support during inspiration can overcome the resistive component of inspiratory work imposed by an endotracheal tube. However the clinical efficacy of PSV as a weaning method has not been established yet. Object: The aim of study was to evaluate the efficacy of PSV when it is added to intermittent mandatory ventilation(IMV) in facilitating weaning precess compaired to IMV mode alone. Method: When the subject patients became clinically stable with their arterial blood gas analysis in acceptable range, they underwent weaning process either by IMV alone or by IMV plus PSV. The level of pressure support was held constant throught the weaning period. For the patients who required mechanical ventilation for less than 72 hr, 2h weaning trial was performed with IMV rate starting from 6/min. For the patients who required mechanical ventilation more than 72 hr, 7 hr weaning trial was performed with IMV rate starting from 8/min. For the patients who failed three consecutive trials of weaning, retrial of weaning was attempted over 3 days with IMV rate starting from 8/min. Clinical characteristics, APACHE II score and nutritional status were compared. For all patients, heart rate, mean blood pressure and respiratory rate were mornitored for 48 hrs after weaning trial started. Results: The total number of weaning trial was 37 in 23 patients(18 by IMV, 19 by IMV+PSV). Total ventilation time, APACHE II score and nutritional status were not statistically different between the two groups. The weaning success rate were not statistically different(38.3% by IMV, 42.1% by IMV+PSV) and the changes of mean blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate during first 48 hours were not different between the two groups. Conclusion: Low level PSV when added to IMV for weaning trial does not seem to improve the success rate of weaning from mechanical ventilation. PSV at 10cm $H_2O$ did not induce significant physiologic changes during weaning process.

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A STUDY ON ESTIMATION OF HERITABILITY OF BIRTH WEIGHT AND WEANING WEIGHT OF TEDDY GOATS KEPT UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

  • Tahir, M.;Younas, M.;Raza, S.H.;Lateef, M.;Iqbal, A.;Raza, P.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.595-597
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    • 1995
  • The mean birth weight and weaning weight estimated from 777 kids from 30 bucks of Teddy goats were $1.67{\pm}0.31$ and $8.50{\pm}2.18kg$, respectively. The estimates of heritability of birth weight and weaning weight by half sib correlation method were $0.048{\pm}0.022$ and $0.101{\pm}0.012kg$, respectively. The high heritability estimates of birth weight indicates that selection on the basis of individual's own record will be effective. The low estimates of heritability of weaning weight indicates more emphasis should be given to improve environmental conditions for better achievement.

The Influence of Weaning Time on Deer Performance

  • Bao, Y.M.;Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Miao, Z.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.569-582
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    • 2004
  • Current growth in the deer industry is 20% per annum as the demand increases for venison in Europe, including the increased use in Asia of antlers as a natural medicine by humans. The deer industry in Australia has developed rapidly, but farm profitability has fluctuated markedly. The knowledge on deer farming has largely been adopted from New Zealand (NZ) and the United Kingdom (UK) although the environmental conditions in these deer growing countries differ markedly from Australia. The practice used for weaning is one of the key factors influencing the profitability of the industry. However, a wide range in weaning dates are practised by farmers leading to the question of whether deer should be weaned after mating to reduce the stress during weaning or should they be weaned in the pre-rut period to allow does to recover their body condition for the next reproduction cycle. This review examines the effect of weaning time on the performance of does and hinds and the subsequent growth rate of the fawns and calves. Gaps in knowledge of weaning procedures and nutritional management for early weaned deer are identified.