• Title, Summary, Keyword: Weaning

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A Study on the Physiological and Psychological Factors related to Successful Weaning from a Mechanical Ventilator (기계환기기 이탈의 성공과 관련된 생리적${\cdot}$심리적 요인에 관한 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Cho-Ja;Kim, Hwa-Soon;Jang, Yeon-Soo;Kim, Eun-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.995-1005
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to identify the physiological and psychological variables related to successful weaning from a mechanical ventilator. The subjects of this study were 22 patients who received mechanical ventilation therapy for more than 3 days in intensive care units. Before the weaning trial, baseline data for following physiologic variables were obtained: spontaneous respiration rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, PaO2, PaCO2, PEEP, static compliance, minute ventilation, tidal volume, rapid shallow breathing index(f/VT), SaO2, PaO2/FiO2 and mean arterial pressure. During spontaneous breathing, physiologic and psychologic variables such as vital signs, ABG, perspiration, chest retraction, paradoxical respiration, dyspnea, anxiety, confidence and efficacy were measured. Successful weaning was defined as sustaining spontaneous respiration over 24 hours after extubation. Weaning failure was defined as the development of more than one of following signs: (1) hypoxemia, (2) CO2 retention or (3) perspiration, tachypnea, chest retraction, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension or hypertension. Subjects (N=18) who successfully weaned from mechanical ventilator were compared with subjects (N=4) who failed. The results are as follows; Eighteen percents of the subjects failed during the weaning trial. Most subjects in the failed group were mechanically ventilated for long-time. This result shows that the success of weaning is more difficult in long-term ventilation patients. In the baseline data that was measured before weaning trial, the mean score of PaO2 in the successfully weaned group was 121mmHg. This is significantly higher than the mean score of PaO2 in the failed group(95mmHg). However, the scores of pH, tidal volume, f/VT, pulse rates, blood pressure, mean airway pressure, SaO2, and PaCO2 were similar between the two groups. Specially the scores of f/VT index as a predominant predictor for successful weaning were not significant (f/VT=44.4) and (f/VT=47). During spontaneous breathing, the scores of dyspnea and anxiety level in the successfully weaned group were less than those of the failed group. On the contrary, the scores of confidence and efficacy in the successful group were greater than those of the failed group. In conclusion, the baseline data that were measured before weaning trial were similar between the both groups, therefore future studies are needed to focus on searching other variables besides physiological parameters related to weaning outcome.

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The Effect of Complementary Access to Milk Replacer to Piglets on the Activity of Brush Border Enzymes in the Piglet Small Intestine

  • Wang, J.F.;Lundh, T.;Westrom, B.;Lindberg, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1617-1622
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    • 2005
  • The activity of brush border enzymes (sucrase, lactase and maltase) in the piglet small intestine was evaluated as well as piglet performance during the weaning period in the present study. There were two treatment groups: Piglets of six litters were fed dry feed plus milk replacer (Group M) and of six litters fed dry pelleted feed (Group C). One piglet from each litter was sacrificed on day 3 before weaning, and day 3, 10 and 17 postweaning, respectively. Providing milk replacer caused an increased piglet live weight at weaning (p<0.001) and until termination of the experiment (p<0.001). A slightly higher (p<0.16) level of protein was measured in the jejunum of group M piglets as compared with group C piglets. Before weaning the activity of lactase was high in the jejunum of group C piglets. The activity of lactase in the jejunum was lowered in the jejunum of group C piglets and in distal jejunum of group M piglets during the postweaning period as compared with pre-weaning period (p<0.05). Lowered activity of lactase in the distal jejunum of piglets was found at day 10 and 17 postweaning, respectively. No treatment differences were found in the activity of lactase in the piglet jejunum. No treatment differences were seen in the activity of maltase and sucrase in the piglet jejunum also. However, weaning caused a higher activity of sucrase in the distal jejunum of group M piglets as compared with pre-weaning period. In conclusion, providing milk replacer to piglets caused an improved growth performance. Feeding milk replacer did not influence the activity of lactase, maltase and sucrase in the jejunum of piglets. Weaning resulted in a markedly lowered activity of lactase, while no dramatic changes in the activity of maltase took place during the period around weaning.

A Study on Weaning Practice of Infants in Kangnung Area (강릉지역 영유아의 이유 실태에 관한 조사연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Park, Kye-Wol;Chi, Kyung-A
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 1999
  • This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.

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A Comparison Study Of Infant Weaning Food Marketing In Korean (국내(國內) 시판중(市販中)인 이유식(離乳食)의 실태연구(實態硏究))

  • Han Yun-Jeong;Kim Jang-Hyun
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-39
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    • 1999
  • A infancy is the period in that growth and development of man are the most fast and neutrial requirement is the most big on his life. The insufficient neutrition of this period can have bad effect uppon man's whole life health not only physically but also pscychogenically and emotionally. Therefore a proper feeding at a proper time is very important to form the good food behavior and emotional development. The rate of using the commercial weaning food in Korea has gradually increased since 1970 and expected to be more increasing in future. In this paper, I investigate the general weaning status, stneutrial component and material content of infant weaning foods marketing in Korea at present. The material for this study have been collected in the exposition of products and data from manufacturing companies and etc. The conclusion is following. 1. The proper weaning period is from $4{\sim}6$ momth to 12 momth, but recently it is inclined to prolong. 2. In weaning methods, using a spoon is superior to using a bottle in food behavior and neutrial status. 3. The commercial weaning foods have two type, the powder type and formula type, but except gober's, all products marketing in Korea are the powder type and a sort of product is very simple. Therefore it is necessary to develp the more various kind of weaning foods, especially the formula type. 4. In the neutrial component, Son-Sik (flour of grain) cannot be up to international standards and the greater parts of weaning foods have too much suger over the standards.

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Role of dietary nucleotides to mitigate post-weaning stress in newly weaned pigs

  • Shin, Taeg Kyun;Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka;Cho, Hyun Min;Kim, Eunjoo;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Macelline, Shemil Priyan;Heo, Jung Min;Yi, Young-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.477-486
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    • 2017
  • This review provides an overview of dietary nucleotides as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics for weaning pigs. Dietary nucleotides are composed of DNA or RNA molecules and are normally contained in protein-rich feed ingredient, brewer's yeast, yeast extract, and milk. Weaning pigs are suffering from several stresses, such as environmental challenges (i.e. crowding, transportation, and feeding). Such stressors can damage the intestinal epithelium and cause an invasion by Escherichia coli, secondary inflammatory responses, and post weaning diarrhea. To overcome weaning disorder, people often use antibiotics which reduce symptoms and boost growth performance. However, since antibiotics were banned due to concerns of antibiotic resistant bacteria, researchers are studying alternative materials to antibiotics. Dietary nucleotides are one of the alternative materials for replacing antibiotics and can be used in abnormal conditions, such as weaning diarrhea, low digestibility, and disease condition. Nucleotides have substances that have important roles in cell division and cell growth, affecting growth performance, intestinal condition, and immunological effect at the weaning stage. However, nucleotides' composition is very different between sources and this aspect makes it difficult to utilize nucleotides at the weaning stage. Therefore, this review paper focuses on i) the characteristics and functions of dietary nucleotides and ii) the effect of dietary nucleotides on the growth performance and immune system of pigs.

Genetic Variation in Growth and Body Dimensions of Jersey and Limousin Cross Cattle. 2. Post-Weaning Dry and Wet Season Performance

  • Afolayan, R.A.;Pitchford, W.S.;Weatherly, A.W.;Bottema, C.D.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1378-1385
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    • 2002
  • The importance of direct genetic, maternal, heterosis and epistatic effects were examined on post-weaning weight, height, length, girth, fat depth and muscle (ratio of stifle to hip width) with dry and wet season gains in these traits. The breeds used were two pure breeds (Jersey and Limousin), the Limousin${\times}$Jersey $F_1$, and two backcrosses ($F_1{\times}$Jersey dams and $F_1{\times}$Limousin dams). Direct genetic effects were large (p<0.001) for all traits except for length. Jersey maternal effects were large for weight, girth, fat depth and muscle in the post-weaning wet season gains which is an evidence of the impact of Jersey dam on progeny beyond weaning. There were large heterosis effects on fat depth and muscle relative to other traits. Epistatic effects were observed for post-weaning performance in weight, girth, fat depth and muscle. There are indications that there were different genetic effects for post-weaning compared to preweaning growth traits. Thus, it could be hypothesized from this study that different quantitative trait loci (QTL) affect early and late growth in Jersey and Limousin cross cattle breeds. The follow up work will examine the different chromosomal gene effects on pre- and post-weaning growth.

A Clinical Study of Ventilator Weaning Following Open Heart Surgery (개심술후의 Ventilator Weaning 에 관한 임상적 고찰)

  • Kim, Kyou-Tae;Han, Sung-Sae;Lee, Chong-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 1981
  • Cardiac surgery is generally followed by a period of routine ventilator support. When the patient seems hemodynamically stable and relatively alert following surgery, respiratory adequacy is tested by the weaning trial. In this study, physiological and clinical prediction of postoperative respiratory adequacy, including values of pulmonary function tests, were examined in an attempt to identity those few variables which predicted the outcome of the ventilator weaning trial following surgery. Our series comprised 27 patients who underwent elective open intracardiac operations at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, from October 1979 to July, 1980. The pulmonary function tests performed on all patients included the following; forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume [FEV1.0], forced expiratory flow [FEF 25--75~], residual volume [RV], and functional residual capacity [FRC], measured with a helium dilution technique. Of our 27 patients, 8 were successfully weaned within 20 hours of operation. All patients with cyanotic heart diseases or acquired heart diseases were unsuccessfully weaned. The bypass time in the successful weaning group was shorter in the mean value [82.8 minutes]than in the unsuccessful weaning group [120.5 minutes]. There was a relatively significant difference in the mean values for the two groups in arterial pressure, bleeding amounts and FiO2 among the postoperative monitoring variables, and in forced vital capacity [FVC]. The postoperative clinical assessments appeared vague but corresponded reasonably well to appraisal of success in weaning, especially in variables of cough and self-respiration efforts.

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Effect of $PGF_2\alpha$ on the Serum Progesterone Level and Interval from Weaning to Estrus in Primiparous Sow ($PGF_2\alpha$ 투여가 초산돈의 혈중 Progesterone 농도와 발정재귀일수에 미치는 영향)

  • 연정웅;김정우
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 1994
  • In order to examine the effects of PGF2$\alpha$ on intervals from weaning to estrus and serum progesterone levels seventeen crossbred primiparious sows were randomly alloted to two groups. One group was injected intramuscularly on the day of weaning with 10 mg PGF2$\alpha$ (10mg/2ml, Lutylase). The other group was treated with saline as a control. Serum progesterone concentrations were determined at 24 hour intervals for 12 days after weaning. A serum progesterone level in PGF2$\alpha$-treated group was reached to the lowest level(1.19$\pm$0.38 ng/ml) on day 3 after weaning and remained low(1.26~1.43ng/ml) thereafter. Whereas, the control group showed the lowest level of progesterone on day 4 after wearing, then showed a rapid increase up to 5.02$\pm$0.38ng/ml on day 8 and a rapid decrease was followed. The PGF2$\alpha$ treated group showed an interval from weaning to estrus(5.2$\pm$0.8 days) approximately 2 days shorter than the control(7.4$\pm$3.0 days)(p<0.05).

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Effects of Varying Creep Feed Duration on Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Performance and Behavior of Piglet and Sow

  • Yan, L.;Jang, H.D.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1601-1606
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    • 2011
  • 32 sows (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of varying creep feed duration on pre-weaning, post-weaning performance of piglets and sows. Sows were randomly assigned with 1, 2 or 3+ parities into 1 of 4 treatments. Creep feeding was initiated at day 5, 10 and 15 from birth for treatment 1 (TRT1), 2 (TRT2) and (TRT3), respectively, with a control group provided no creep feed. In this study, TRT1 and TRT2 diets had reduced (p<0.05) the post-weaning diarrhea scores in piglets and the weaning-to-estrus interval and cortisol concentration in sows at weaning time compared with other treatments. Dietary TRT1 led to a higher (p<0.05) epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations than other treatments. No differences (p>0.05) were noted in suckling, sleeping, fighting frequency and mortality in piglet and eating, standing times, backfat and body weight loss in sows. In conclusion, creep feed initiated from day 5 and 10 reduce diarrhea scores in piglets and benefit the estrus interval in sows compared with those initiated from day 15 and no-creep feeding diets, indicating creep feeding could improve the pigs and sows performance, especially those initiated from day 5 and 10.

A Study of The Related Factors to Successful Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation in leu Patients (인공호흡기 치료환자의 이탈(weaning) 성공 관련 요인에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Sung;Choi, S-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.71-84
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : The Purpose of this study was to identify the physiological, psychological factors to successful weaning of mechanical ventilation in ICU patients. Method: Data was collected by interview with the use of questionnaires from 70 ICU patients, who were mechanically ventilated more than 3days at Y university medical center. Data was analyzed with descriptive statics, t-test, and $x^2$ test, and Pearson Coefficient Correlation using SPSS WIN 12.0 program. Result: ICU patients with mechanical ventilator during weaning period reported high levels of anxiety, moderate levels of stress, and fatigue. The physiological, psychological factors influencing ventilator weaning success were RSBI(p=0.007), stress(p=0.009), anxiety(p=0.020), depression(p=0.040), fatigue(p=0.001), and dyspnea(p=0.010). The RSBI factor was shown to have positive correlations with ventilator care periods, $PaCO_2$, and fatigue. Dyspnea was also positively correlated with stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Conclusion: This study suggests that RSBI, stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and dyspnea are significant factors to successful weaning from mechanical ventilation.

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