• Title, Summary, Keyword: Weaning

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Genetic Evaluation and Selection Response of Birth Weight and Weaning Weight in Indigenous Sabi Sheep

  • Assan, N.;Makuza, S.;Mhlanga, F.;Mabuku, O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1690-1694
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    • 2002
  • Genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight and weaning weight from three year (1991-1993) data totalling 1100 records of 25 rams to 205 ewes of Indigenous Sabi flock maintained at Grasslands Research Station in Zimbabwe. AIREML procedures were used fitting an Animal Model. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year of lambing, sex of lamb, birth type and the random effect of ewe. Weight of ewe when first joined with ram was included as a covariate. Direct heritability estimates of 0.27 and 0.38, and maternal heritability estimates of 0.24 and 0.09, were obtained for birth weight and weaning weight, respectively. The total heritability estimates were 0.69 and 0.77 for birth weight and weaning weight, respectively. Direct-aternal genetic correlations were high and positive. The corresponding genetic covariance estimates between direct and maternal effects were positive and low, 0.25 and 0.18 for birth weight and weaning weight, respectively. Responses to selection were 0.8 kg and 0.14 kg for birth weight and weaning weight, respectively. The estimated expected correlated response to selection for birth weight by directly selecting for weaning weight was 0.26. Direct heritabilities were moderate; as a result selection for any of these traits should be successful. Maternal heritabilities were low for weaning weight and should have less effect on selection response. Indirect selection can give lower response than direct selection.

A Study on the Status of Weaning in Korea(I) An Analysis of Nutritional Compositions of the Weaning Food Purchased in Korean Markets (한국(韓國)의 이유실태(離乳實態) 연구(硏究) (I) -시판이유(市販離乳) 식품(食品)의 실태(實態)와 그 영양(營養)에 관(關)한 분석(分析)-)

  • Rho, Sook-Nyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 1978
  • Numerous studies on the ablactation have been reported since Jundell’s report in 1924. This paper deals with the comparison in nutritional values, composition, economical sense and recommended dietary allowances to Korean infants of the weaning foods sold in Seoul, Jeonju and Gunsan together with the analysis of nutritional compositions of the most recommendable weaning food among those investigated. The results obtained from this study were; 1. Among ten kinds of the weaning foods produced in Korea, only nine sorts could be purchased in Seoul, seven in Jeonju and five in Gunsan. 2. It was difficult to compare directly the compositions of the weaning foods each other because of the differences of the unit indicated. 3. Not only the price of the same product in the same area was differentiated by 10 to 100 won but also the standard of nutritional composition was not identically indicated by the company produced. 4. Since the amount of directed dietary intake was much more than the actual nutritional requirements of Korean infants, waste of money was considered, if used according to the directions. 5. The nutritional compositions of the most recommendable weaning food among those investigated were indicated in Table. 6. More nutritious and economical weaning food adequate to Korean infants must be developed through further scientific, in vivo experiments.

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Study on Weaning Practice of Infants in Chunchon Area, Kangwon-Do (강원도 춘천지역 유아의 이유실태에 관한 조사연구)

  • 이정수
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.272-280
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    • 1994
  • The weaning practice of infants from 5 to 12 months of age in the area of Chunchon, Kangwon-do was studied. Subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on residential area, monthly family income and mother's educational level. Parents of group 1 (n=90) received higher education and more monthly family income than those of group 2(n=32). The family income was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Mother's educational level has been markedly improved over 10 years, which affected the feeding methods before weaning in both groups(P<0.05). Group 1 appeared to be bottle-fed. Bottle-and mixed-feeding were mainly due to lack of breast milk. 95.6% of group 1 and 71.9% of group 2 started weaning before the age of 6 months and only 16.4% were completely finished regardless of the groups. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made for first given-supplementary food. 82.2% of group 1 received fruits and 84.4% of group 2 cookies/crackers as their main supplementary foods. As the motivation of onset of weaning, 'for baby's health and nutritional status' was the most common. These results demonstrate that there are distinct differences between these 2 groups in 1) the feeding methods prior to weaning, 2) time of onset of weaning, and 3) main supplementary foods, influenced by mother's educational level, economic purchasing power, or subjects birth order.

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A study of Weaning Practice and Propositions about processed baby foods - Focused on the Seoul and Kyunggi area- (서울 및 경기일부 지역의 이유실시 현황과 이유식 개발에 대한 기대치 조사)

  • 전주혜;손경희;이영미
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 1993
  • A study was designed to assess the current status of weaning practice and to serve as a guideline of a processed baby foods through the an in-depth survey focused on the Seoul and Kyunggi area. 16.I% mothers surveyed were breast-fed and 54.6% were formula-fed. They mostly wanted to obtain information about processed bady foods and the adequate amount and weaning method of bady foods and showed deep interest in recipe of weaning foods. The average score of weaning knowledge which is counted by mothers'responses was IS.S and was significantly high in the high-educated group. The average Period when those surveved began weaning was $4.3\pm1.8$months and hight-educated mothers began weaning earlier than low-educated group. 77.O% mothers prepared weaning foods at home. The most popular recipe were gruel with meats and vegetables(52.6%) and they usually used mashed or grinded fruits(69.7%). 36.6% of the mothers surveyed used processed baby foods on sale once a day on the ground that such a small package is very convinient to carry. The processed baby foods which the mothers wanted to develope was the already-cooked type and to be able store at room temperature.

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A Study on Infant Feeding and Weaning Practice in Taejon (대전지역 영유아의 수유 및 이유실태 조사)

  • 왕수경;김지현
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.489-495
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate the weaning practice of 198 infants in Taejon city in October, 1998. Information on infant feeding and weaning practices were obtained by interviewing mothers in gynecologist and pediatric clinics located in Taejon. The results obtained were as follows : In the survey 37.4% of the infants were breast-feeding, while 31.3% of them were bottle-feeding and 29.3% of them were mixed-feeding. The reason for bottled-feeding was due either to the lack of breast-milk secretion or motner’s job. The educational level of the mother and maternal job affected the feeding methods before weaning. Lower rates of breast-feeding were found among mothers witn a lover level of education. The breast-feeding rate was lower in full-time and part-time job worker groups than in housewife. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to family income. Among the subjects, 71.5% of infants began to be weaned within 7 months. The onset of weaning was delayed in the full-time worker group. There was no significant difference in the onset time of weaning according to feeding method, the educational level of the mother, and family income. 60.6% of infants received fruit juice and 29.6% of them received cereals for first-given-supplementary food. ‘For baby’s nutritional status’ was the most common motivation for the onset of weaning. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made food for supplementary food.

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The Influence of Weaning Practices on the Eating Habits of Preschool Children (이유실태가 학령 전 아동의 식습관에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, So-Young;Jeong, Hee-Sun;Joo, Na-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.325-336
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of this study was to determine how weaning by mothers of preschool children between the ages of five and seven years influences the children's eating habits and food preferences. The results of this study will help to educate mothers about good weaning practices and facilitate the development of weaning programs by providing basic data on the subject. The results demonstrated significantly positive correlations between children's scores on eating habits and the level of vigorous weaning practices, the consistency of their practice, and the child's reaction to the foods provided (p<0.001). A positive correlation was noted between the frequency of providing solid food and the preference toward the food, with the exception of boiled rice and brightly colored vegetables. Thus, the results of this survey showed that the frequency and variety of solid foods that mothers try to actively provide their young children affect their food preferences and eating habits in general. These conclusions suggest that mothers should be educated about the significance of proper weaning so that their children can develop appropriate eating habits, and that there should be nutritional education for mothers, regarding the best weaning practices.

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Effects of Maternal and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet on Leptin Resistance and Hypothalamic Appetite Genes in Sprague Dawley Rat Offspring

  • Choi, Joo Sun
    • Clinical Nutrition Research
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.276-290
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    • 2018
  • The defective satiation signaling may contribute to the etiology of obesity. We investigated how dietary modification during maternal (pregnancy and lactation) and post-weaning affects obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypothalamic appetite responses in offspring in adulthood. Pregnant female SD rats were randomly allocated to either maternal high-fat diet (43% energy from fat) or control diet (12% energy from fat) until the end of suckling. After weaning for additional 4 weeks, half of the offsprings were continuously fed the same diet as the dam (C-C and H-H groups); the remainder received the counterpart diet (C-H and H-C groups). The long-term high-fat diet during maternal and post-weaning period (H-H group) led to susceptibility to obesity and IR through the significant increases of hypothalamic orexigenic genes compared to the maternal and post-weaning control diet group (C-C group). In contrast, the hypothalamic expression levels of anorexigenic genes, apolipoprotein E, leptin receptor, and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 were significantly lower in H-H group with elevations in circulating insulin and leptin and body fat mass. However, dietary changes after weaning (H-C and C-H groups) partially modified these conditions. These results suggest that maternal and post-weaning diet conditions can potentially disrupt hypothalamic neuronal signal irrelevantly, which is essential for leptin's regulation of energy homeostasis and induce the risk of offspring to future metabolic disorders.

Various levels of rapeseed meal in weaning pig diets from weaning to finishing periods

  • Do, Sung Ho;Kim, Byeong Ock;Fang, Lin Hu;You, Dong Hyeon;Hong, Jin su;Kim, Yoo Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1292-1302
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of rapeseed meal (RSM) supplementation in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profile, carcass characteristics and economic analysis on weaning to finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 120 cross bred ([Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace]${\times}$Duroc) weaning pigs were allotted to 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment had 4 replications with 6 pigs per pen. Five different levels of RSM (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were used as dietary treatments. Results: Overall, no treatment showed significant differences in growth performance with increased dietary RSM levels. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased as dietary RSM levels increased in 6 weeks (linear response, p<0.01). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine showed no significant differences, neither were there any significant differences in the immune response (IgG and IgA). As the dietary RSM levels of weaning pig diet were increased, no differences were found among dietary treatments upon performing proximate analyses of the pork after finishing. The influence of RSM supplementation on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention were not affected by dietary RSM levels either. With increased dietary RSM levels in the weaning pig diet, no differences among dietary treatments were found after performing proximate analyses of the pork's physiochemical properties. In addition, there were no significant differences observed in pork colors, pH levels, and economic benefits. Conclusion: Consequently, this experiment demonstrated that weaning pig's diet containing RSM influenced BUN concentration, but there were no detrimental effects on the growth performance of weaning pigs with up to 8% RSM in the diet.

Effect of anise flavor on the performance of sows and their litters with different weaning ages

  • Sun, Hao Yang;Lei, Yan;Kim, Inho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.273-283
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of anise flavor on the performance of lactating sows and suckling pigs at different weaning ages. A total of 120 sows (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) were used in this experiment. Sows were fed with a commercial lactation diet (60 sows) or diet with flavor (60 sows) during days 100 to 114 of gestation period and the whole lactation period. Piglets were allotted to 2 dietary treatments based on their initial body weight (BW) using a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of anise flavor (0 or 0.5 g/kg) and weaning periods (weaned at 21 day or 28 day after birth). Sows fed with flavor supplemented diets had higher (p < 0.05) back fat and average daily feed intake (ADFI) at weaning, lower (p < 0.05) back fat loss than those fed with non-flavor diets. Sows weaned at 28 day had higher (p < 0.05) weaning back fat and lower (p < 0.05) back fat loss than those weaned on 21 day. During weaning, piglet average daily gain (ADG), ADFI, digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and gross energy (GE) and fecal score were affected by anise flavor, respectively. In conclusion, dietary flavor supplementation could increase feed intake of lactating sows, improve growth performance and reduce weaning stress of piglets, especially effective in the early weanling piglets. Meanwhile, interactive effects were observed about the piglet performance between weaning ages and anise flavor supplementation after weaning.

Variations in the body surface temperature of sows during the post weaning period and its relation to subsequent reproductive performance

  • Weng, Ruey-Chee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1138-1147
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    • 2020
  • Objective: A study was made investigate factors affecting body surface temperature changes after weaning in sows, whether these can be used to aid detection of natural estrus and how they relate to subsequent reproductive performance. Methods: A total of 132 sows were selected during summer from a breeding farm, with mean parity of 3.6±2.3 and 28.5±0.9 days lactation length. Four daily measurements (6:00, 8:00, 16:00, and 18:00) of vulva (VST), udder (UST), ear base and central back skin temperatures for individual sows were taken by an infrared thermometer, continuing up to 8 days post weaning. Results: The VST obtained from sows showing estrus at 4 days post-weaning (4DPW), 5DPW, and 6DPW showed a peak at the fourth day post-weaning, but then started to decrease. The VST of sows not detected in standing heat (NDPW) remained at a lower level during the experiment, but UST was increased soon after weaning. The VST-UST temperature differences during daytime of sows that were showing behavioural standing heat on 4DPW, 5DPW, 6DPW, and 7DPW were 0.46℃±0.123℃, 0.71℃±0.124℃, 0.66℃ ±0.171℃, and 0.58℃±0.223℃, respectively. The NDPW sows had the highest UST observed, but also the lowest VST so that a more negative value of temperature difference (-0.31℃) was seen during first few days post-weaning. A total of 119 sows were observed to show standing heat and were bred. The later the estrus, the smaller the litter size (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Sows which did not show behavior indicative of stable standing heat after weaning had a VST which remained at a lower level, but the UST increased soon after weaning. Therefore, for sow heat detection under field conditions, the changes of VST and UST and difference between the two should be considered together to increase the accuracy of detection.