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A Study of Weaning Infant from the Mother Using the Oriental Medicine - Focusing on the Contents of SikRyoChanYo - (한방이유식에 대한 소고(小考) - 식료찬요(食療纂要)의 내용을 중심으로 -)

  • Yoon, Hye-Joon;Lee, Jin-Yong;Kim, Deog-Gon
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.70-76
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to suggest a way of weaning infant from the mother using an oriental medicine. Methods: Investigating the method of weaning infant from the mother using an oriental medicine, SikRyoChanYo. Results & Conclusions: There are two ways of weaning baby off from the mother using an oriental medicine. One way is a method of weaning ingredients analysis by oriental medicine. Another way is using an oriental medicinal. Weaning method using an oriental medicine can especially improve infant's health although we need more studies to prove this conclusion.

A Study of the Effect of Weaning Foods-Feeding Methods in Weaning Periods on Preschool-Children's Food Habit.Food Preference and Iron Nutritional Status (이유기의 이유식 섭식방법이 학령전 아동의 식습관.기호 및 철분영양상태에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • 박혜련
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate to the effect of weaning food-feeding methods on Preschool-Children's food habit, food preference and iron nutritional status for the subjects of 337 children, aged 18-60 months attending day care centers in Suwon and Seoul area. It divided the subjects into two groups according to the weaning food-feeding methods during their weaning period. One group(spoon-group) was defied as one had used to spoon over two times a day for 5 months and the ohter group (bottle-group) as one had used to bottle over two times a day for 5 months in weaning periods. All of the data were analyzed based on the weaning food-feeding method, mainly using bottle or spoon during their weaning period. The study results are summarized as follows. 1) 44.2% of the mothers mostly used bottle and 46.6% of them mostly used bottle to feed weaning foods. Age difference between the two groups was not found. 2) The numbers of daily consumed foods were significantly more higher in the spoon-group than the bottle-group and the amount of daily milk consumption was more higher among bottle-group. 3) Both of food intake frequency and food preference scores of the spoon-group were significantly higher than food intake frequency and food preference scores the bottle-group. 4) Iron nutritional status assessed by Hb and Hct was low in general. Only 26-63% of the subjects at each monthly age were in normal range. The higher the children's age, the more were grouped in normal range, which was more evident among children of the bottle-group. 5) Mother's nutrition knowledge related to weaning was more higher among spoon-group than both-group. There results shows the importance of appropriate weaning food-feeding methods for Preschool-children's food habit, food preference and nutritional status especially iron nutritional status. Nutrition education for mothers with weaning aged children has to be stressed and related programs have to be intervened effectively.

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The Study of Infant Feeding in Weaning Period -Focused on Seoul and Kyunggi-Do Area- (서울 및 경기지역 유아의 수유 및 이유에 관한 실태조사)

  • Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Yoon, Sun;Lee, Young-Mee;Min, Sung-Hee;Jeon, Joo-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.309-321
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    • 1992
  • A study was designed to assess the current status of infant feeding and weaning practice through an retrospective survey on feeding method, a period of weaning and various kinds of weaning food. Analysing a few influential environmental factors while assessing the level of knowledge today's mothers have on infant nutrition. The results are as follows: 1. As random samples for this study, a total of 516 mothers having infants under the age of 3 were surveyed. Among them, 235 were from Seoul and 281 were from Kyongi province (Yongin, Suwon, Bupyong, Poil, Kihung, Ansan(Chungbuk)). 2. Among the infants who fell under the category of normality (Kaup index $15{\sim}18$), the infants from Seoul area amounted to 60.7%, surpassing the percentage of the infants from Kyongi province, 41.9%. The percentage of the infants belong to a group of under nutrition (Kaup index <13) was relatively higher than that of the infants in a group of overnutrition (Kaup index >20). 3. 16.1% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 54.6% were formula-fed and 29.3% were mixed-fed. The result indicated that the percentage of breast-fed infants of high-educated, working mothers were relatively lower than those of low-educated housewives. 4. Most of the respondents knew the significance or the necessity of supplementary food in terms of weaning. 5. 98.8% of those surveyed responded that the mother's adequate knowledge on weaning was necessary. 70.1% of them replied that they wanted to get various and in-depth information in printed materials such as books or other kinds of publications. They, also showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food. 6. The average period when those surveyed began weaning of their infants was $4.3{\pm}1.8$ months. The tendency of earlier weaning in 3 months was founded among 41.1% of them. About half of the respondents, 52.3%, started weaning of their infants in $4{\sim}6$ months. In overall, 93.4% of them set on weaning in less than 6 months after babies were born. The survey, in addition, revealed an interesting fact that earlier weaning of infants was shown in the group of high-educated mothers. 7. According to the study, finishing period of weaning was $13.3{\pm}5.4$ months on average. Only 38.9% of the respondents ended weaning of their infants in 12 months, the proper period recommended by renowned experts. In general, the infants on formula-feeding finished their weaning later than those on breast-feeding (p<0.05).

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An Evaluation of Suckling and Post Weaning Practices in Relation to the Stimulation and Ease of Detection of Oestrus in Nepalese Pakhribas Pigs

  • Shrestha, NP;Edwards, S.A.;English, P.R;Robertson, J.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.765-770
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    • 2001
  • Thirty second parity sows of the synthetic Nepalese Pakhribas genotype were used to investigate factors which might improve the occurrence and expression of estrus. The experiment had two sequential elements. In part 1, a change in suckling pattern was applied during lactation, and in part 2, different estrus detection methods were evaluated after weaning. All sows received the same pattern of weaning, which imitated the progressive weaning system used in Nepalese villages. Piglets from each litter were weaned at three ages (6, 7 and 8 weeks of age) in the proportion of 0.5 at 6 weeks followed by 0.25 at each of the subsequent weanings. In the first lactation treatment, the suckling pattern was left undisturbed, similar to the practice used in the villages in which the remaining piglets after first weaning are allowed continuous suckling. In the other treatment, the remaining piglets after first weaning were allowed to suckle their sows only during the night, whilst in the day time (09:00-16:00) they were excluded from the sow but left free to roam around. After weaning, estrus detection procedures were carried out in the absence or presence of two different boar stimuli: a synthetic boar pheromone spray or fresh boar urine. These were applied sequentially in a sequence of testing that alternated for each sow on a daily basis. The weaning to re-mating interval was significantly longer for the unrestricted suckling treatment. All sows were re-mated within 30 days after first weaning in the restricted suckling treatment groups, whereas only 71% of sows were re-mated within 30 days after weaning in the unrestricted suckling treatment groups ($x^2=3.877$, 1df, p<0.05). Both boar pheromone spray and boar urine increased the estrus detection probability, with no significant differences between the two stimuli treatments.

Effects of weaning and castration ages on growth performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

  • Lim, Hwan;Ahn, Jun Sang;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Park, Joong Kook;Shim, Jae Yoon;Kim, Il Young;Kim, Ji Hyung;Cho, Sung Myoun;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh;Park, Byung Ki
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.12
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    • pp.30.1-30.11
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    • 2018
  • Background: Recently, as production costs have been increasing owing to rising feed prices worldwide, shortening the age of slaughter has been recognized as a way to increase farm income. In Korea, the raising period for Hanwoo steers is over 31 months with the delay of weaning and castration stated as one of the reasons for the increase in the raising period. Thus far, studies on age of weaning and castration have been conducted individually, and there have been no studies on the combined effects of weaning and castration ages on the growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Methods: Weaning ages were calculated at 80 or 130 days of age, and castration ages were calculated at 90 days and 180 days of age. Calves were allocated to one of the four treatment groups: W80C90 (weaning at 80 days of age and castration at 90 days of age), W80C180, W130C90, and W130C180. Results: For the entire experimental period, weaning and castration ages did not significantly affect growth performance of Hanwoo steers. In addition, weaning and castration ages did not affect the overall yield and quality traits of carcass in Hanwoo steers. Conclusion: Weaning and castration ages had small effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Therefore, the early weaning and castration ages are recommended to reduce the slaughter age without any negative effects on meat quality grade.

Development of Nutritionally Balanced Weaning Foods for Korean Infants II -investigating the conditions of weaning and demand for nutritionally balanced weaning food development- (영유아를 위한 영양적으로 균형된 이유 보충식의 개발을 위한 연구 II -이유 실태 및 이유 보충식 개발을 위한 요구사항 조사-)

  • Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Choi, Jung-Sun;Lee, Jin-Sil;Jeon, Hyung-Joo;Min, Sung-Hee;Park, Hyun-Kyung;Park, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 1996
  • Infanthood is a crucial period when mental and emotional developments take place along with physical growth. Adequate supply of nutrition is essential during this period and there is an urgent need for proper education and guidance on balanced nutrition. Therefore, this study tried to set the direction for developing baby food by investigating the conditions of weaning status and mothers perspectives on weaning. According to the result of this study, the average period when interviewees began weaning of their infants is 4.1 months and finishing period of weaning is 14.2 months on average. The frequency of consuming commercial weaning food is once a week. As high as 88.4% and the fruit juice was mainly used as the starting weaning food. The consumtion rate, more than once a day, is as high as 60%, they use commercial weaning food for convenience, especially when they are out. The 65% of surveyed group show rather dissatisfactory view about the commercial weaning food, and wanted improvements and changes. Interviewees wanted to obtain the information on baby food sold in the market and how to prepare baby food through technical literatures, and they frequently relied on commercial baby food due to its convenience. The most desired type of baby food was semi-solid paste in a disposable package that can be stored at room temperature.

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The Relationship Between Infant Feeding Methods and Weaning Practices and Dietary Attitudinal Characteristics of Mothers in Wonju Area (원주지역 어머니의 식생활 태도가 영유아 영양법 및 이유실태에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hae-Sook;Lee, Myung-Hee;Moon, Soo-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 1997
  • This study examined the relationship between mothers' consciousness of diet and their infant feeding methods and weaning practices. Consciousness of diet analyzed from 17 questions concerning the attitudes and opinions of diet was classified into 6 categories using the factor analysis. These categories were the faithfulness of diet, the health-directed dietary practices, the application of health information, the application of information about food and nutrition, the sincerity to meal preparation, and dietary habits. The 400 mothers selected randomly from Wonju area were surveyed. The results obtained from the study were summarized as follows. Weaning was implemented earlier by the group with better education career and with the exact knowledge of weaning. Factors associated with infant feeding methods included some sociodemographic characteristics such as birth order, mothers' employment state and income level and mothers' effort toward faithfulness of diet. The use of health-foods and nutrient supplements were prefered by the groups used bottle-feeding method. The health condition of the infants was influenced by mother's will to carry out the health information rather than infant feeding methods and weaning foods used. Mothers who perceived the importance of diet for health and consumed more milk had healthier babies, and their dietary habits were more favorable. The subjects who self-recognized the meaning of weaning and who believed that earlier weaning was good for baby or delayed weaning was the cause of anemia and poor appetite, took advantage of the information about food and nutrition as well as prefered the health-directed dietary practices. Mothers who retried to feed the weaning food rejected by baby before, applied the dietary information to the real meal management more actively and had a more desirable dietary habits. In those cases the baby had improved health condition. Those who were interested in the meaning of weaning and the nutritious effect of weaning foods, revealed significantly higher tendency on the performance of cooking information and the more confidence to the health information from advertisement.

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Productive and Reproductive Performance of Kajli and Lohi Ewes

  • Nawaz, M.;Khan, M.A.;Qureshi, M.A.;Rasool, E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1999
  • Data from 22837 lambings of Lohi and Kajli ewes from 1962 through 1994 were used to analyse productive and reproductive traits and wool production, Overall litter size at birth averaged 1.33 being 1.45 for Lohi and 1.21 for Kajli ewes. The corresponding values at weaning were 1.23, 1.32 and 1.14, respectively. Litter size was consistently lowest for one year old, with a substantial increase at two, three and four years of ewe age and marginal increase thereafter, Ewes lambing in spring weaned 0.08 more lambs per parturition than ewes lambed in Autumn (p<0,01). Lamb birth weights were affected by ewe breed (p<0.01) and increased with ewe age. Overall lamb weaning weight (120 d) of 17993 lambs was 20.3 kg. Weaning weight was affected by breed, sire, year of birth, sex, rearing rank and weaning age (p<0.01). The highest mean weaning weight was 21.9 kg for Lohi lambs followed by Kajli lambs (18.8 kg), Lambs from Kajli ewes were 9% heavier at birth but 14% lighter at weaning. Twin born lambs were 18% lighter at birth and 13% at weaning than single born lambs. Male lambs were 3% heavier at birth and 4.5% heavier at weaning than female lambs. Overall annual mean wool production was 2,64 kg, Kajli ewes were heavier at breeding than Lohi ewes (i.e. 46.2 vs 44.8 kg). Lohi ewes being 3% less body weight produced 38% more wool and 18% more litter weaning weight than Kajli ewes, When average weight of lamb weaned per ewe weaning lambs was adjusted for ewe average metabolic body size, Lohi ewes were most efficient (i.e. arbitrary assigned value of 100) compared to Kajli ewes achieving only 83% of Lohi level.

Relations between the Micorfloral Composition and the Environmental Factors Affecting Korean Infants during Lactation (수유기 영아의 장내균총 조성과 환경인자와의 관계)

  • 진효상
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1999
  • The relations between micorfloral compositions and environmental factors of 32 Korean infants were sought through statistical analysis after examinaton of fecal bacterial and questions to their mothers about feeding experiences at three different times for each subjects, about one week after birth, before weaning (2-3 months after birth), and after weaning 95-7 months after birth). The majority of mothers fed their infants cereal foods after the age of 4 months and began weaning with fruit juice and commercial weaning foods. Defection frequencies and fecal pH of infants decreased significantly during the examination period and 37.5% of total infants in fecal samples increased significantly during the examination period, which means that the kinds of bacterial genera increase with aging of infants. Frequencies of streptococci were significantly higher in infants fed delivered by Caesarian section than infants delived naturally. Frequencies of clostrida were significantly higher in infants fed with cerealfood before 4 months of age than after 5 months. The infants fed with probiotics showed significantly higher frequencies of veillonella at about 1 week old. They also showed significantly higher frequencies of clostridia before weaning than the infant fed with no probiotics, but significantly lower frequencise of C. perfringens before weaning. The infants fed with probiotics showed significantly higher number of streptococci at the age of about 1 week and significantly higher numbers of total aerobes before weaning, but significantly lower numbers of bacteroides after weaning than their counter parts. The fecla pH was directly proportional to the number of clostridia, klebsiella, and total aerobes at about 1 week after birth, to the number of E. coli before weaning, and to the number of streptococci and clostridia after weaning. Fecal pH had a negative relationship to the total number of anaerobes in 1-week-old infants. The infants that had diarrhea during lactation showed higher frequencies of bacteroides before weaning than those that didn't.

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Growth Performance of Weaner Lambs Maintained on Varying Levels of Dietary Protein and Energy in the Pre-weaning Phase

  • Karim, S.A.;Santra, A.;Sharma, V.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1394-1399
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    • 2001
  • Influence of pre-weaning nutrition on post-weaning gain was assesses under intensive feeding in Malpura lambs. Thirty six Malpura (15 days old) lambs divided in to 3 equal groups were maintained on high (G1), medium (G2) and low (G3) energy and protein containing creep mixture with free suckling and ad libitum roughage (pala leaves: Ziziphus nummularia) up to 90 days of age. The lambs during post-weaning phase were fed on a 40:60 roughage and concentrate based composite diet to assess their post-weaning growth response. Total dry matter intake in pre-weaning phase was higher (p<0.01) in G3 than G2 and G1 while feed conversion efficiency was better in G1 than G2 and G3. The birth weight, 15 days body weight and weaning weight were however similar in the three groups. The finishing body weight, total body weight gain and average daily gain during post-weaning phase were higher (p<0.01) in G3 than in G1 and G2. The lambs in G3 consumed more (p<0.01) dry matter during post-weaning phase along with better feed conversion efficiency than other two groups. However, the DCP intake/kg body weight gain was higher in G1 than G2 and G3. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and energy were similar among the three groups during post-weaning phase. Percent nitrogen retention as nitrogen intake was higher (p<0.01) in G3 (71.1%) than G1 (67.7%) and G2 (69.7%) during the post-weaning phase of study. The G1, G2 and G3 lambs in post-weaning phase consumed 8.1, 7.7 and 8.1 g DCP and 246.8, 227.2 and 246.1 kcal $DE/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$ and had 84.4, 80.0 and 111.1 g average daily gain, respectively. It is concluded that the lambs fed on low energy and protein containing creep mixture in pre-weaning phase showed improvement in growth during post-weaning phase under optimum feeding regime.