• Title, Summary, Keyword: Weaning

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Composition and Changes of Gastrointestinal Microflora in Breast-fed and Formula-fed Infant before and after Weaning (모유영양아의 인공영양아의 장내균총 조성과 이유보충식 도입에 따른 변화)

  • 이경자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.305-314
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    • 1998
  • Microflora in 14 breast-fed(BF) and 15 formula-fed(FF) infants were investigated before (2-3 months after birth) and after weaning (5-7 months birth) to find the floral differences between the two lactation groups and the floral changes after weaning. Bifidolbacteria showed the highest count among the species of microflora in the BF group before and after weaning, but in the FF group, streptococci showed the highest count before weaning and bifidobacteria after weaning. Before weaning , the count of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total acaerobes were significantly higher in the BF group than in the FF. However, the frequencies of clostridia and klesidella , along with the counts of streptococci and eubacteria, were higher in the FF group. After weaning , the only difference was that the total count of aerobic bacteria was higher in the BF group. The counts of streptococci in the BF group and lactobacilli and total anaerobes in the FF group after weaning were significantly higher than before weaning. However, the count of total aerobes in the FF group after weaning was significantly lower than the count before weaning.

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Effects of Weaning Behavior on Health Status of Infants in Seoul, Korea (이유행태가 유아의 건강상태에 미치는 영향 - 서울 지역 유아를 대상으로 -)

  • 장유경
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.169-181
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of weaning behavior on infants' health status. 294 mothers who had infants, aged 4 to 12 months in Seoul, were selected by cluster sampling and answered by the special questionnaires. Result were as follows : 55.1% of mothers had commenced weaning by 3 months of age. Infants eatten commercial weaning food except for infant eatten only home made weaning food were 88.8%. The case that mothers couldn't make weaning food at the home were 56.6% because they didn't know how to cook of weaning food. Cereals were used frequently as infant foods while meat and fish were lesser used. The higher mother's education level had, the higher nutritional knowledge had. Nutritional knowledge was not influenced on selecting the kinds of weaning food. But the higher nutritional knowledge had, the more desirable weaning behavior mother tended to be had. The more desirable weaning behavior mother had, the more infant's health status tended to be improved. Therefore, for the desirable weaning behaviors of mothers and the improvement of infants' health status, nutritional education program including cook method and development of infant food is need.

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Perception and Use of Weaning Diets by Housewives in Gwangju-Jeonnam Regions (광주${\cdot}$전남지역 주부들의 이유식에 대한 인식 및 이용 실태)

  • Park, Young-Hee;Lee, Sung-Sug;Jung, Lan-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.799-807
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to assess the perception and use of weaning diets and to serve as a guideline of processed weaning diets through a survey focused on the Gwangju-Jeonnam regions. The following results were obtained. Most subjects mixed 'home-made' and 'commercial' weaning diets and considered weaning diets as 'a diet for supplementing insufficient nutrition'. The most frequently used type of weaning diet was 'a kind of gruel with vegetables or meat', followed by 'boiling powder with water' and 'grinding or crushing fruits'. Two thirds (68%) of subjects had experienced buying weaning diets, mainly a powder type. The most common reason to buy weaning diets was 'troublesome', followed by 'excellent nutrition', 'convenient to go out', and 'don't know how to make'. The following results according to factors were found. The types of provided and of weaning diets were significantly different by age; the understanding of weaning diets, by education and mothers' employment; and where to get information about weaning diets, by economic status. The highest request for developing weaning diets was a type of 'powder' and 'gruel', and the highest cooking type was 'adding boiling water', followed by 'a semi-cooking product' and 'a finished product'. 'Retort pouch' package, a 'single' package unit, and 'keeping cold' were also requested by the participants. A desirable package unit in developing weaning diets was significantly different by mother's employment; the cooking type of product, by economic status; a way to keep product, by mother's employment; and package types, by education and economic status. When weaning diets were made by environmentally friendly agriculture, 69.5% of subjects were willing to purchase them. With the increase in economic status, education, and employment rate, the use of weaning diets on the market will increase. For this reason, correct nutrition education is needed. With the increasing demand for environmentally friendly agriculture, a variety of weaning diets should be developed to meet this demand.

A Study on the Mothers' Knowledge and Practice about the Infant Weaning Diet (영유아 어머니의 이유식에 대한 지식정도 및 실태조사)

  • Kim, Mi-Sook;Choi, Kyung-Sook
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.38-53
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    • 2001
  • The main purpose of this study was to present the basic materials that help the nursing of the infants and consultation of childcare by examinating the knowledge and practice of the mothers about the weaning diet. The data for this study was collected from 205 mothers with infants(6-36 months) who visited two hospitals or one university hospital in Seoul, who were living in one apartment Suwon area between July. 7. and September 10, 2000. The 57 questionnaires were used for collecting the data and SAS program was used to analyse the data. The results are as follows. 1. The items of low score in the result of the knowledge data were as follows. [Initial weaning time, the important nutritional problem in infant, considering factor during feeding, the relation of proper weaning food & age, the time of used by cup, to apply of proper spicies in weaning food, the time of completing weaning, the time of stopping weaning at abnormal sign, and the inappopriate reason of dry mixed powdered food (Sunsik) as a weaning food.] 2. Higher educated mothers presented more high score than lower educated mothers in the knowledge about the weaning. (p<0.05) 3. Before the weaning, more mothers were using the commercial milk (51.2%) than the breast milk (13.2%). 4. Mothers get the knowledge about the weaning from the infants care book of cook books(26.4%). 68% of mothers had not received any consulting service with regard to the weaning, 10.2% of them consulted Pediatrician about the weaning and 0.5% of them with nurse. 5. Most mothers began supplymentary food, from four to six months (65.4%). the ratio was about the same as the ratio of mothers who knEw the appropriate time for the introduction of supplymentary food(83.2%) 6. The main solid food was commercial food, not home-prepared food. 7. Higher educated mothers used home-prepared weaning food more often than lower educated mothers(P<0.05). 8. The used rate by spoon was 57.4%, but the rate of mother's knowledge data was 95.0%. 9. The time of completing the weaning was in 12-18 months(53.8%). It is similar to the mother's knowledge data(52.7%) Conclusion ; According to knowledge data, it turns out that most mothers know moderatly about the weaning (everage 60/100). However their knowledge and practice on the methods & procedures on the weaning were inadquate. Especially, most mothers did not consult with those qualification about the weaning. Therefore, the role of the nurse as a provider of information on the weaning should be emphasized with varied educational programs in many health care center.

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Effects of Weaning Days on Feeding Performance and Behaviour of Piglets (자돈의 이유일령이 이유자돈의 육성성적 및 행동에 미치는 영향)

  • 이용준;송영한
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to determine the effects of different weaning age on feeding performance and behaviour of piglets. Sixty crossbred(YLxD) litters of piglets were randomly alloted to be 15 pens with 4 piglets per pen and 5 pens per treatment by weaned at 14, 21, and 28 days. Pens were video-taped for 24 hours immediately at 7 weeks and 8 weeks of age. The piglets weaned at 14 and 21 days were significantly (P<0.05) much intake than piglets weaning at 28 days. The piglets weaning at 14 days were significantly lighter than piglets weaning at 14 and 21 days fro m2 weeks to 8 weeks age. However, feed conversion ration was significantly(P<0.05) improved according to late weaning days. Times spent engaged in Feeding, lying and walking were similar in piglets across weaning age. They also showed similar occurrence of drinking and agonistic behaviour at 7 weeks and 8 weeks of age. Piglets weaned at 14 days exhibited more belly-nosing behaviour at 7 weeks of age, but similar in piglets at 8 weeks of age across weaning age. We concluded that piglets performance influenced by weaning day, however time spent for feeding, lying and walking behaviour were no significance. Drinking, Agonistic and belly-nosing were not significantly different by weaning age.

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The Study of Infant Feeding in Weaning Period (서울 지역 어린이의 이유 실태 조사)

  • Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Yoon, Sun;Lee, Young-Mee;Jeon, Joo-Hye
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 1992
  • This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the growth of children and their care person's weaning behaviors and its relation between the growth and care person's attitude and behaviors about weaning. 272 subjects who had child under 2 years old at that time were randomly selected and answered the special questionnaire. Results were as follows: Using to Kaup index, 13.4% of children were estimated undernutrition, 60.6% were normal and 26.0% were estimated overnutrition. 97.6% of respondant (children's mother) were recognized the need of weaning and the first prurpose of weaning was supplement of nutrients, and the next one was to set up normal food habits. 39.1% of subjects were used normal adult foods as weaning food. 60.9% of subjects were proepared special foods (making at home or buying commercial weaning food). The socioeconomic status was major factor to influence mother's behaviors about weaning. Vegetable and meat gruel was the most commen weaning food and the next one was fruits puree and rice with soup. The correlationship were found between Kaup index and the score of mother's weaning behaviors, between momer's eductional level and the score of weanig behaviors. 96% of subjects wanted nutritional education about weaning. They wanted to know about desirable weaning process and correct informations of commercial weaning foods mid the convenient cooking methods. According to the difference of socioeconomic status subjects were wanted different eductional methods. Upper socioeconomic group wanted special books about weaning and lower class wanted to be educted through the mass media especially television programs.

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Estimation of Weaning Age Effects on Growth Performance in Berkshire Pigs

  • Do, C.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2012
  • Analysis for back fat thickness (BFAT) and daily body weight gains from birth to the end of a performance test were conducted to find an optimal method for estimation of weaning age effects and to ascertain impacts of weaning age on the growth performance of purebred Berkshire pigs from a closed population in Korea. Individual body weights were measured at birth (B), at weaning (W: mean, 22.9 d), at the beginning of the performance test (P: mean, 72.7 d), and at the end of the performance test (T: mean, 152.4 d). Further, the average daily gains in body weight (ADG) of 3,713 pigs were analyzed for the following periods: B to W (DGBW), W to P (DGWP), P to T (DGPT), B to P (DGBP), B to T (DGBT), and W to T (DGWT). Weaning ages ranged from 17 to 34 d, and were treated as fixed (WF), random with (WC) and random without (WU) consideration of an empirical relationship between weaning ages in the models. WF and WC produced the lowest AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) and least fractions of error variance components in multi-traits analysis, respectively. The fractions of variances due to diverse weaning age and the weaning age correlations among ADGs of different stages (when no overlapping allowed) by WC ranged from 0.09 to 0.35 and from -0.03 to 0.44, respectively. The maximum weaning age effects and optimal back fat thicknesses were attained at weaning ages of 27 to 32 d. With the exception of DGBW, the effects of weaning age on the ADGs increased (ranging from 1.50 g/d to 7.14 g/d) with increased weaning age. In addition, BFAT was reduced by 0.106 mm per increased day in weaning age. In conclusion, WC produced reasonable weaning age correlations, and improved the fitness of the model. Weaning age was one of crucial factors (comparable with heritability) influencing growth performance in Berkshire pigs. Further, these studies suggest that increasing weaning age up to 32 d can be an effective management strategy to improve growth performance. However, additional investigations of the costs and losses related to extension of the suckling period and on the extended range of weaning age are necessary to determine the productivity and safety of this practice in a commercial herd and production system.

Effects of different creep feed types on pre-weaning and post-weaning performance and gut development

  • Heo, Pil Seung;Kim, Dong Hyuk;Jang, Jae Cheol;Hong, Jin Su;Kim, Yoo Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1956-1962
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different creep feed types on suckling performance and further adjustments to solid feed after weaning. Methods: A total of 24 multiparous sows and their litters were allotted to one of three treatment groups: i) provided highly digestible creep feed (Creep), ii) provided a pig weaning diet (Weaner), and iii) provided sow feed (Sow) as creep feed until weaning. After weaning, a total of 96 piglets were selected for evaluation of post-weaning performance. Results: For pre-weaning performance, the Creep treatment led to a significantly higher feed intake from 14 to 28 d (p<0.05) and higher body weight gain from 21 to 28 d than piglets that were provided other diets. However, after weaning, the Weaner treatment yielded a significantly higher feed intake and average daily gain than other treatments from 0 to 14 d after weaning (p<0.05); Creep treatment tended to generate lower villus heights in the duodenum than the other treatments (p = 0.07). Conclusion: Highly digestible creep feed improved pre-weaning performance, but feed familiarity and grain-based creep feed improved post-weaning performance.

A Survey on doing Weaning Activities of First-time Mother (초산모의 이유실천에 관한 조사연구)

  • Jang In-Sun;June Kyung-Ja;Park Eun-Ok;Lee Kun-Sei
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 2002
  • It is an important task to give adequate nutritions to infants and to wean properly for rapid growth. This study was conducted to survey on doing the weaning activities of the first-time mother. This study was to provide basic data of health teaching and nursing intervention for the promotion of ideal weaning activities. Survey was done from January to February in 2001. Total 444 mothers who have first-time baby under twelve month old were interviewed in five community health center around contry (Seoul, Choung-ju, Asan, Cheon-an, Jeju). The results are summarized as follows; Starting time of weaning was common in four month old(40.4%). Most common daily weaning times by age showed once(under 3 months), twice(4 to 7 months), three times(8 to 12 months). The younger, the more commercial weaning products(p<0.01). Education level showed relatively positive relation with home-made weaning food(p<0.05). Items showed low scores in 4 to 7 months group were starting new food item, waiting at least one week interval to new food, feeding by milk bottle, allowing grasping spoon, consulting pediatrician for problems after weaning, starting from morning, regular schedule. Items showed low scores in 8 to 12 months group were feeding whole egg rather than yolk only up to 12 months, keeping weaning interval were increased, feeding by milk bottle, trying various cooking method, not giving commerical cooking and instant food and unproper raw milk feeding. In weaning activities by general factors, mother age, health status, marriage duration, monthly income were statistically significant (p<0.05). To improve good weening activities, targetting on low maternal age and poor health status, and low income group, developing teaching materials and training program for items showed low scores and proper weaning time, type of easy home-made food and easy cooking method should be provided. Further study on effect of nursing intervention to improve weaning activities are needed.

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Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on growth performance, fecal score, and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs

  • Liu, Xiao;Li, Tianshui;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2018
  • Weaning pigs often face post-weaning challenges such as diarrhea, low feed intake, and body weight (BW) loss which affects the health and economic value of weaning pigs. Interestingly, the use of yeast cultures (YCs) as feed supplements for pigs has increased markedly in recent years. This study evaluated the effects of yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the growth performance, fecal score, and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs. A total of 50 crossed healthy weaning pigs [(Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace) ${\times}$ Duroc] with an average BW of $7.46{\pm}1.60kg$ (28 day of age) were used in a 6-week experiment. The experiment was divided into 3 phases (Phase 1, 1 - 2 weeks; Phase 2, 2 - 4 weeks; Phase 3, 4 - 6 weeks). Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) CON: basal diet and 2) CON + 0.50% YC. During phase 1, the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the weaning pigs fed YC supplementation diets compared with the weaning pigs fed the CON diet. During phase 3 as well as overall, the gain/feed ratio (G/F) was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the YC supplementation group compared with the pigs fed the CON diet. In conclusion, the supplementation of YCs in the diet positively affected the growth performance of weaning pigs during the first two weeks after weaning.