• Title, Summary, Keyword: Weaned Pigs

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Effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs

  • Kim, Yunkang;Baek, Jangryeol;Jang, Kibeom;Kim, Junsu;Kim, Sheena;Mun, Daye;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Choe, Jeehwan;Song, Minho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 2017
  • Soybean, one of most widely used swine feed component in the world, contains non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The digestive system of weaned pigs is not yet fully developed, and thus weaned pigs cannot easily digest diets based on corn and soybean meal. Dietary exogenous enzymes supplementation has been intensively investigated to assist digestion of anti-nutritional factors, such as NSP. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.05% enzyme cocktail (Cocktail; mixture of xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs were measured. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for growth performance for the duration of the experimental period, and morphology of ileum, and nutrient digestibility between CON and Cocktail treatment groups. Therefore, the results from the current study indicated that enzyme cocktail supplementation in diets had no influence on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.

Effect of Dietary Glutamine Supplement on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Weaned Pigs

  • Lee, Der-Nan;Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang;Wu, Fu-Yu;Sato, Hiroyuki;Shinzato, Izuru;Chen, Shih-Ping;Yen, Houng-Ta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1770-1776
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplement on the performance and villus morphology of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs were fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% Gln for 28 days. Dietary Gln supplemented levels did not influence performance and plasma Gln concentration of weaned pigs. In Exp. 2, 48 weaned pigs were fed the same treatment diets of Exp. 1 for 7 or 14 days. Dietary Gln supplement reduced the ratio of small intestine weight to empty carcass weight at d 14 postweaning. However, the villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio at the duodenum were increased. IgA and protein in the bile from d 7 and d 14 postweaning were higher in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% Gln. Plasma IgA concentration was not influenced by dietary Gln levels. In conclusion, dietary Gln supplement might benefit the development of the small intestine and bile IgA production in weaned pigs.

Effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on diarrhea and immune responses of weaned pigs

  • Kang, Joowon;Cho, Jeeyeon;Jang, Kibeom;Kim, Junsu;Kim, Sheena;Mun, Daye;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Choe, Jeehwan;Song, Minho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.525-530
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    • 2017
  • Weaning is the most stressful event for nursery pigs because they are moved from familiar to unfamiliar environments. In addition, weaned pigs have immature digestive and immune systems. This situation makes weaned pigs susceptible to diseases and makes the absorption of nutrients from diets difficult. A feed approach, such as dietary enzyme supplementation, can be considered a solution. This study investigated the effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on diarrhea and immune responses of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.05% enzyme cocktail (Cocktail; combination of xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Incidence of diarrhea, packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC) count, and immunoglobulin content were measured. A significantly lower incidence of diarrhea (p < 0.05) was observed in the Cocktail group as compared with the CON group. The Cocktail group also showed a decreased PCV (p < 0.1) on d 3 after weaning than the CON group. However, no differences were observed for number of WBC and contents of immunoglobulin G, M, and A between the Cocktail and CON groups. Consequently, inclusion of an enzyme cocktail in diets for weaned pigs had a positive influence on gut health by reducing the incidence of diarrhea in the present study.

Development of Environmental Control Systems for Windowless Pig-housing (II) - Growth Performance of Weaned Piglets and Growing Pigs - (무창돈사의 환경제어 시스템 개발 (II) - 자돈과 육성돈의 사양성적 -)

  • 장동일;장홍희;임영일;박창식;이봉덕;이형석
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.425-430
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    • 1999
  • Complex environmental control systems were developed, which control properly the pig's environment in windowless pig-housing based on the thermoregulatory behaviors of pigs and concentrations of noxious gases (CO2 and NH3). The this study was conducted to assess the performance of complex environmental control systems by raising weaned piglets and growing pigs under different seasonal conditions. Average daily gain of pigs in the experimental pig-housing was slightly higher than that of pigs in the conventional pig-housing. Average daily gain was not significantly different in winter and spring(P>0.05), but was significantly different in summer(P<0.05). Feed conversion rate of pigs in the experimental pig-housing was smaller than that of pigs in the conventional pig-housing. Feed conversion rate was not significantly different in environment for weaned piglets and growing pigs resulted in the improved daily gain, feed conversion rate, and carcass quality of the finishing pigs. These results showed that the performance of the complex environmental control systems in windowless pig-housing was excellent for weaned piglets and growing pigs.

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Effects of Eco-friendly Multi-enzyme on Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology, and Nutrient Digestibility of weaned Pigs (친환경 복합효소제 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장, 장내 형태학, 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Ki;Cho, Myung-Woo;Kim, Jun-Su;Jang, Ki-Beom;Kim, Sheen-A;Mun, Da-Ye;Kim, Byeong-Hyeon;Kim, Young-Hwa;Park, Jun-Cheol;Choe, Jee-Hwan;Song, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 2018
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of multi-enzyme on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (Multi; mixture of ${\beta}-mannanase$, xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Measurements were growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs. There were no significant differences on growth performance during overall experimental period. No differences were found for the morphology of ileum and nutrient digestibility between CON and Multi groups. Therefore, the results in the current study indicated that multi-enzyme supplementation in diets had no effects on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.

Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented wheat bran on performance and blood profiles in weaned pigs

  • Jeong, Yong Dae;Lee, Jung Jae;Kim, Jo Eun;Kim, Doo Wan;Min, Ye Jin;Cho, Eun Seok;Yu, Dong Jo;Kim, Young Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.409-415
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of fermented wheat bran (FWB) on growth and blood characteristics in weaned pig. A total of 36 weaned pigs ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$; BW, $7.78{\pm}0.04kg$) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments with different FWB concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1.0%), and each treatment had 3 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. The FWB was obtained from a mixture of wheat bran and two microbes (Lactobacillus plantarum M10 and Saccaromyces cerevisiae) and was determined to contain $10.19{\pm}0.27log\;CFU/g$ of L. plantarum and $7.73{\pm}0.38log\;CFU/g$ of S. cerevisiae. Experimental diets were prepared by mixing 0 (control), 0.5, or 1.0% of the FWB to the basal diet, and fed to the weaned pigs for 7 weeks. During the experimental period, the pigs had access to the diet and water ad libitum. Feed intake increased significantly in the 1.0% FWB group compared to the control and 0.5% FWB groups (p < 0.05), whereas the other growth parameters were not different among the treatment groups. White blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly decreased in the FWB treatment groups compared to the control group, but other blood corpuscles were not different among the treatment groups (p < 0.05). The pigs fed 0.5% FWB showed greater serum IgG than the control and 1.0% FWB groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the FWB fed to weaned pigs did not negatively affect their growth performance, but rather reduced mortality by fortifying immunity.

Effects of dietary protease on immune responses of weaned pigs

  • Lee, Jeong Jae;Kang, Joowon;Park, Sangwoo;Cho, Jin Ho;Oh, Sejong;Park, Dong-Jun;Perez-Maldonado, Rider;Cho, Jee-Yeon;Park, Il-Hun;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Song, Minho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2020
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of dietary protease on immune responses of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 75; 7.06 ± 0.18 kg BW; 28 d old) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (5 pigs/pen; 5 pens/treatment). Dietary treatments were positive control, a diet with required protein level (PC), negative control, a diet with lower protein level than PC (NC), and NC + 0.02% dietary protease (PRO). The dietary protease used in this experiment was a commercial product containing 75,000 protease units/g derived from Nocardiopsis prasina produced in Bacillus licheniformis. The dietary treatments did not contain any ingredients or additives that may provide antibacterial or physiological effects. Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments for 6 weeks. Blood was collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen on d 1, 3, 7, and 14 after weaning. Measurements were number of white blood cells (WBC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Pigs fed PRO had lower WBC on d 7 (14.84 vs 20.42 × 103/μL; p < 0.05) and TNF-α on d 7 (618 vs 889 pg/mL; p = 0.085) and 14 (437 vs 576 pg/mL; p = 0.069) than those fed NC, but there were no differences on WBC and TNF-α between PC and PRO. Pigs fed PRO had lower TGF-β1 on d 3 (630 vs. 1,588 and 1,396 pg/mL; p < 0.05) than those fed PC and NC. However, no differences were found on CRP among dietary treatments. In conclusion, addition of dietary protease reduced inflammatory immune responses of weaned pigs.

Extended nursing and/or increased starter diet allowances for low weaning weight pigs

  • Craig, Aimee-Louise;Muns, Ramon;Gordon, Alan;Magowan, Elizabeth
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1301-1309
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To evaluate the use of nurse sows and post-weaning nutrition strategies for low wean weight (WW) pigs on lifetime growth and efficiency. Methods: Animals (n = 270) were assigned to one of five treatments at 28 d. Low WW pigs (<6 kg) were either weaned and offered a special dietary regime recommended for low WW pigs (WEAN) or placed on a nurse sow (NURSE) and weaned at 49 d. Normal WW pigs (9 kg) (NORM) were also weaned at 28 d. After weaning, NORM and NURSE pigs were offered either a 'high' (4 kg/pig of starter 1 diet followed by 8 kg/pig of starter 2 diet) or 'low' (8 kg/pig of starter 2 diet) starter diet allowance in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. A typical grower diet was then offered, followed by a typical finisher diet until 147 d of age. Results: NORM pigs where heavier throughout their life compared to NURSE pigs (91.4 kg vs 76.2 kg at 147 d; p<0.001). WEAN pigs were heavier at 70 d compared to NURSE pigs (23.9 kg vs 21.0 kg; p<0.001), but there was no significant difference at 147 d between NURSE and WEAN treatments. NURSE pigs had reduced feed intake throughout the finishing period (1.6 kg/d; p<0.001) compared to WEAN (2.0 kg/d) and NORM (1.9 kg/d) pigs. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of NURSE (2.20) was lower than NORM and WEAN during the finishing period (2.40 and 2.79, respectively). Conclusion: Extended (up to 49 d) nursing for low WW pigs resulted in improved FCR during the finishing period, but no overall improvement in growth rate compared to low WW pigs weaned at 28 d and offered a specialised starter regime. Normal WW pigs where significantly heavier than low WW pigs throughout the study.

The Low Feed Intake in Newly-weaned Pigs: Problems and Possible Solutions

  • Dong, G.Z.;Pluske, J.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.440-452
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    • 2007
  • The low feed intake immediately after weaning is responsible for villous atrophy and reduced growth rate in newly-weaned pigs. Overcoming this drawback will produce beneficial results for swine producers, and this warrants an understanding of the factors affecting the feed intake in newly-weaned pigs. In fact, a plethora of factors exert influences on feed intake in newly-weaned pigs, and these factors encompass health status, creep feeding, weaning age, mixing of litters, environment, dietary nutrient level and balance, palatability of ingredients, forms of diet presentation, water supply and quality, and stockmanship. Due to the complexity of the factors that affect the feed intake of weaned pigs, a comprehensive approach should be adopted to overcome the low feed intake problem right after weaning. It warrants mention that it is almost impossible to completely restore the feed intake just after weaning to pre-weaning level in terms of energy intake through dietary means which are available for being practiced economically and/or technically in current swine production. However, a refined dietary regime will certainly alleviate the low feed intake problem in the immediate postweaning period.

Moderate tetrabasic zinc chloride supplementation improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs

  • Zhang, Gang;Xia, Tian;Zhao, Jinbiao;Liu, Ling;He, Pingli;Zhang, Shuai;Zhang, Liying
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.264-276
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC) on the health of weaned pigs, and to determine the optimal supplemental concentrations and whether dietary TBZC could replace the pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) to improve growth performance and decrease Zn excretion in weaned pigs. Methods: In Exp. 1, 180 weaned pigs (8.92±1.05 kg body weight [BW]) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including the basal diet containing 125 mg/kg zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), and the basal diet with 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, or 3,000 mg/kg TBZC supplementation. In Exp. 2, 240 weaned pigs (7.66±1.09 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including a negative control diet without Zn supplementation, a positive control diet (2,250 mg/kg ZnO), and 3 experimental diets with different concentrations of TBZC supplementation (1,000, 1,250, and 1,500 mg/kg). Results: In Exp. 1, the average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (G:F) and diarrhea incidence responded quadratically (p<0.01) as the TBZC supplemental concentrations increased, and pigs fed 1,200 and 1,800 mg/kg TBZC showed the best growth performance. Moreover, 1,800 mg/kg TBZC supplementation showed the greatest (p<0.01) total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activities in liver of pigs. Histopathological examination revealed lesions in heart, liver, lung and kidney, and mild or severe histological lesions mainly occurred with the supplementation of 2,400 and 3,000 mg/kg TBZC. In Exp. 2, 1,000 and 1,250 mg/kg TBZC supplementation in diets significantly (p<0.01) increased ADG and G:F of weaned pigs, reduced Zn excretion in feces, and had no effect on diarrhea-reducing compared to 2,250 mg/kg ZnO supplementation. Conclusion: The TBZC is a potential alternative to ZnO. The recommended concentration of TBZC in weaned pig diets is 1,000 to 1,250 mg/kg.