• Title, Summary, Keyword: Watercress

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Chemical properties of Watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) Depend upon Cultivating Methods (재배방법이 다른 미나리의 성분 특성)

  • Lee, Hong-Yeol;Yoo, Maeng-Ja;Chung, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2001
  • Chemical properties of the different parts of watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) grown and harvested from the culture fields under different cultivating methods were studied. In proximate analyses of watercress in parts, moisture contained more in stem than in root or in leaf, but crude protein and crude lipid contents were lower in stem than in root or in leaf. Crude ash in root contained up to about double amount in leaf or stem. Major mineral elements detected in watercress were Fe, Mg, Ca, and K, and their contents in root was higher than those in stem or leaf. Especially, Fe in root was significantly higher than that in stem or in leaf. Total free sugar composed mainly with fructose and glucose, was the highest in watercress from Hwasoon and followed the watercress from Jeonju and Donggok in order. Free sugar content was highest in leaf and the lowest in root. Major water-soluble vitamins were vitamin C, thiamin and biotin and the content of vitamin C was higher than others. These vitamins contained more in leaf than in stem or root. Niacin contained 6.09 mg/100 g in leaf of watercress from Hwasoon, which was much higher than others, but it was not detected in stem of watercress from Jeonju. Organic acids detected were oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid and other 12 organic acids were not detected. In fatty acid composition, there were significant differences among watercresses from different parts and different culture fields. Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid were major fatty acids contained in watercress and it took about 80% of the total content. Amino acid content in leaf was higher than that in root and in stem. Glutamic acid and proline were major amino acids in stem of watercress from Jeonju and in stem of watercresses from Hwasoon and Donggok, respectively. In leaves of all three watercresses glutamic acid content was the highest.

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Antibacterial Activities in Watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) Cultivated with Different Culture Methods (재배방법이 다른 미나리의 항세균 활성)

  • Lee, Hong-Yeol;Yoo, Maeng-Ja;Chung, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2001
  • Antibacterial activities in each part of watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) grown under different culture conditions were measured to determine the possibility to use watercress as a resource to develop the antibacterial substance. The leaves of watercress were extracted with methanol and the methanol extract was further fractionated with various organic solvents. Antibacterial activities against Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 9361 in all fractions were determined according to the agar diffusion method using paper disc. Methanol extract of watercress leaves was more effectively inhibited the growth of the tested bacteria than the extracts of roots or stems at the concentration of 0.5 g eq./disc, and the extract of watercress from Hwasoon was the most effective one as compared to others. Phenolic and neutral fractions fractionated from methanol extract of watercress had a considerable inhibiting activity on the growth of the bacteria, but acidic and basic fractions did not show any inhibitory effect. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of phenolic and neutral fractions against Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 9361 were $400\;{\mu}g/disc$ and $550\;{\mu}g/disc$, respectively.

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Sewage Treatment Using Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Watercress (Oenanthe Javanica) (부레옥잠과 미나리를 이용한 연속식 하수처리에서 COD, N 및 P의 제거)

  • Park, Jin-Sick
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to investigate sewage treatment efficiencies using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and watercress (Oenanthe Javanica). In the hyacinth system about 30% of COD introduced was removed during 2 days of hydraulic retention time, and about 30$\sim$50% of COD was removed in the watercress system during 1.2$\sim$2 days of hydraulic retention time. Therefore, COD loading of $76\sim170$ kg $COD/ha{\cdot}day$ was removed during 2$\sim$3 days of hydraulic retention time at the 0.18 $m^2$ area in the water hyacinth-watercress continuous system. Also 40$\sim$50% of N and P in the sewage were removed in the tested water hyacinth-watercress system Although COD, N and P concentrations in the final effluent were still higher than the limits of waste discharge, applicability of this waste water treatment system should be further investigated as an alternative method far small scale sewage treatments.

Microbubbles Increase Glucosinolate Contents of Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) Grown in Hydroponic Cultivation (마이크로버블을 이용한 수경재배 물냉이의 글루코시놀레이트 함량 증대)

  • Bok, Gwonjeong;Choi, Jaeyun;Lee, Hyunjoo;Lee, Kwangya;Park, Jongseok
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2019
  • The effects of microbubbles on glucosinolate accumulation and growth of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) were investigated. Watercress plant at the 4th mature leaf stage (2 weeks old) were exposed to microbubbles or non-microbubbles generated in an Otsuka-house nutrient solution for 3 weeks in a controlled environment culture room. Stem length of the watercress grown under the microbubbles was 41% shorter than that of the non-microbubbles, showing significantly different. However, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length, leaf length, leaf width, SPAD, and quentum yield of the watercress were not significantly different between treatments. Glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, gluconapin, gluconasturtiin of the watercress grown under microbubbles, excepted for 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, were significantly higher than those of the watercress grown in non-microbubbles. In addition, watercress grown under microbubbles for 3 weeks contained 85% (${\mu}mol/g$ DW) and 65% (${\mu}mol/plant$) more total glucosinolate, respectively. Results indicated that microbubbles generated in a deep flow technique hydroponics system could increase the accumulation of glucosinolate without growth reduction.

Effects of Watercress Containing Rutin and Rutin Alone on the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-like MG-63 Cells

  • Hyun, Hanbit;Park, Heajin;Jeong, Jaehoon;Kim, Jihye;Kim, Haesung;Oh, Hyun Il;Hwang, Hye Seong;Kim, Ha Hyung
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.347-352
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    • 2014
  • Most known osteoporosis medicines are effective for bone resorption, and so there is an increasing demand for medicines that stimulate bone formation. Watercress (N. officinale R. Br.) is widely used as a salad green and herbal remedy. This study analyzed a watercress extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified a rutin as one of its major constituents. Osteogenic-related assays were used to compare the effects of watercress containing rutin (WCR) and rutin alone on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The reported data are expressed as percentages relative to the control value (medium alone; assigned as 100%). WCR increased cell proliferation to $125.0{\pm}4.0%$ ($mean{\pm}SD$), as assessed using a cell viability assay, and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early differentiation marker, to $222.3{\pm}33.8%$. In addition, WCR increased the expression of collagen type I, another early differentiation marker, to $149.2{\pm}2.8%$, and increased the degree of mineralization, a marker of the late process of differentiation, to $122.9{\pm}3.9%$. Rutin alone also increased the activity of ALP (to $154.4{\pm}12.2%$), the expression of collagen type I (to $126.6{\pm}6.2%$), and the degree of mineralization (to $112.3{\pm}5.0%$). Daidzein, which is reported to stimulate bone formation, was used as a positive control; the effects of WCR on proliferation and differentiation were significantly greater than those of daidzein. These results indicate that WCR and rutin can both induce bone formation via the differentiation of MG-63 cells. This is the first study demonstrating the effectiveness of either WCR or rutin as an osteoblast stimulant.

Effect of Different Nutrient Solution and Light Quality on Growth and Glucosinolate Contents of Watercress in Hydroponics (배양액의 종류 및 광질이 물냉이의 생육 및 Glucosinolate 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jae Yun;Kim, Sung Jin;Bok, Kwon Jeong;Lee, Kwang Ya;Park, Jong Seok
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 2018
  • Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different nutrient solutions and various light qualities generated by LED on the growth and glucosinolates contents of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) grown under hydroponics for 3 weeks. The seeds of watercress were sown on crushed rockwool media and raised them for two weeks. They were transplanted in a semi-DFT (deep flow technique) hydroponics system. A controlled-environment room was maintained at $20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and $16{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ temperatures and $65{\pm}10%$ and $75{\pm}10%$ relative humidity (day and night, respectively), with a provided photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of $180{\pm}10{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ and a photoperiod of 16/8h. To find out the best kinds of nutrient solutions for growing watercress, Otsuka House 1A (OTS), Horticultural Experiment Station in Korea (HES), and Netherland's Proefstaion voor Bloemisterij en Gasgroente (PBG) were adapted with initial EC of $1.0-1.3dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ and pH of 6.2, irradiating PPFD with fluorescent lamps (Ex-1). Either monochromatic (W10 and R10) or mixed LEDs (R5B1, R3B1, R2B1G1, and W2B1G1) were irradiated with a differing ratio of each LED's PPFD to understanding light quality on the growth and glucosinolates contents of watercress (Ex-2). Although significant difference in the shoot growth of watercress was not found among three nutrient solutions treatments, but the root fresh weight increased by 13.7% and 55.1% in PBG and OTS compared to HES, respectively. OTS increased the gluconasturtiin content by 96% and 65% compared to PBG and HES. Compared with the white light (W10), the red light (R10) showed a 101.3% increase in the shoot length of watercress. Increasing blue light portion positively affected plant growth. The content of total glucosinolates in watercress was increased by 144.5% and 70% per unit dry weight in R3B1 treatment compared with R2B1G1 and W10 treatments, respectively. The growth and total glucosinolates contents of the watercress were highest under R3B1 among six light qualities.

Review on Japchae in Cook Books Published during 1600s-1960s (1600년대~1960년대 조리서에 수록된 잡채의 문헌고찰)

  • Lee, Kyong Ae
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.377-385
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    • 2013
  • The changes in ingredients, seasonings and cooking methods of Japchae in Korean cook books published from the 1600s to the 1960s were investigated in this study. Japchae was a royal dish enjoyed by Kwanhaegun of Joseon Dynasty and interesting historical story is contained in it. Kwanghaegun Ilgi in 1608 showed that Japchae was Kwanghaegun's favorite dish. Therefore, it has been thought that Japchae was created in the 17th century. Wonhaengeulmyojeongrieugye in 1796 described bellflower Japchae and mungbean sprout Japchae. The traditional Japchae was made without glass noodle called dangmyeon. Eumsikdimibang in 1670 first introduced traditional Japchae, which was made with 20 different ingredients and then served with topping sauce made of pheasant broth, strained soybean paste and wheat flour. Japchae in Kyugonyoram(1896) was prepared by mixing mungbean sprout, watercress, gonjasoni, tripe and yukhwe with mustard. The current style Japchae with glass noodle first appeared in the 1920s and became popular in the 1950s because the traditional Japchae was described in cook books until the 1940s. There were two ways of preparing current style Japchae. Yijogungjeongyoritonggo in 1957 described Japchae was made by mixing the boiled glass noodle with other ingredients and seasonings together. On the other hand, Japchae in Urinaraeumsikmandeuneunbeob(1960) was prepared by seasoning first with other ingredients, and then mixing boiled glass noodle. A variety of ingredients - vegetables, mushrooms, meat, fish, pheasant, beef tong, sea cucumber, gonjasoni and pear - has been used to prepare Japchae. Japchae has been seasoned with ginger, soy sauce, black pepper, sesame salt, sesame oil, oil, leek, garlic, salt, sugar, vinegar and mustard. Egg strips, pine nut, thin strips of Shiitake and stone mushroom, red pepper threads, Chinese pepper(cheoncho), black pepper and ginger were used for garnishing.

Optimization for the Lactic Acid Fermentation of Mixed Fruit and Vegetable Juices (젖산발효에 의한 혼합과채음료 제조의 최적화)

  • Kim, Su-Yeun;Choi, Eon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2002
  • An optimization for fermentation processes to make lactic acid juice with extracts from apples, carrots, celery, watercress, jujube and lycii (3 : 3 : 1 : 1/2 : 1 : 1/2) using co-cultures of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus cellobiosus isolated from Dongchimi had been investigated on the emphasis of composition of sugars and sodium chloride at various temperatures. The concentration of sugars less than 25% and salt less than 0.8% did not affect remarkably the cell growth of lactic acid bacteria and acid formation during fermentation. The fermenting juice showed increases in the population of lactic acid bacteria and acidity, and decreases in population of coliform bacteria and sugar concentration with high cultural temperature. At $25^{\circ}C$ viscous substance was not formed as it had at $15^{\circ}C$. The optimum composition, based on the sensory evaluation, was determined to be oligosaccharide and 0.2% for sodium chloride. It took 3 days to produce the most preferable juice of pH 3.62 at $25^{\circ}C$. At the optimal state the fermented juice showed viable cell counts (cfu/mL) of exponential numbers 8 for lactic acid bacteria and 4 for yeast. Coliform bacteria which had been $5.6{\times}10^2\;cfu/mL$ at the beginning of fermentation were not detected.

Reports and Statistics on Korean Spicy Fish Soup Cooking in Busan (부산지역 생선횟집을 중심으로 생선 매운탕 조리실태 조사)

  • Kim, Jung-Sun;Jo, Young-Je;Lee, Nahm-Gull
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.164-171
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    • 2006
  • kochukaru (chili powder) and various vegetables. As its main ingredient, fresh or sea-water fish is cut into several pieces and boiled with ground beef and green vegetables such as watercress as well as garland chrysanthemum. In addition, onion, radish, chilies, crown daisy, garlic and some times, pumpkin and bean curds are added to the mixture to absorb the kochujang which is the base flavor of this dish. It is then seasoned with kochukaru, garlic, soy sauce and if needed, more kochujang to suit everyone's taste buds. Restaurants that offer this dish often allow you to select your fish from a tank. Many specialty seafood restaurants have several tanks from which you may choose a fish. Popular fish for this dish may include Korean rockfish, flounder, yellow corvina, codfish, croakers, pollacks, and even fresh water fish like carp and trout. In addition, other shell fish such as crabs, clams and oysters can be also added to this soup to compliment and enhance its spicy but refreshing flavor. This soup is one of Korean's most popular dishes while drinking soju. If you order sushi or sashimi, the soup is made from the left-over parts of the fish. The objective of this study is to determine a standardized recipe of Maeun-Tang and to investigate consumption so as to increase its intake opportunities for consumers through its development. Fish species used in Maeuen-Tang's recipes were flounder, Korean rockfish and other fish. Onion, radish, chilies, crown daisy, garlic and some times, pumpkin and bean curds were added to the mixture to absorb the kochujang which is the base flavor of this dish. Most of the stock used in Maeuen-Tang's recipes is pure water, fish stock and vegetable stock, 1.0-1.5 Korean rock fishes and 0.5-1.0 flounders, with its head and bone, which were used in 3-4 portions of Maeun-Tang. Most of the seafood restaurants used seasoning which didn't age and was made by the restaurant. The cooking equipment used in the Maeuen-Tang's recipes were a cook-port and earthen bowl.