• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water-spraying

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Effect of Air-Phase Germination with Anion Radiation and Water-Spraying on Germination Ratio, Sprout Growth, and GABA Contents of Germinated Brown Rice

  • Lim, K.T.;Chung, J.H.;Hong, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, E.T.;Im, A.L.
    • Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air-phase germination with water-spraying and anion stimuli on germination ratio, sprout growth and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of brown rice. Air-phase germination method with intermittent spraying water improved germination ratio and sprout growth by about 100% compared with the conventional water-soaking method. Anion radiation was applied during the germination process and improved the germination ratio, sprout growth and color quality of the germinated brown rice. Germination ratio and sprout growth were improved up to 9% with anion radiation, and its brightness was higher than brown rice germinated with no anion radiation. The air-phase germination with water-spraying improved the GABA content of germinated brown rice by about 8-9 times compared with that of brown rice.

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Development of an Automated Measurement System for Dilution Process and Spraying Amount of Disinfectant

  • Kim, Jung-Chul;Chung, Sun-Ok;Cho, Byoung-Kwan;Chang, Hong-Hee;Kim, Suk;Chang, Dongil
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.228-239
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop an automated disinfectant dilution system, and an automated data management system for spraying amount for resolving uncertainty problem. Methods: Proper diluting rate was made by a controlled volume pump for liquid disinfectant and a screw conveyer pump for solid disinfectant. The water capacity of disinfecting system of 400 L was controlled by two water level sensors. The water quantity of water tank was controlled by the signals which were produced by the water level sensors. Signals were processed by Labview Programming, and ON/OFF of solenoid valve that was used for controlling water supplying to water tank, was controlled by SSR. The operating time of pumps for disinfectant was controlled quantitatively. A turbine flowmeter was used for development of automated measurement system for spraying amount of disinfectant. In order to save the flowmeter data and to control the spraying system, a multi-function data logger was used, and it was processed and saved in Excel file by a program developed in this study. Results: Labview 2010 was used for programming to control the automated measurement system for spraying amount of disinfectant. Results showed that the relationship between flowmeter value and time had a significant linear relationship such as 0.99 of $R^2$. Generally, 6.74 L/s of diluted disinfectant is sprayed for a vehicle passing through the disinfection system (about 15 seconds). Test results showed that average error between the measured spraying amount and the flowmeter data was 50 mL, and the range of error was 1.3%. Since the amount and time of spraying could be saved in real-time by using the spreadsheet files which could not be modified arbitrarily, it made possible to judge objectively whether the disinfection spraying was performed or not. Test results of spraying liquid and solid disinfectant showed that the errors between the measured discharge rate and the theoretical one were ranged within 3-4% for various dilution rates. Conclusions: The disinfection system developed would be working accurately. The automated spraying data base management system satisfied the purpose of this study. The automated dilution process system developed in this study could discharge liquid and solid disinfectant with accurate dilution rate, relatively.

The Effect of Chemical Admixtures on Removal of Scattered Dust

  • Son, Ho Jeong;An, Jung Min;Chung, Chul-Woo;Lee, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.594-601
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    • 2013
  • One of the important problems associated with building demolition is the dust generated during the work. The only way to reduce the demolition dust is to use a dust net during water spraying. However, it is difficult to supply the necessary amount of water to remove demolition dust, thus making it difficult to apply this method on a demolition site. This work attempted to find an alternative approach to dust removal by incorporating surfactant and high range AE water reducer in the water being sprayed. Through the experiment, it was found that the addition of surfactant did not contribute to the removal of demolition dust. However, the use of high range AE water reducer showed better performance than spraying plain water, indicating that some amount of demolition dust had been adsorbed on the high range AE water reducer.

Development of a Water-Spraying Type Automatic Glochids Removal System for Cactus (Opuntia humifusa) Stem

  • Jang, Ik Joo;Park, Tusan;Ha, Yu Shin
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: A water-spraying type automatic glochids removal system for cactus (Opuntia humifusa) stem was developed, and its performance was evaluated. The system was developed to reduce intensive human labor in removing glochids from cactus stem skin without inducing damage prior to further processing into value-added products. Methods: The developed system consists of conveyor and water-spraying systems. The conveyor system delivers cactus stems through water-spraying compartments and finally to a collecting box. In order to remove the glochids, rotating nozzles spray water over all areas (i.e., front and back faces and sides) of the cactus skin under controlled water pressure. Operating conditions such as conveyor speed, water pressure, angle of water-spraying nozzles, distance between conveyor belt and rotating nozzles, and angle of cactus flipping slide were adopted from our previous study and applied on the system design and manufacturing. The performance of glochids removal was evaluated by counting the number of glochids on the cactus stem before and after processing on the system. Results: The developed system performed efficiently and effectively under the pre-studied operating conditions except for the angle of cactus flipping slide. The new system had a glochids removal ratio of 94.1% without damaging the cactus skin. Considering the original number (approximately 30-60) of glochids, the remaining number was low (1-4), and most of them were found at the side edge of the cactus stem. This system can remove glochids from 360 cactus stems in 1 hr regardless of cactus size. Conclusions: The performance of the new system in glochids removal without damaging cactus skin is superior to any other existing device (i.e., brush type, rubber-friction type, and agitation type). The system is expected to be applied in cactus (O. humifusa) processing facilities.

Performance Evaluation and Improvement of Medium and Small Scale Rice Polishers(I)-small scale rice polishers- (중.소형 연미기의 성능평가 및 성능개선에 관한 연구(I)-소형 연미기에 대하여-)

  • 정종훈;최영수;권홍관
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.206-216
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    • 1998
  • The structural characteristics of small scale rice polisher was analyzed to improve its performance. Spraying characteristic of nozzles used for rice polishing was also analyzed by a machine vision system. The internal pressure of the polishing chamber was measured according to outlet resistance, water spraying , and roller shaft speed. In addition , the performance of the rice polisher was evaluated to improve it in the basis of internal pressure in polishing chamber, whiteness , and broken rice ratio of clean rice according to the operating conditions. Actual nozzle discharge rate and drop size were 125cc/min and 86.97㎛, respectively. In the case of water spraying on rices, the internal pressure showed 4.9-9.8N/㎠ increase, broken rice ration decreased , and there was no difference in whiteness . The internal pressure increased up to two time with the increase of the outlet resistance. Also, the pressure at the upper part of screen was one and half times as high as the pressure at the lower part. In the case of water spraying rate of 150 cc/min, the roller shaft speed of 850 rpm resulted in no difference in whiteness and decrease of 0.3%in broken rice ratio, comparing to the roller shaft speed of 950 rpm.

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Performance Evaluation and Improvement of Medium and Small Scale Rice Polishers (I) -small scale rice polisher - (중.소형 연미기의 성능평가 및 성능개선에 관한 연구 (I) -소형 연미기에 대하여 -)

  • 정종훈;최영수;권홍관
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 1998
  • The structural characteristics of a small scale rice polisher was analyzed to improve its performance. Spraying characteristic of nozzles used for rice polishing was also analyzed by a machine vision system. The internal pressure of the polishing chamber was measured according to outlet resistance, water spraying, and roller shaft speed. In addition, the performance of the rice polisher was evaluated to improve it in the basis of internal pressure in polishing chamber, whiteness, and broken rice ratio of clean rice according to the operating conditions. Actual nozzle discharge rate and drop size were 125 cc/min and 86~97 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, respectively. In the case of water spraying on rices, the internal pressure showed 4.9~9.8N/$\textrm{cm}^2$ increase. broken rice ratio decreased, and there was no difference in whiteness. The internal pressure inueased up to two times with the increase of the outlet resistance. Also, the pressure at the upper part of screen was one and half times as high as the pressure at the lower part. In the case of water spraying rate of 150 cc/min, the roller shaft speed of 850 rpm resulted in no difference in whiteness and decrease of 0.3% in broken rice ratio, comparing to the roller shaft speed of 950 rpm.

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Development of an Automatic Brown Rice Germinating System of Air-Phase Type with Intermittent Water Spraying and Anion Radiation (간헐 분무와 음이온 방사를 가진 공기노출형 자동 현미발아시스템의 개발)

  • Lim, Ki-Taek;Kim, Jang-Ho;Chung, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 2011
  • In this study an automatic germinating system for germinated brown rice (GBR) was developed for accelerating germination and sprouting of brown rice. With the developed germinating system, the effects of anion radiation treatment on germination ratio, sprout growth, color quality and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of brown rice were investigated. This system can fast produce GBR by controlling the environmental conditions such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, and proper anion radiation. Air-phase germination with intermittent water spraying improved both germination ratio and sprout growth by about 2.2 and 2.3 times, respectively, compared to the conventional water soaking method. Our results strongly suggest that this germinating system that provides air-phase germination with intermittent water spraying and anion radiation can produce germinated brown rice with good color quality, high GABA content, and fast germination ratio as well as sprout growth.

Development of CFD Model for Estimation of Cooling Effect of Fog Cooling System in Greenhouse (온실 포그냉방시스템의 냉방효과 예측을 위한 CFD 모델의 개발)

  • 유인호;김문기;권혁진;김기성
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out not only to develop CFD model for numerically simulating fog cooling system but also to verify the validity of the developed model by data measured in fag cooling greenhouse. In addition the developed model was applied to investigate the effects of spraying water temperature, spraying water amount, spraying interval and evaporation percentage on the performance of the fog cooling system. According to the simulation results, the temperature differences between the measured and predicted temperatures at each measurement point were $0.1~1.4^{\circ}C$ in case of no shading and $0.2~2.3^{\circ}C$ in close of shading. The humidity differences were 0.3~6.0% and 0.7~10.6%, respectively in the cases of no shading and shading. Because the predicted data showed a good agreement with the measured ones, the developed model is supposed to be able to predict the cooling effect of the fog cooling system. The performance of fog cooling system was greatly influenced by spraying water amount, spraying interval and evaporation percentage, but it was not influenced by spraying water temperature.

Effect of a Suspended Overhead Sprayer with Sector Formed Injection Nozzles on Spraying Uniformity (두상관수장치의 부채꼴분사노즐 설치위치가 살수균일성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김명규;정태상;민영봉
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.223-231
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    • 1999
  • The one of basic functional conditions of suspended overhead sprayer, which is openly made use of irrigating on bedding plants in greenhouse, is to be kept the growing uniformity of bedding plants by making uniformly the spraying irrigation depending on the distribution of sprayed water. This study was performed to find out the optimum position of sector formed injection nozzle which is placed from the top of plant 0 the tip of the nozzle to keep spraying uniformity. The test of spraying distribution using a overhead sprayer, which was installed in a row of sector formed injection nozzles, was performed The measuring factor to represent spraying distribution was the water weight filled in each cup when the overhead sprayer was moving across the upside of the cups which were placed directly under the nozzles on keeping the distance from nozzle tip. The test results were as following , The standard mr of weights of each cup filled with spraying water was lower values at Position far from more than 60cm under nozzle tip. The driving speed variation of sprayer was not effected on spraying uniformity but the spraying water weight was inversely proportioned to the speed. To make best spraying uniformity, it was represented that the tip of the nozzle is positioned to keep the distance which the top of plants is placed at the second cross point of each injection sector of nozzles.

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A Study of Correlation between DCA and WHS in Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger (핀-관 열교환기에서 동적접촉각과 물맺힘량과의 상관관계에 관한 연구)

  • 황준현;고영환;신종민
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.786-791
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    • 2002
  • An experimental study on the behavior of the water hold-up by spraying of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger with regard to the surface characteristics, i.e., contact angles, was conducted. The dynamic contact angles (DCA) were measured, and water hold-up by spraying (WHS) was conducted in the experiment. It is found that heat exchanger surface characteristics, spray pressure, spray water temperature and heat exchanger surface temperature play an important role in WHS. In order to evaluate relationship between WHS and surface characteristics, test conditions are determined through a contour analysis. A correlation was proposed to predict WHS as a function of DCA. With its test efficiency and consuming time, the prediction method can be used to evaluate WHS performance.