• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water-immiscible Liquid

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Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Kwon, Tae-Soon;Lee, Young-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.2418-2422
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    • 2017
  • A two-phase partitioning bioreactor was employed to remediate soil contaminated by a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene. In this study, the transfer of three PAHs into the water-immiscible liquid phase (silicone oil or paraffine oil) from the soil was investigated during the first 24 h. And then, phenanthrene and anthracene were degraded by approximately 90% and 80%, respectively, compared with initial concentration in soil, but pyrene was not degraded during seven days of operation period. In addition, the feasibility of a soil slurry sequencing batch reactor system in terms of continuously operating a two-phase partitioning bioreactor was investigated. Phenanthrene and anthracene were degraded semi-continuously and repeatedly during two operating cycles. Pyrene was still not degraded and was just transferred into the water-immiscible liquid phase considering its solubility.

이액상계 생물반응기를 이용한 PAH의 분해

  • Lee Jae-Yeong;Kim Yong-Gi;Yang Ji-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.159-162
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    • 2005
  • In this study, a two-liquid-phase (TLP) bioreactor was conducted to enhance the biodegradation efficiency and rate of PAH. Phenanthrene was degraded efficiently irrespective of the type and the amount of water-immiscible liquid (WIL). The degradation efficiency of anthracene was much higher in paraffine oil than in silicone oil because the mass transfer of anthracene was different in the two WILs. Pyrene was only transferred from soil to WIL during 5 days. It seemed that the degradation of PAH in the TLP bioreactor was mainly dependent on the mass transfer of PAH.

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Visualization of Flow Characteristics on Thermosyphon with Immiscible Binary Working Fluid (비 혼합 2유체 열사이폰의 유동 특성에 관한 가시적 연구)

  • Do, Sun Yub;Kang, Hawn Kook;Park, Seung Chul
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.3022-3029
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    • 2015
  • This study presents experiments to visualize the internal flow and heat transfer characteristics of thermosyphon with immiscible of water-FC40 adopted as binary working fluid. Three different regimes depending on the amount of heat flux applied to the thermosyphon were observed: natural convection, pulse boiling, and continuous boiling. Boiling incipience took place in water, which has lower vapor pressure than FC40. During natural convection water was vaporized in liquid pool while liquid film flows were formed. On the other hand, meanwhile bubbles were generated in the liquid pool during pulse and continuous boiling, the binary working fluid of water-FC40 was observed as the mixture throughout a whole range of the thermosyphon.

이액상계를 이용한 토양슬러리 반응기에서의 PAH 거동 특성

  • 이재영;백기태;조현정;양지원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the mass transfer behaviors of phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene in soil slurry reactor (SSR) using two-liquid phase (TLP) system were investigated. The mass transfer ratio and rate of PAH in the TLP system using light paraffine oil, which has the highest solubility of PAH, were influenced by the amount of light paraffine oil and mixing speed. When the amount of light paraffine oil decreased from 15 % to 2.5 % (v/v), the mass transfer ratio of anthracene decreased significantly compared with that of phenanthrene and pyrene. As mixing speed increased, the initial mass transfer rate of PAH within 1 day was enhanced. However, each final mass transfer ratio of three PAHs after 5 day was similar irrespective of mixing speed.

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Image Capturing of Dispersed Phases in DCHXs by Electric Tomography

  • Chun, Won-Gee;Kim, Min-Chan;Lee, Heon-Ju;Kang, Yong-Heack;Kwon, Hyok-Bo
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2001
  • This paper introduces the physical phenomena involved in Direct Contact Heat Exchangers (DCHXs) and also investigates the possibility of applying of EIT(Electrical Impedance Tomography) technique for capturing the images of dispersed phases as they stream through a stagnant body of water. A number of cases are studied where two dimensional cross-sectional static images are given for fictitious and actual masses present in a column of water(saline solution). In most direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchangers, oil or hydrocarbon with a density different(lighter or heavier) from water is normally used as dispersed working fluid. The main difficulty that arises with this arrangement lies in the elucidation of complicated flow field where the dispersed phase fluid tends to change its shape and size constantly during its journey through the other phase(water). This paper presents a number of results with different types of dispersed phases that are immiscible with water. The EIT technique has been employed in this context to test its applicability in capturing the dynamic images of dispersed phases. It shows static images of dispersed phases where dynamic images could be obtained by simply extending the algorithms and strategies employed in the present analysis.

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Liquid Crystal Based Optical Sensor for Imaging Trypsin Activity at Interfaces Between Aqueous Phases and Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

  • Zhang, Minmin;Jang, Chang-Hyun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.2973-2977
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we developed a liquid crystal (LC)-based optical sensor for monitoring enzymatic activity through orientational changes in liquid crystals (LCs) coupled to the properties of a poly-${\small{L}}$-lysine (PLL)-based polymeric membrane. We prepared a PLL-based polymeric membrane at the planar interface between the thermotropic liquid crystal and aqueous phases. The PLL-based polymeric membrane was obtained by contacting the PLL solution with water immiscible LCs, 4-cyano-4'-pentyl-biphenyl (5CB) doped with adipoyl chloride. We then investigated the membrane properties by examining the permeability of the membrane to phospholipids, 1,2-didodecanoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC). The permeability of the membrane to transport phospholipids was monitored through the orientational transition of 5CB in contact with the dispersions of DLPC. Since trypsin can enzymatically catalyze the hydrolysis of PLL, we incubated an aqueous trypsin solution with the membrane for 2 h at room temperature to cause an increase in the permeability of the polymeric membrane to DLPC. As a result, a bright to dark optical shift of LCs was observed, which implied that an enzymatic reaction between trypsin and PLL-based membrane occurred. Two control experiments using chymotrypsin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed no sign of improved permeability based on the orientational transition of LCs.

Monitoring of the Transfer of Tetrachloroaurate(III) Ions by Thin-layer Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Deposition of Metallic Gold over a Graphite Electrode

  • Song, Ji-Seon;Shin, Hyo-Sul;Kang, Chan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1983-1987
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    • 2008
  • This study demonstrates the electrochemical conversion of the synthetic procedure of monolayer-protected clusters using a thin toluene layer over an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode. A thin toluene layer with a thickness of 0.31 mm was coated over the electrode and an immiscible liquid/liquid water/toluene interface was introduced. The transfer of the tetrachloroaurate ($AuCl_4^-$) ions into the toluene layer interposed between the aqueous solution and the electrode surface was electrochemically monitored. The $AuCl_4^-$ ions initially could not move through into the toluene layer, showing no reduction wave, but, in the presence of the phase transfer reagent, tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOABr), a cathodic wave at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl was observed, indicating the reduction of the transferred $AuCl_4^-$ ions in the toluene layer. In the presence of dodecanethiol together with TOABr, a self-assembled monolayer was formed over the electro-deposited metallic gold surface. The E-SEM image of the surface indicates the formation of a highly porous metallic gold surface, rather than individual nanoparticles, over the EPG electrode.

Liquid-Liquid Dispersion of an Immiscible Liquid Phase (n-Hexane/Water) System in a Stirred Tank (교반조에서 비혼화성 액상(n-헥산/물)계의 액-액분산)

  • Kim, Tae-Ok;Kim, Dong-Uk;Chun, Jong-Han
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.537-543
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    • 1993
  • The effect of agitation on liquid-liquid dispersion was investigated in an immisible liquid phase(n-hexane/water) system. Four different types of six-bladed turbine impellers were used: a flat blade, two screen blades and a solid edged 60 mesh screen blade. We found that the extent of dispersion of organic phase and power consumption of agitator were decreased in the order of flat, solid edged, 60 mesh, and 40 mesh blades at same agitation speed. And the minimum agitation speed for complete dispersion of organic phase was increased with increasing volume fraction of organic phase. Also, mean diameter of liquid droplets of dispersed phase was decreased with increasing agitation speed and it was increased in the order of solid edged, flat, 60 mesh, and 40 mesh screen blades at same agitation speed. At complete dispersion, the minimum power consumption was not vary significantly with impeller blade types, but the solid edged screen blade impeller gave the smallest and uniform sizes of liquid droplets, and it had a good performance for liquid-liquid dispersion. In this condition, Power number was not affected by Reynolds number and it was constant in turbulent flow region, and Sauter mean diameter($d_{32}$) of liquid droplets was expressed as a function of volume fraction of organic phase(${\phi}$) and Weber number($N_{We}$) as follows: $d_{32}/D=a(1+b{\phi})N_{We}{^{-0.6}}$.

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Interface Capturing for Immiscible Two-phase Fluid Flows by THINC Method (THINC법을 이용한 비혼합 혼상류의 경계면 추적)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Kyu-Han;Kim, Do-Sam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.277-286
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    • 2012
  • In the numerical simulation of wave fields using a multi-phase flow model that considers simultaneous flows of materials with different states such as gas, liquid and solid, there is need of an accurate representation of the interface separating the fluids. We adopted an algebraic interface capturing method called tangent of hyperbola for interface-capturing(THINC) method for the capture of the free-surface in computations of multi-phase flow simulations instead of geometrical-type methods such a volume of fluid(VOF) method. The THINC method uses a hyperbolic tangent functions to represent the surface, and compute the numerical flux for the fluid fraction functions. One of the remarkable advantages of THINC method is its easy applicability to incorporate various numerical codes based on Navier-Stokes solver because it does not require the extra geometric reconstruction needed in most of VOF-type methods. Several tests were carried out in order to investigate the advection of interfaces and to verify the applicability of the THINC method to wave fields based on the one-field model for immiscible two-phase flows (TWOPM). The numerical results revealed that the THINC method is able to track the interface between air and water separating the fluids although its algorithm is fairly simple.

Comparison of the Quantulus 1220 and 300SL Liquid Scintillation Counters for the Analysis of 222Rn in Groundwater

  • Kim, Hyuncheol;Jung, Yoonhee;Lee, Wanno;Choi, Guen-Sik;Chung, Kun Ho;Kang, Mun Ja
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.395-401
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    • 2016
  • Background: Liquid scintillation counters (LSCs) are commonly used as an analytical method for detecting $^{222}Rn$ in groundwater because they involve a simple sample pretreatment and allow high throughout with an autosampler. The Quantulus 1220 is the best-selling LSC in Korea, but its production was stopped. Recently, a new type of LSC, the 300SL, was introduced. In this study, the 300SL was compared with the Quantulus 1220 in order to evaluate the ability of each apparatus to detect $^{222}Rn$ in groundwater. Materials and Methods: The Quantulus 1220 and 300SL were used to detect the presence of $^{222}Rn$. Radon gas was extracted from a groundwater sample using a water-immiscible cocktail in a LSC vial. The optimal analytical conditions for each LSC were determined using a $^{222}Rn$ calibration source prepared with a $^{226}Ra$ source. Results and Discussion: The optimal pulse shape analysis level for alpha and beta separation was 80 for the Quantulus 1220, and the corresponding pulse length index was 12 in the 300SL. The counting efficiency of the Quantulus 1220 for alpha emissions was similar to that of the 300SL, but the background count rate of the Quantulus 1220 was 10 times lower than that of the 300SL. The minimum detectable activity of the Quantulus 1220 was $0.08Bq{\cdot}L^{-1}$, while that of the 300SL was $0.20Bq{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The analytical results regarding $^{222}Rn$ in groundwater were less than 10% different between these LSCs. Conclusion: The 300SL is an LSC that is comparable to the Quantulus 1220 for detecting $^{222}Rn$ in groundwater. Both LSCs can be applied to determine the levels of $^{222}Rn$ in groundwater under the management of the Ministry of Environment.