• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water temperature

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Applicability of Temperature Correction Trans-membrane Pressure as a Fouling Index of Membrane Water Treatment Process (막여과 정수처리 공정에서 온도보정차압 식의 파울링 지표로서의 활용성 검토)

  • Kim, Minjae;Lim, Jae-Lim;Lee, Kyung-Hyuk;Lee, Young-Joo;Kim, Suhan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2016
  • Temperature correction trans-membrane pressure (TC-TMP) is frequently used as a fouling index in membrane water treatment plants. TC-TMP equation is derived based on an assumption that the total membrane resistance (i.e. the sum of the intrinsic membrane resistance and fouling resistance) is not affected by temperature. This work verified the validity of this assumption using microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with and without fouling. The foulants used in the work were kaolin (inorganic) and humic acid (organic). The intrinsic resistances of MF and UF membranes remains at constant values regardless of temperature change. When the same amount of foulants were accumulated on the membrane, inorganic fouling resistance with kaolin was constant regardless of temperature change while organic fouling resistance with humic acid decreased at higher temperatures, which means that TC-TMP cannot be used as a fouling index when organic fouling occurs in a real field application. Since TC-TMP underestimates the amount of fouling at higher temperatures, more attention should be necessary in the operation of membrane water treatment plant in a hotter season like summer.

Varietal Differences in Days Required to Leaf Expansion, Leaf Number on Main Culm, and Days to Heading of Rice under Cold Water Flow System (찬물 흘려대기 논의 수온 분포에 따른 벼의 엽 전개 일수 및 주간엽수와 출수일수의 품종간 차이)

  • 윤성호;윤종선;유길림;박창기;정근식
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.214-219
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    • 1991
  • To clarify the relationship between ambient water temperature and heading characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L.), twelve of varieties rice were grown in a cold tolerance screening field where water temperature was controlled by continuous cold water irrigation system to test the cold tolerance of rice. When cold water was continuously irrigated with 5 cm of water depth, the water had stagnated for about three hours, and the water temperature increased gradually from inlet toward outlet in the experimental plot. The fluctuation of water temperature was well synchronized with that of ambient air temperature, and the water temperature near outlet became higher than the air temperature at the vegetative phase, while became lower at the reproductive phase of rice plant community. The leaf development rates on main culm increased by increased water temperature. The rice varities, Fukuhikari, Sangpungbyeo and YR3486-16-2 were more sensitive than the others in the response of leaf development to water temperature. However, Janack and Milyang 42 were comparatively less sensitive to water temperature in leaf development. Janack and Paro -white rices required longer days to develop one leaf on main culm at reproductive phase than at vegetative phase. Varietal difference in days required to develop one leaf on main culm of rice plant was more distinctive at the reproductive phase when water temperature was relatively lower than at the vegetative phase with relatively higher water temperature condition. No difference was found between the growth phases, vegetative and reproductive, in the response of average leaf developmental rates to water temperature under the similar air temperature condition. The estimated average days required to develop one leaf on main culm decreased by 1.3 day by 1$^{\circ}C$ increase in water temperature. Varietal differences in the total number of leaves on main culm depended upon the water temperature, in which the varieties such as Fukuhikari, Gwangmyeon-gbyeo, China 988, and YR3486-16-2 showed increased one leaf by increased water temperature, while Sobaekbyeo, Paro-white, Sangpungbyeo, Pungsanbyeo, Samgangbyeo, and Milyang 42 were kept at the same leaf number regardless of water temperature. However, the total leaf number on main culm and days to heading of Janack increased by increased water temperature. The other varieties showed the shortened days to heading by the increase in water temperature with noticeable varietal differences regardless of the variation in the total number of leaves on main culm.

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Winter Season Performance Characteristics of Raw Water-Source Heat Pump System with a Thermal Storage Tank (원수열원 히트펌프 축열시스템의 동절기 성능분석)

  • Cho, Yong;Lee, Dong Keun
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.202-202
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    • 2011
  • Performance of the raw water-source heat pump system with a thermal storage tank has been analyzed in winter season. The raw water is transferred through the multi-regional water supply system from Han river. Raw water is large temperature difference resource compared with groundwater. Although the raw water temperature drops to $0.6^{\circ}C$ due to the heavy snowfall and the severe cold in late January and early February, 2010, the system has been normally operated without any trouble this winter. The unit COP and system COP considered all pump power consumption were estimated based on the second-by-second data of the all sensors. The monthly averaged unit COP and system COP are 3.37 and 2.76 respectively with $1.4^{\circ}C$ of raw water in January, 3.55 and 2.89 with $1.6^{\circ}C$ raw water in February, 3.82 and 3.15 with $5.4^{\circ}C$ raw water in March. The performance of the system are increased with raw water temperature, and the COPs are higher than the water-to-air heat pump system using relatively high temperature raw water from Daecheong reservoir because the water-to-water system was operated on the full load condition and was stopped when the thermal storage tank was full of the high temperature water.

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A Calculation Method for Temperature Distribution of Hot Water Pipe under Unsteady Condition (비정상조건하의 온수배관의 온도분포에 관한 수치계산법 연구)

  • Choi, C.H.;Suh, S.J.
    • Solar Energy
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 1999
  • Calculation method about the water temperature variable inside hot water pipe had proposed in the past does not correspond with branch pipe system, variable of water volume, variable of entrance water temperature, using and so on. A calculation method proposed in this paper can solve above problems, and calculate the kinds variation of the water temperature inside pipe in the real use state of the hot water pipe.

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Moisture Sorption Isotherm and Quality Deterioration of Dry Jujube (건대추의 등온흡습곡선 및 품질열화특성)

  • 김영숙;안덕순
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 1997
  • In order to provide informations for designing packaging and storage condition of dry jujube (Zizyphus jujuba MILLER), moisture sorption isotherm was determined for temperatures of 20, 30 and 4$0^{\circ}C$, and quality changes were evaluated as function of temperature and water activity. Dry jujube at a given water activity showed higher equilibrium moisture content for lower temperature. Moisture isothem could be fitted by GAB model equation, giving higher C value, lower m0 and relatively constant k value with increase in temperature. Ascorbic acid was lost more highly at higher temperature and water activity, and showed negligible retention for whole range of water activity and temperature studied after 141 days. Browning increased with water activity up to 0.73 at 30 and 4$0^{\circ}C$. Dry jujube of high water activity had high L value in surface color, which represent brightness of surface color. Considering quality retention in the storage, dry jujube is desired to be dried to water activity of 0.42 and be stored at temperature below 3$0^{\circ}C$

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Thermal Stratification Effects Near an Interface by Horizontal Inflow of Cold Water in Thermal Storage Tank (냉수가 수평유입되는 열저장탱크의 중간 경계면 부근에서의 열성층 효과)

  • Hwang, Sung-Il;Pak, Ee-Tong
    • Solar Energy
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.46-56
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    • 1988
  • This investigation concerns thermal stratification of the water due to the temperature difference (${\Delta}T=T_{\infty}-T_i$) between the mean temperature of the water in the test tank (1m wide, 1m high, 2.1m long) and the temperature of the inflow water into the tank; flow rate of circulating water and height of the sink diffuser in the test tank. The additional objectives was to observe a stratification phenomena near an interface by measuring the velosities and the temperature difference and investigate an availabilities of the better effective hot water through establishing thermocline near an interface around the bottom of the tank. Following results were obtained through the experiments. 1. When the flow rate was constant and the temperature difference (${\Delta}T=T_{\infty}-T_i$) between the mean temperature of the flow in the test tank and the temperature of the inflow water increased by 5.6, 9.5, 13.5($^{\circ}C$), obtained the better effective advantage of hot water and the stress near an interface increased gradually. 2. When the ${\Delta}T=T_{\infty}-T_i$ was constant and flow rate increased by 4.0, 4.8, 6.4, 8.0 (LPM), obtained the better effective advent age of hot water and the mean stress near an interface increased gradually. 3. When the height of the sink diffuser was 25cm from tank bottom in comparison with 50cm, obtained the better effective advantage of hot water and the mean stress near an interface increased.

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Filling in Water Temperature Data of Aquatic Environments using a Pre-constructed Relationship

  • Lee, Khil-Ha
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1125-1133
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    • 2017
  • In this study a method for filling in missing data of river water temperature using a pre-constructed mathematical relationship between air and water temperatures is presented. A regression between water temperatures at individual stations and ambient air temperatures at nearby weather stations can provide a practical method for representing missing water temperature data for an entire region. Air and water temperature data that were collected from two test sites (one coastal and, one inland) were individually fitted to a nonlinear regression model. To consider seasonal hysteresis effects, separate functions were fitted to the data in the rising and falling limbs. A single-criterion, multi-parameter optimization technique was used to determine the optimal parameter sets. This method minimizes the differences between the time series of the measured and estimated data. The constructed air-water temperature relationship was subsequently applied to represent missing water temperature data. It was found that the RMSEs(MBEs) were in the range of $1.843-1.976^{\circ}C(-0.329-0.201^{\circ}C)$ and the coefficient of determination were in the range of 0.92-0.96. The results demonstrate that the predicted water temperatures using the regression equations were reasonably accurate.

Evaluation of Water Temperature Difference Energy of the Raw Water from Paldang Water Intake Station (수도권 팔당취수장 원수 이용 온도차에너지 부존량 조사)

  • Cho, Yong;Park, Jin-Hoon;Kim, Youngjoon;Park, Tae Jin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.170.2-170.2
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    • 2010
  • The amount of the heating and cooling energy of water source heat pump using the raw water from the Paldang water intake station is investigated in the study. The Han river water is conveyed in the large-size shallowly buried pipe. Averaged water temperature at the position, 27 km from the Paldang water intake station, is increased by $1.11^{\circ}C$ due to the geothermal energy transfer under the ground, therefore the raw water has more thermal energy than the river water. To estimate of the thermal energy for the raw water, it is assumed that the water source heat pump is used for the heating and cooling ventilation. When $5.0^{\circ}C$ temperature difference energy of the raw water is used in the heat pump system all the year except for the January and February in which $3.0^{\circ}C$ temperature difference energy is used. It is predicted that total 5,766.3 Tcal could be used in the metropolitan area a year, which is about 3.0% of the river water unutilized energy resources.

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Delineation of water seepage in a reservoir embankment from ground temperature measurements (지온탐사에 의한 저수지 제방의 누수 조사)

  • 박삼규
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 1999
  • The water leakage of reservoir embankment usually occurs through water vein, which gives little influence on the embankment in a normal state. However, the embankment can be destroyed when the water level of reservoir increases with heavy rain in summer. Investigating the water vein and its path is therefore very important from the viewpoint of disater prevention and embankment protection. This paper presents survey results of one-meter-depth ground temperature and multi-point temperature logging in an embankment in Japan to delineate water veins and permeable formations. Four water veins have been predicted in the embankment by comparing measured one-meter-depth ground temperatures with the background ones which have no effect of water vein. The multi-point temperature logging was carried out in the borehole drilled at one of the predicted water veins. Depth and thickness of the permeable formation in the borehole can be determined from temperature restoration ratios with elapsed time. From these results we can find that the water leakage of reservoir embankment mainly occurs in sandy soil formation in the embankment.

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Kinetics of Initial Water Vapor Adsorption by Inonotus obliquus Mushroom Powders

  • Lee, Min-Ji;Seog, Eun-Ju;Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.111-114
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    • 2007
  • Water vapor adsorption kinetics of Inonotus mushroom powders were investigated in temperature and water activity ranges of 20 to 40$^{\circ}C$ and 0.30 to 0.81, respectively. Initial water vapor adsorption rate of mushroom powders increased with increases in temperature and water activity. The temperature dependency of water activity followed the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The net isosteric heat of sorption increased with an increase in water activity. Water vapor adsorption kinetics of the mushroom powders can be well described by a simple empirical model. Temperature dependency of the reaction rate constant followed the Arrhenius relationship. The activation energy ranged from 56.86 to 91.35 kJ/mol depending on water activity. Kinetic compensation relationship was observed between k$_o$ and E$_a$ with the isokinetic temperature of 790.27 K.