• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water temperature

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Boiler Supply Water Temperature Setting by Outside Air Temperature and Return Water Temperature (외기온도와 환수온도를 이용한 보일러의 공급수온도설정)

  • Han, Do-Young;Yoo, Byeong-Kang
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2009
  • Condensing gas boiler units may make a big role for the reduction of energy consumption in heating industries. In order to decrease the energy consumption of a boiler unit, the effective operation is necessary. In this study, the supply water temperature algorithm of a condensing gas boiler was developed. This includes the setpoint algorithm and the control algorithm of the supply water temperature. The setpoint algorithm was developed by the fuzzy logic and the control algorithm was developed by the proportional integral algorithm. In order to analyse the performance of the supply water temperature algorithm, the dynamic model of a condensing gas boiler system was used. Simulation results showed that the supply water temperature algorithm developed for this study may be practically applied for the control of the condensing gas boiler.

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Effect of cooling water temperature on the temperature changes in pulp chamber and at handpiece head during high-speed tooth preparation

  • Farah, Ra'fat I.
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.3.1-3.10
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of cooling water temperature on the temperature changes in the pulp chamber and at the handpiece head during high-speed tooth preparation using an electric handpiece. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight intact human molars received a standardized occlusal preparation for 60 seconds using a diamond bur in an electric handpiece, and one of four treatments were applied that varied in the temperature of cooling water applied (control, with no cooling water, $10^{\circ}C$, $23^{\circ}C$, and $35^{\circ}C$). The temperature changes in the pulp chamber and at the handpiece head were recorded using K-type thermocouples connected to a digital thermometer. Results: The average temperature changes within the pulp chamber and at the handpiece head during preparation increased substantially when no cooling water was applied ($6.8^{\circ}C$ and $11.0^{\circ}C$, respectively), but decreased significantly when cooling water was added. The most substantial drop in temperature occurred with $10^{\circ}C$ water ($-16.3^{\circ}C$ and $-10.2^{\circ}C$), but reductions were also seen at $23^{\circ}C$ ($-8.6^{\circ}C$ and $-4.9^{\circ}C$). With $35^{\circ}C$ cooling water, temperatures increased slightly, but still remained lower than the no cooling water group ($1.6^{\circ}C$ and $6.7^{\circ}C$). Conclusions: The temperature changes in the pulp chamber and at the handpiece head were above harmful thresholds when tooth preparation was performed without cooling water. However, cooling water of all temperatures prevented harmful critical temperature changes even though water at $35^{\circ}C$ raised temperatures slightly above baseline.

Measurement of Irrigation Water Temperature and Preventive Measure against Cold Watter Damage to Paddy Rice (벼의 냉수피해 감소를 위한 관개수온 조사와 대책수립)

  • 정상옥
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 1999
  • Paddy rice is semi-tropical crop and requires warmirrigation water. If mean water temperature at the water source during the growing period is below 18$^{\circ}C$, sime kinds of water warming mechanism should be taken. In this study irrigation water temperature is measured and preventive measures to cold water damage on paddy rice are suggested. Field observations were performed at 100ha field area downtream of the Unmoon reservoir during the growing season of 1997. Land use, canal system, water temperature at irrigation canals. reservoir, and paddy fields were observed. In addition, growth and yield of the rice at selected plots were observed. Accordingly to the record, cold water damage occurred in this area due to the cold irrigation water supply in 1996. It did not occur because of the effective irrigation water management practice in 1997. However, several preventive measures such as pontoon intake system, using existing weir and construting a new warming pond, are suggested to prevent cold water damage in the future. If a new warming pond is construted to raise irrigation water temperature by 2 $^{\circ}C$, a pond area of 2.94 ha is required.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Summer Water Temperature Fluctuations by Spectral Analysis in Coast of Korea in 2016 (스펙트럼 분석을 통한 2016년 하계 한국연안의 수온변동 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Ho-San;Jeong, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Dong-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.186-194
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    • 2020
  • In this study, spectral analysis was conducted to identify environmental factors af ecting short-term changes in water temperature in the East, West and South coasts of Korea. The data used in the spectrum analysis is the 2016 summer water temperature, air temperature, tide level and wind data provided by Korea Hydrographic & Oceanographic Agency. In power spectrum results, peaks of water temperature and tide level were observed at same periods in West Sea (Incheon, Pyeungteak, Gunsan and Mokpo) and South Sea (Wando, Goheung, Yeosu, Tongyeong and Masan) where mean tidal range was more than 100 cm. On the other hand, periodicity of water temperature did not appear in East Sea and Busan where the mean tidal range was small. Coherence analysis showed that water temperature was highly correlated with tide in West Sea and three stations(Wando, Goheung and Tongyeong) of South Sea. Especially, correlation between water temperature and tide level in Wando and Tongyeong presented 0.96 at semi-diurnal period. Water temperature in Yeosu seems to have influenced by tide and inflow of fresh water. In Masan, water temperature is influenced by south wind, tide and inflow of fresh water. In East Sea, influence of tide on water temperature is small due to current and small tidal range. As a result of comparing the time series graph, stations where the correlation between water temperature and tide is high show that relatively cold water was inputted at flood tide and flow out at ebb tide. short-term variation of water temperature was affected by tide, but long-term variation over a month was affected by air temperature.

증발억제법에 의한 수온 및 지온상승효과에 관한 연구

  • 김광식
    • Water for future
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.6-16
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    • 1972
  • It has been well studied and known that the yields from the rice fields irrigated by the cold water such as the water directly flowing in from mountain valleies, underground water and subground water are largely influenced by the water temperature. However, the best method of raising water temperature has not yet been established. This is because there are some essentially difficult problems associated. When we examine the effects of $1^{\circ}C$ rise in the water temperature under natural condition on rice growing, the necessity of this line of study is verified. The results of Mihara's study show that rice bears its fruits at the water temperature above $19^{\circ}C$ and the difference of $1^{\circ}C$ in the range of $19^{\circ}C$ to $22^{\circ}C$ can produce the 20% of difference in yields. Because of these facts, most farmers have made use of water temperature raising ponds, zigzag waterways and shelter belts. But the most important factor in raising water temperature has been found to be the heat loss due to evaporation. Recently, a good deal of experiment on raising water temperature and soil temperature by reducing the evaporation are being carried out all over the world. The reduction of evaporation does not only reduce heat loss, from the surface but also reduce the loss of water. Present study is aimed to determine the efficiency of different chemicals by which monomolecular films are formed over different surfaces such as water surface, soil surface and the surface of plant leaves with a purpose of preventing the transpiration, and aimed to observe the effects of the temperature rise and its influence on growing state as well as the durability of the plants under drought condition.

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Analysis of the Water Temperature Stratification-Maintaining Conditions Using CFD in Case of Intake of Deep, Low-Temperature Water (댐의 심층저온수 취수시 수온 성층화 유지 조건에 대한 CFD를 이용한 분석)

  • Lee, Jin-Sung;Cho, Soo;Sim, Kyung-Jong;Jang, Moon-Soung;Sohn, Jang-Yeul
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to forecast inner water temperature strata change by extracting deep water from a dam. For the methodology, the scope wherein the balance between the volume of low-temperature water intake through the virtual water intake opening as installed within the stored water area and the volume of water intake from the surrounding area is not destroyed was calculated through the CFD simulation technique using the computational fluid dynamics(CFD) interpretation method. This study suggested a supplementary method(diffuser) to avoid destroying the water temperature strata, and the effect was reviewed. In case of intake of the same volume, when the velocity of flow of water intake is reduced by increasing the pipe diameter, the destruction of water temperature strata can be minimized. When the area(height) where the intake of water is possible is low, a diffuser for interrupting the vertical direction inflow should be installed to secure favorable water intake conditions in case of water intake on the upper part. This study showed that there was no problem if the intake-enabled, low-temperature area was secured approximately 10m from the bottom when the scope that does not destroy the water temperature strata in case of water intake was forecast using the regression formula.

On the Distribution of Water Temperature in the Warm Water Pool. -On the Wudu Warm Water Pool- (온수지에서의 수온분포에 관한 연구 -우두온수지를 중심으로-)

  • 연규석;최예환
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 1979
  • The objective of this study was to grasp the condition of the distribution of water temperature in the warm water pool, and these observations were performed in Wudu warm water pool located at Wodu-Dong in Chuncheon. The results summarized in this study are as follows; 1. The horizontal distribution charts of water temperature at each depth of points were shown as Fig. 3, Fig. 4, and Fig. 5, respectively. In consequence of the observation, the condition of warm water was stagnant in the coner of warm water pool. As the result, it was found out that stagnant condition was the heaviest at water surface (depth; 0.05m), more heavier at middle depth (depth; 0.55m) and some heavy at bottom of the pool (depth; 1.10m). 2. The vertical water temperature change was shown as Fig. 6, and the mean water temperature of water surface (depth;0.05m) was higher about $2.2{\sim}3.3^{\circ}C$ than bottom water temperature. 3. Therefore, it was required to device such structures as form of broad cannels or overflow diversion weirs to mingle with top and bottom water.

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A Study on the Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water and Changes During Storage

  • Kim, Jong-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.517-521
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    • 2007
  • To assess possible risks from the consumption of drinking water from various sources, a survey of the microbiological quality of tap water, commercial bottled drinking water which is exploited from natural mineral water, and natural spring water was conducted. A total of 4 different brands of commercial bottled drinking water, and 4 types of spring water from different sources, and tap water from 4 private houses were tested for four index microorganisms, and the microbial quality changes of the water during the storage at room temperature or refrigerated temperature for 7 days. Aerobic plate counts of all of the initial water samples were still within 100 CFU/ml (drinking water standard of Korea). Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and E. coli were not detected in all of the water samples at initial. However, aerobic plate counts of three types of spring water and three types of bottled drinking water stored at room temperature showed higher levels than the standards in 5 days. Total coliforms were detected in three types of spring water after one day's storage at room temperature, and in one type of bottled drinking water after 5 days' storage. These results indicate that some of the spring water surveyed are not safe to drink, and the spring water and bottled drinking water after opening the lid should not be stored at room temperature, if they are used for drinking.

Operational Water Temperature Forecast for the Nakdong River Basin Using HSPF Watershed Model (HSPF 유역모델을 이용한 낙동강유역 실시간 수온 예측)

  • Shin, Chang Min;Na, Eun Hye;Kim, Duck Gil;Kim, Kyunghyun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.673-682
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    • 2014
  • A watershed model was constructed using Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran to predict the water temperature at major tributaries of Nakdong River basin, Korea. Water temperature is one of the most fundamental indices used to determine the nature of an aquatic environment. Most processes of an aquatic environment such as saturation level of dissolved oxygen, the decay rate of organic matter, the growth rate of phytoplankton and zooplankton are affected by temperature. The heat flux to major reservoirs and tributaries was analyzed to simulate water temperature accurately using HSPF model. The annual mean heat flux of solar radiation was estimated to $150{\sim}165W/m^2$, longwave radiation to $-48{\sim}-113W/m^2$, evaporative heat loss to $-39{\sim}-115W/m^2$, sensible heat flux to $-13{\sim}-22W/m^2$, precipitation heat flux to $2{\sim}4W/m^2$, bed heat flux to $-24{\sim}22W/m^2$ respectively. The model was calibrated at major reservoir and tributaries for a three-year period (2008 to 2010). The deviation values (Dv) of water temperature ranged from -6.0 to 3.7%, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency(NSE) of 0.88 to 0.95, root mean square error(RMSE) of $1.7{\sim}2.8^{\circ}C$. The operational water temperature forecasting results presented in this study were in good agreement with measured data and had a similar accuracy with model calibration results.

Building a Nonlinear Relationship between Air and Water Temperature for Climate-Induced Future Water Temperature Prediction (기후변화에 따른 미래 하천 수온 예측을 위한 비선형 기온-수온 상관관계 구축)

  • Lee, Khil-Ha
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.21-38
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    • 2014
  • In response to global warming, the effect of the air temperature on water temperature has been noticed. The change in water temperature in river environment results in the change in water quality and ecosystem, especially Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level, and shifts in aquatic biota. Efforts need to be made to predict future water temperature in order to understand the timing of the projected river temperature. To do this, the data collected by the Ministry of Environment and the Korea Meteororlogical Administration has been used to build a nonlinear relationship between air and water temperature. The logistic function that includes four different parameters was selected as a working model and the parameters were optimized using SCE algorithm. Weekly average values were used to remove time scaling effect because the time scale affects maximum and minimum temperature and then river environment. Generally speaking nonlinear logistic model shows better performance in NSC and RMSE and nonlinear logistic function is recommendable to build a relationship between air and water temperature in Korea. The results will contribute to determine the future policy regarding water quality and ecosystem for the decision-driving organization.

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