• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water temperature

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Analysis on Cooling and Heating Performance of Water-to-Water Heat Pump System for Water Source Temperature (물-물 수온차 히트펌프 시스템의 원수온도에 따른 성능 특성 분석)

  • Park, Tae Jin;Cho, Yong;Park, Jin-Hoon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.169.2-169.2
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    • 2010
  • The research assesses the performance of the water-to-water heat pump system installed in Cheongju water treatment plant for cooling and heating ventilation. In summer season monthly averaged COP is ranged from 3.85 to 4.56 according to the water source temperature, and the performance is increased as the raw water temperature is dropped. While, heating performance is increased for the high temperature water source, and the monthly averaged COP is changed from 2.92 to 3.82. The correlation of the water source temperature and the heat pump performance shows a linear tendency by the simple regression of average data. In heating, the COP of heat pump system linearly rises according to the water source temperature. In comparison, the COP in cooling linearly reduces as the raw water temperature is raised. The goodness of fit at the simple regression shows the coefficient of determination 82% in cooling, 46% in heating. The electric cost of water-to-water heat pump is reduced by 40% compared to that of air source heat pump.

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The Supply Water Algorithm for a Condensing Gas Boiler Control (콘덴싱가스보일러 제어를 위한 공급수알고리즘)

  • Han, Do-Young;Yoo, Byeong-Kang
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.441-448
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    • 2011
  • The energy consumption of a condensing gas boiler may be greatly reduced by the effective operation of the unit. In this study, the supply water algorithm for a condensing gas boiler control was developed by using the fuzzy logic. This includes the supply water set temperature algorithm, and the control algorithms of a gas valve, a blower and a pump. For the set temperature algorithm, the outside air temperature and the return water temperature were used as input variables. The supply water temperature difference and its slope were used as input variables of the gas valve and blower control algorithm. And the supply water temperature and the return water temperature were used as input variables of the pump control algorithm. In order to analyse performances of these algorithms, the dynamic model of a condensing gas boiler was used. The initial start-up test, the supply water set temperature change test, the outside air temperature change test, and the return water temperature change test were performed. Simulation results showed that algorithms developed in this study may be practically applied for the effective control of a condensing gas boiler.

An Experimental Study on the Performance of Air/Water Direct Contact Air Conditioning System

  • Yoo, Seong-Yeon;Kwon, Hwa-Kil
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1002-1009
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    • 2004
  • Direct contact air conditioning systems, in which heat and mass are transferred directly between air and water droplets, have many advantages over conventional indirect contact systems. The purpose of this research is to investigate the cooling and heating performances of direct contact air conditioning system for various inlet parameters such as air velocity, air temperature, water flow rate and water temperature. The experimental apparatus comprises a wind tunnel, water spray system, scrubber, demister, heater, refrigerator, flow and temperature controller, and data acquisition system. The inlet and outlet conditions of air and water are measured when the air contacts directly with water droplets as a counter flow in the spray section of the wind tunnel, and the heat and mass transfer rates between air and water are calculated. The droplet size of the water sprays is also measured using a Malvern Particle Analyzer. In the cooling conditions, the outlet air temperature and humidity ratio decrease as the water flow rate increases and as the water temperature, air velocity and temperature decrease. On the contrary, the outlet air temperature and humidity ratio increase in the heating conditions as the water flow rate and temperature increase and as the air velocity decreases.

Performance Analysis of Water-to-Air Heat Pump System under Water Temperature and Load Ratio (열원 및 부하조건에 따른 물-공기 히트펌프 시스템의 성능분석)

  • Cho, Yong;Lee, Dong Keun
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.194.2-194.2
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    • 2011
  • Heating and cooling performance has been analyzed for the water-source heat pump system using raw water from Daechung reservoir. During heating operation from March to May, water temperature is not good condition for a heat source due to the higher atmospheric temperature. Avearged heating load ratio is only 14.3%, and the averaged unit COP and system COP are estimated to be 2.46 and 2.15 respectively. The COP is affected considerably by the water temperature, and the unit COP is increased from 2.16 at $5^{\circ}C$ to 2.95 at $11^{\circ}C$. Cooling performance is analyzed with the measured data from June to August. During cooling operation, raw water has lower temperature by 4. $5^{\circ}C{\sim}4.7^{\circ}C$ than the atmosphere. The load ratio is 39.2%, and the averaged unit COP and system COP are estimated to be 7.25 and 6.13 respectively. The heating COP is affected by the load ratio rather than water temperature. The COP is increased for 20%~40% load ratio, while is decreased for 40%~60% load ratio. It is estimated that the compressor operation combination for 3 (two constant speed and one inverter) compressors is changed for the load ratio.

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Relationship between Winter Water Temperature in the Eastern Part of the Yellow Sea and Siberian High Pressure and Arctic Oscillation

  • Jung, Hae Kun;Lee, Chung Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1425-1433
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    • 2012
  • Water temperature in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea (EYS) during winter (JFM) and summer (JJA) from 1964 to 2009 and Siberian High Pressure Index (SHI) and Arctic Oscillation index (AOI) during winter (JFM) from 1950 to 2011 were used to analyze long-term variation in oceanic and atmospheric conditions and relationship between winter and summer bottom water temperature. Winter water temperature at 0, 30 and 50 m had fluctuated highly till the late of 1980s, but after this it was relatively stable. The long-term trends in winter water temperature at both depths were separated with cold regime and warm regime on the basis of the late 1980s. Winter water temperature at 0m and 50m during warm regime increased about $0.9^{\circ}C$ and $1.1^{\circ}C$ respectively compared to that during cold regime. Fluctuation pattern in winter water temperature matched well with SHI and AOI The SHI had negative correlation with water temperature at 0 m (r=-0.51) and 50 m (r=-0.58). On the other hand, the AO had positive correlation with Winter water temperature at 0 m (r=0.34) and 50 m (r=0.45). Cyclic fluctuation pattern of winter water temperature had a relation with SHI and AO, in particular two to six-year periodicity were dominant from the early of the 1970s to the early of the 1980s. Before the late of 1980s, change pattern in winter water temperature at 0 and 50 m was similar with that in the bottom water temperature during summer, but after this, relationship between two variables was low.

Seasonal Variation of Water Temperature Before and After Weir Construction Using Satellite Image in the Nakdong River (낙동강유역에서 위성영상을 이용한 보 건설 전후 수온의 계절변화)

  • Kim, Sang-Woo;Kim, Hae-Dong;Lim, Jin-Wook;Ahn, Ji-Suk
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1417-1430
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    • 2015
  • In this study we were to explore the seasonal variation of water temperature distributions before and after weir construction at Gumi, Chilgok, Gangjung(Goryung), Dalsung in the Nakdong River using Landsat satellite images. Relationship between in-situ water temperature and radiance values of Landsat-5, 7, 8 satellite images showed high correlation. Seasonal variation of water temperature in Nakdong River showed that the fluctuation ranges of water temperature before weir construction were larger than those after weir construction. This indicated that the variation of water temperature is due to the difference of heat storage volume by weir construction and dredging work. In particular, the water temperature after weirs construction in autumn was 4-8 times lower than that before weirs construction. Water temperature after weir construction decreased in spring and summer at the downstream of Gumi weir and Gangjung(Goryung) weir, and the upstream of Dalsung weir. In autumn and winter, the water temperature after weir construction increased in the upstream and downstream of the whole weirs except upstream of Gumi weir. Relationship between water temperature and meteorological elements (air temperature, wind speed, sunshine, radiation) showed high correlation of above 94% in air temperature, and then radiation was high correlation before and after 65%.

Analysis of Temperature Effect on Activated Sludge Process at Cheong-Gye Cheon Sewage Treatment Plant (활성오니공법에 있어서 수온이 처리효율에 미치는 영향에 관한 분석 -청계천 하수종말처리장에 대하여-)

  • 이은경
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.9-20
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    • 1981
  • This study was performed to determine the correlationship between temperature and overall removals of BOD, SS and to demonstrate the effect of temperature on treatment performance. These data for a period from February 1, 1977 to January 31, 1980 were obtained from the Cheong-Gye Cheon Sewage Treatment plant. The results of correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis were as follows. 1) Secondary effluent BOD and SS showed negative correlationship with water temperature, with correlation coefficient of -0.1710, and -0.1654 respectively. 2) Correlation coefficient of BOD, SS removal rate and water temperature were 0.1823 and 0.0429 respectively. 3) Regresion equation for estimate of BOD removal rate was as follows $\widehat{Y}_1$ (BOD removal rate)=63.9994+0.5442X(water temperature). And BOD removal rate showed non significant change according to the water temperature. 4) Regression equation for estimate of SS removal rate was as follows $\widehat{Y}_2$ (SS removal rate)=61.6881+0.1514X(Water temperature). And SS removal rate showed non significant change according to the water temperature. 5) According to the Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis, water temperature ranked second order in the BOD removal rate estimation and the equation was as follows $\widehat{Y}_1$ (BOD removal rate)=69.7398+0.2665 $X_1$ (Primary effluent BOD)+0.3562 $X_2$ (Water temperature)-0.0122 $X_3(Flow)+4413.271X_4$ (Organic Loading).

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Simulation of Water Temperature in the Downstream According to Withdrawal Types of Dam using EFDC Model (댐 방류형태가 하류 하천 수온변화에 미치는 영향 예측)

  • Park, Jae-Chung;Yoon, Jin-Hyuk;Jung, Yong-Moon;Son, Ji-Yeon;Song, Young-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.715-724
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we simulated water temperature in the downstream according to withdrawal types of dam using EFDC model. Three scenarios were assumed as water was released from the surface layer, the middle layer, and the bottom layer at intervals of 10m depth. In case of the surface layer withdrawal, the water temperature rose from March and lowered gradually after it reached a peak in August. The middle and the bottom layers effluence temperatures were lower than the surface layer temperature by maximum $15.9^{\circ}C$(in July), but after September, temperature inversion appeared. It was advantageous for the surface layer withdrawal to decrease cold damage and fog in downstream area and was possible to the middle and the bottom layers withdrawal from August to September. However, the reliability of model should be improved by accumulating the real-time information of water temperature.

Characterization of membrane fouling and CEB (Chemical enhanced backwashing) efficiency with temperature in SMBR Process (MBR 공정에서 수온에 따른 막오염 및 CEB 세정효율 특성)

  • Park, Kitae;Park, Jeonghoon;Choi, Eunhye;Kim, Hyungsoo;Kim, Jihoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.389-395
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of membrane fouling caused by water temperature in the Membrane bioreactor(MBR) process and try to derive the membrane fouling control by chemical enhanced backwashing(CEB). The extracellular polymeric substances(EPS) concentration was analyzed according to the water temperature in the MBR, and the membrane fouling characteristics were investigated according to the conditions, with sludge & without sludge, through a lab-scale reactor. As shown in the existing literature the fouling resistance rate was increased within sludge with the water temperature was lowered. However, in the lab-scale test using the synthetic wastewater, the fouling resistance increased with the water temperature. This is because that the protein of the EPS was more easily adsorbed on the membrane surface due to the increase of entropy due to the structural rearrangement of the protein inside the protein as the water temperature increases. In order to control membrane fouling, we tried to derive the cleaning characteristics of CEB by using sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl). We selected the condition with the chemicals and the retention time, and the higher the water temperature and the chemical concentration are the higher the efficiencies. It is considered that the increasing temperature accelerated the chemical reaction such as protein peptide binding and hydrolysis, so that the attached proteinaceous structure was dissolved and the frequency of the reaction collision with the protein with the chemical agent becomes higher. These results suggest that the MBRs operation focus on the fouling control of cake layer on membrane surface in low temperatures. On the other hand, the higher the water temperature is the more the operation strategies of fouling control by soluble EPS adsorption are needed.

Study on Matter Production and Phothsynthetic Characteristics in Wild Vegetable(Chwinamul) (취나물류의 물질생산과 광합성특성에 관한 연구 II. 수분스트레스하에서 고온 및 저온처리가 취나물류의 광합성속도에 미치는 영향)

  • 조동하
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 1998
  • The response of water stree under high and low temperatures, was shown differently according to the longer the suspension period of water supply. Leaf photosynthetic rate(LPS), leaf water potential(WP), relative leaf water content and relative soil water content were lower. At the higher temperatures, the percentate of reduction in LPS and WP was greater than at low temperatures. It is suggested that evaporation rate should be higher in the high temperature than the lower temperature. Also leaf water potential was lower at high temperature than at low temperature. After the 9 th day of treatment , LSP was remarkably reduced at high temperature, but the reduction of LPS was not significant at low temperature. Solidago virga-aurea var. asiatic that maintained LPS of 3rd day after treatment was more strong than other varieties at low temperatures. The silting and curling of leaves were observed symptoms of stress on the 9th day at the both temperatures. The leaves of aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri turned red on the 9th day after treatment at low temperature.

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