• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water source protection areas

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Designation and Management of Water Source Protection Areas for Indirect Intakes

  • Choi, Ji-Yong;Hwang, Dae-Ho
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2010
  • With increased chemical and economic development activities in upstream areas, the amounts of pollutants released have increased, and as such, so has the need for positive management of water supply source areas. Although more than 90% of the water supply sources in Korea depend on direct intake from surface water, the interest in indirect intake, such as riverbank filtration water, has recently risen, with some local governments currently undertaking indirect intake. Even in cases of indirect intake, water supply source protection zones need to be assigned for the comprehensive control of pollutants. To establish water quality protection zones for indirect intake, the scope of the protection zones needed to reflect the hydrological features of the water-bearing deposits of each site. Water source protection areas were estimated and presented as the 1st (within a 100 m radius from an intake well) and 2nd (within a 2 km radius from an intake well) zones. The 1st zone was more sensitive; hence, the installation of various facilities should be prohibited, and the area should be regarded as off-limits. For the 2nd zone, appropriate management should prohibit and restrict activities already present in the water source protection zone.

Evaluatinon of the Surface Water in Southwest Area of Vietnam

  • Thai, Thanh Luom
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.445-452
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    • 2009
  • This study surveys the surface water environment in Southwest sea areas of Vietnam in order to evaluate the current environment. It collects and analyzes experimental results of programs, scientific subjects, and international projects relevant to ecological areas and coastlines of Kien Giang province. The methods analyzed and discussed by specialists are evaluated according to pollution coefficients established by the World Health Organization (WHO), sampling methods, and case study analyses. Comparison between the scale of pollution levels and the surface water quality in experimental areas of Long Xuyen Quadrangle shows a light-moderate pollution level. In Ca Mau Peninsula, the surface water source is only slightly polluted. Sea areas and islands are also light-moderately polluted. Computing results from water quality indices (WQI) show the level of pollution in experimental sites. Activities such as constructing infrastructures for tourism, exploiting minerals, and increasing population accelerate environmental pollution by deteriorating inherently sensitive ecosystems like corals, sea grass, mangrove swamps, and Melaleuca forests. Surveying and evaluating the present situation of surface water are fundamental solutions for environmental protection in the Southwest sea areas of Vietnam.

Interpretation of the Origin of Water Pollutants by Oxygen (δ18O) and Nitrogen (δ15N) Isotope Analysis (산소(δ18O)와 질소(δ15N) 안정동위원소비를 이용한 상수원의 오염원 분석)

  • Jeong, Young-Cheol;Lee, Jeongyup;Choi, Jaewon;Kim, Yun S.
    • Journal of The Korea Society For Environmental Analysis
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2017
  • The use of chemical analyses for water quality management has limitations in terms of efficiently managing pollutants through various pollutants sources. For the purpose of identification, stable isotope ratio methods are wildly used around world. The measurement technique of oxygen and nitrogen stable isotopes in water is employed to establish the origin and pollution source in the water quality protection area in this study. The target study areas, which are a water resource, is located in G area, Korea, and the analytical samples were collected 4 times per year at 5 sites. As a result, the assigned values of oxygen and nitrogen stable isotopes in water were changed based on rainfall. The target area, water quality protection area, was estimated to be highly influenced by soil from land, manure and sewage, and contaminated groundwater. According to the correlation between oxygen and nitrogen stable isotope ratio, the study area is estimated to be influenced by pollution sources in D site, where inflow was not large.

The Delineation of Water-Pollutant Buffering Zone for Sustaining Better Drinking Water Quality Using a GIS (GIS를 이용한 상수원 보호를 위한 수변구역 지정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kye-Hyun;Yoon, Ho-Seok;Kwon, Woo-Suk
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.239-248
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    • 2000
  • The aggravating water quality from the expansion of industrialization along with increasing population lead to develop more intensive physical measures to secure better drinking water quality. This study was mainly initiated to establish a water-pollutant buffering zone for the upper stream basin of Paldang--the major source area of drinking water for the metropolitan Seoul and suburban areas with a population more than 13 million. Two different criteria were considered in determining the buffering distance from the edge of the streamflow : 1km-width buffer zone for the special protection area which has been strictly controlled by the conventional laws for the protection of drinking water supply, and 500m-width buffer zone for the rest of the area. To delineate the exact boundaries of the water-pollutant buffering zone, GIS database was created integrating topography, hydrography, cadastral, and other related layers. The newly designated water-pollutant buffering zone would contribute to improve the water quality in a long term along with the conservation of the wet land. More study, however, should be made within the water-pollutant buffering zone such as the detailed survey of the pollutants, vegetation, and ecosystem for more effective management of the buffering zone.

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Evaluating Quantitative Expansion Goals of the National Protected Areas Integrated System (국가 보호지역 통합 시스템의 양적 확대 목표에 대한 평가)

  • Hong, Jin-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2018
  • The study is conducted to establish the National Protected Areas Integrated System(NPAIS) which includes National Protected Areas(NPAs) and other conservation measures in terms of effective ways for biodiversity conservation. Additionally, it is carried out to evaluate progress toward quantitative expansion goals in Aichi biodiversity Target 11. The NPAIS consists of NPAs and other effective area-based conservation measures(OECMs). There are two different types of OECMs. OECMs type I, including water-source protection Areas(WPA), riparian zones(RZ), fishery-resource protection zones (FPZ), and urban natural park zones(UNPZ), is a potential protected area which is recommended to be incorporated into the NPAs for effective management. OECMs type II means development restriction zones(DRZ), natural recreation forests(NRF), and buffer zones for Korea national arboretum(BKNA). As a result of evaluating the quantitative expansion goals of the NPAIS, terrestrial and inland water protected areas exceed 17% of the quantitative goal in Aichi biodiversity Target 11. The larger the area of individual OECMs and the lower the degree of overlap with NPAs, the higher the contribution of them to the terrestrial and inland water protected areas. DRZ contributes to enlarge more than 3% of quantitative expansion. And RZ and NRF contribute more than 1%. The marine protected areas are expanded by $1,425km^2$ through FPZ, but the expanded area is very small as comparing with the total marine area. It adds only 0.321% to the quantitative expansion. The rest of OECMs also has very poor quantitative expansion contributions in the marine area. Consequently, the NPAIS is effective for quantitative expansion of land areas, but not for marine areas.

Identifying Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures for Expanding National Protected Areas (국가 보호지역 확대를 위한 기타 효과적인 지역 기반 보전 수단(OECMs)의 발굴)

  • Hong, Jin-Pyo;Shim, Yun-Jin;Heo, Hag-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to establish the integrated system of national protected areas by identifying OECMs which are not officially recognized as protected areas, but effectively and enduringly deliver the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem service to expand them up to the level recommended by the international community. In order to identify them, candidates for OECMs were listed and it was developed a three-step systematic screening tool based on preconditions, essential characteristics, and sustainable means for conservation outcome of them. As a result of using the tool that considers domestic conditions, seven areas which included Development Restriction Zones, Urban Natural Park Areas, Fishery Resources Protection Zones, Riparian Zones, Natural Recreation Forest Zones, Water Source Protection Areas, and Buffer Zones for Korea National Arboretum were selected as OECMs. And the system of national protected areas was built by integrating them with national protected areas(NPA). Compared with the NPA, the system has been expanded by them and has reached to 17.88%, exceeding the target of 17% for terrestrial and inland water protections. It was proven that they were very effective in enlarging these protections. However, it failed to contribute to the target for marine protections. The expansion of marine protected areas requires different approaches, such as discovering new types of marine protected areas or linking them to biologically important marine areas all over the world.

A Comparison Study of Various Water Sources for Feasibility of Expanding the use of Groundwater in Public Water Supply of South Korea (지하수 상수원 활용의 타당성 고찰을 위한 상수도 취수원의 특성 비교 연구)

  • Cha, Eun-Jee;Hyun, Yunjung
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2017
  • As water sources become more vulnerable to the effects of climate change such as drought and contamination, the diversification of water sources is important for securing water supply. This study examines the properties of five water sources for public supply, including river and river-bed water, dams, reservoirs, and groundwater, while ensuring that the quantities available from such sources are stable and the water itself is safe for use. This study also analyzes the power, chemical, repair and maintenance, and labor costs associated with each water source. The results demonstrate that groundwater has high potential as a water source because it is readily available (about $12.89billion\;m^3/yr$), but only a small portion of it is currently used. Analyses indicated that groundwater is the most efficient source of water to meet water demand below $1,000,000m^3/yr$, which covers 62.5% of water supply facilicities. With the implementation of groundwater dams, groundwater can become cost-efficient even for larger water demand. Additionally, the water source protection areas are the smallest for groundwater among the five water sources. In conclusion, the use of groundwater as an alternative water source is feasible becasue it is readily available, safe, cost-efficient, and requires the lowest amount of environmental regulations for the diversification of water supply sources.

Reformation of Environmental Regulation through introduction of the Zero Liquid Discharge System (무방류시스템 도입에 따른 환경규제효율화 방안)

  • Choi, Ji-Yong
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.31-49
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    • 2003
  • It is difficult to examine the causal relation of pollution damages because the time gap between pollution cause and effect is large and new pollutants are continuously being produced. Their many environmental effects are not promptly studied. As both the study of causal relation about pollution and the pollutant treatment are becoming highly advanced by the development of science and environmental technology, both the economy and balance on environmental regulation may be discussed. It is reasonable to decide environmental policy in consideration of close relation between both the generation and resolution of environmental problems and of technological developments because environmental problems are related to complicated social problems and scientific technologies. First item in policy decision about environmental control and management is preferentially to consider the way of prevention. It is necessary to prevent pollution by regulating the installment of environmental pollution facility into the environmentally sensitive areas, like water supply source and to regulate land utilization as a method to achieve pollution prevention. Second is a consideration of environmental technology development. This is a solution which can accomplish the development of environmental technology and the reinforcement of economic competition. Third is the coexistence of environment and economy. It is necessary to consider economy in connection with environmental problems and environment in economic problem. Then, we can enjoy a healthy life as well as economic affluence. Fourth is the enlargement of environmental management means. Environmental management means must be diversified because environmental cause and effect are varied. For Improving the land use regulation system, it is necessary to consider both land use regulation status and pollutant toxicity with the development of environmental technology. Land use must be approached by classifying land to 3 levels; water source protection zone and water front zone, special zone 1 and 2, rancus and other zones. Land regulation policy to prevent any accident in water source protection zone, waterfront zone, and special zone must be continuously upgraded. However, economical consideration in other zones is required by the development of environmental technology.

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A Study on Land Acquisition Priority for Establishing Riparian Buffer Zones in Korea (수변녹지 조성을 위한 토지매수 우선순위 산정 방안 연구)

  • Hong, Jin-Pyo;Lee, Jae-Won;Choi, Ok-Hyun;Son, Ju-Dong;Cho, Dong-Gil;Ahn, Tong-Mahn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 2014
  • The Korean government has purchased land properties alongside any significant water bodies before setting up the buffers to secure water qualities. Since the annual budgets are limited, however, there has always been the issue of which land parcels ought to be given the priority. Therefore, this study aims to develop efficient mechanism for land acquisition priorities in stream corridors that would ultimately be vegetated for riparian buffer zones. The criteria of land acquisition priority were driven through literary review along with experts' advice. The relative weights of their value and priorities for each criterion were computed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. Major findings of the study are as follows: 1. The decision-making structural model for land acquisition priority focuses mainly on the reduction of non-point source pollutants(NSPs). This fact is highly associated with natural and physical conditions and land use types of surrounding areas. The criteria were classified into two categories-NSPs runoff areas and potential NSPs runoff areas. 2. Land acquisition priority weights derived for NSPs runoff areas and potential NSPs runoff areas were 0.862 and 0.138, respectively. This implicates that much higher priority should be given to the land parcels with NSPs runoff areas. 3. Weights and priorities of sub-criteria suggested from this study include: proximity to the streams(0.460), land cover(0.189), soil permeability(0.117), topographical slope(0.096), proximity to the roads(0.058), land-use types(0.036), visibility to the streams(0.032), and the land price(0.012). This order of importance suggests, as one can expect, that it is better to purchase land parcels that are adjacent to the streams. 4. A standard scoring system including the criteria and weights for land acquisition priority was developed which would likely to allow expedited decision making and easy quantification for priority evaluation due to the utilization of measurable spatial data. Further studies focusing on both point and non-point pollutants and GIS-based spatial analysis and mapping of land acquisition priority are needed.

Analysis of water purification in the FWS wetland for Agreculture Area (농업지역 내 FWS 인공습지의 수질정화효율 분석)

  • Kang, Chang-Guk;Maniquiz, Marla C.;Son, Young-Gyu;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2010
  • Annually, the scale of agricultural areas in Korea were being reduced as the lands were converted to other land uses. While the rate of productivity were either being maintained or increased, the pollution load from these areas were still greater in magnitude. Although the levels of pollutant concentration released in the agricultural watersheds were minimal, the combined quantities mostly from diffuse sources were high. As a consequence, the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Korea adopted the use of free water surface (FWS) flow constructed wetlands to reduce the pollutant loadings emitted from agricultural watersheds for the improvement of water quality and protection of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a constructed wetland treating stream water in an agricultural watershed was monitored since April 2009 subsequent to its completion in December 2008. Satisfactory performance was achieved for TSS, BOD and TP with 26%, 28% and 39% pollutant removal rates, respectively. In addition, the effluent water quality was improved and achieved compliance the national water quality criteria. Results of this study can be useful to establish design parameters and employ proper removal techniques of similar natural treatment systems for future implementation in the country.