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Ecohydrologic Analysis on Soil Water and Plant Water Stress : Focus on Derivation and Application of Stochastic Model (토양수분과 식생의 물 압박에 대한 생태수문학적 해석 : 추계학적 모형의 유도와 적용을 중심으로)

  • Han, Suhee;Kim, Sangdan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2008
  • With globally increasing interests in climate-soil-vegetation system, a new stochastic model of soil water and plant water stress is derived for better understanding of the soil water and plant water stress dynamics and their role in water-controlled ecosystem. The steady-state assumption is used for simplifying the equations. The derived model is simple yet realistic that it can account for the essential features of the system. The model represents the general characteristics of rainfall, soil, and vegetation; i.e. the soil moisture constitutes the decrease form of the steady-state and the plant water stress becomes increasing with the steady state when the rainfall is decreased. With this model, further deep study for the effects of soil water and plant water stress on the system will be accomplished.

The Research on Activation Plan for Seawater Desalination Plant Application in Korea (국내 해수담수화 플랜트 적용 활성화 방안 연구)

  • Sohn, Jinsik;Yang, Jeong-Seok;Park, Jinseo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.251-255
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    • 2009
  • Foreign and domestic seawater desalination plant market investigation was performed to analyze the worldwide trend of seawater desalination plant market and to establish the activation plan for seawater desalination plant application. Water demand and seawater desalination related laws and regulations were investigated and analyzed for the activation plan. RO type and large scale plants are popular nowadays however there are only small plants in island region in Korea. There will be about $1 million\;m^3/day$ deficit in 2015 according to the water demand forecasting from Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Land, Transportation, and Maritime Affairs in Korea. Therefore, it is necessary to activate the domestic application of seawater desalination plant to secure stable water resources. To activate the domestic application of seawater desalination plant, first, we need to establish regulations, support system in the water service law for seawater desalination plant. Second, related Ministry should increase the support for the operation and management of seawater desalination plant and suggest the construction of seawater desalination plant for water resources security near seaside region.

Water Requirement of Green Peppers in Greenhouse (온실재배 풋고추의 소비수량(농업시설))

  • 이근후;이종창;윤용철;서원명
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the water requirement of green peppers which are cultivated in a greenhouse under the different soil water conditions. The meteorological conditions during the experiment period was not predominantly different from the conditions in a normal year. The highest leaf area per plant, plant height, and yield were 6,143$\textrm{cm}^2$/plant, 107cm, and 751g/plant, respectively. And daily variation of water requirements of green peppers ranged from 30 to 1,250g/d/plant which was fluctuated with significant difference. Total water requirements per plant which cultivated under the soil water conditions with different saturation ratios were 23,619g for P100, 43,044 for P80, and 2915g for P60, respectively. There were close correlation between plant height and water requirements. Low correlations were found between greenhouse ambient temperature and water requirement, while significant linear regression was shown between both of humidity and solar radiation and water requirement.

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Stochastic Behavior of Plant Water Stress Index and the Impact of Climate Change (식생 물 부족 지수의 추계학적 거동과 기후변화가 그에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Suhee;Yoo, Gayoung;Kim, Sangdan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.507-514
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    • 2009
  • In this study, a dynamic modeling scheme is presented to describe the probabilistic structure of soil water and plant water stress index under stochastic precipitation conditions. The proposed model has the form of the Fokker-Planck equation, and its applicability as a model for the probabilistic evolution of the soil water and plant water stress index is investigated under a climate change scenario. The simulation results of soil water confirm that the proposed soil water model can properly reproduce the observations and show that the soil water behaves with consistent cycle based on the precipitation pattern. The simulation results of plant water stress index show two different PDF patterns according to the precipitation. The simple impact assessment of climate change to soil water and plant water stress is discussed with Korean Meteorological Administration regional climate model.

Curtailment of Water use Through the Integration of Process Waste Waters at the Standard Thermal Power Plant (표준화력발전소의 발전폐수 통합을 이용한 용수 사용량 절감)

  • Mun, Gyeong-Seok;Jang, Heui-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.437-443
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    • 2006
  • The Water usage is relationship which is close with the administrative cost from industrial facility. It is not easy to reduce a water usage. This research is the optimization of the waste water quantity which process waste water integration of the standard thermal power plant in system operate time. The turbine rotates by force of the steam and it produces an electricity. Demineralization Water is manufacture purity manufacturing equipment and it is supplied in power plant channel. We knew a possibility of reducing from pure control process. When it is reduced the Back Washing time, Rinsing time of the gravity filter and the activated carbon filter. Also, It is possible even from regeneration phase in Condensate Polishing Demineralization System. In addition, There is also the water which the drain of the sampling water for watching the condition of power plant process will be able to use. Integrates these processes it will be able to reduce an annual 30,000 ton degree. The research is want to use the fundamental data for the water curtailment of the power plant.

Performance Evaluation of Ocean Small Hydropower Plant by Analyzing Water Level and Flow Rate of Circulating Water (방류수의 수위 및 유량 분석을 통한 해양 소수력 성능평가)

  • Kang, Keum-Seok;Kim, Ji-Young;Ryu, Moo-Sung
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2009
  • The Samcheonpo ocean small hydropower plant (SHP) has a special feature of using marginal hydraulic head of circulating water system of fossil fuel power plant as a power source and having the characteristics of general hydropower generation and tidal power generation as well. Also, it contributes to reducing green house gases and developing clean energy source by recycling circulating water energy otherwise dissipated into the ocean. The efficiency of small hydropower plant is directly affected by effective head and flow rate of discharged water. Therefore, the efficiency characteristics of ocean hydropower plant are analyzed with the variation of water level and flow rate of discharged water, which is based on the accumulated operation data of the Samcheonpo hydropower plant. After the start of small hydropower plant operation, definite rise of water level was observed. As a result of flow pattern change from free flow to submerged flow, the instability of water surface in overall open channel is increased but it doesn't reach the extent of overflowing channel or having an effect on circulation system. Performance evaluation result shows that the generating power and efficiency of small hydropower exceeds design requirements in all conditions. Analysis results of CWP's water flow rate verify that the amount of flowing water is measured less and the highest efficiency of small hydropower plant is achieved when the effective head has its maximum value. In conclusion, efficiency curve derived from water flow rate considering tidal level shows the best fitting result with design criteria curve and it is verified that overall efficiency of hydropower system is satisfactory.

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Characteristics of Nutrient Uptake by Water Plants in Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands for Treating Non-point Source Pollution (비점오염원 처리를 위한 자유수면형 인공습지에서 수생식물의 영양염류 흡수특성 평가)

  • Kang, Se-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Choi, Ik-Won;Lee, Jun-Bae;Lim, Byung-Jin;Park, Jong-Hwan;Kim, Kap-Soon;Kim, Sang-Don;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.304-309
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Generally, water plants may play an important role in nutrients(N, P) removal in constructed wetlands(CWs). Previous studies considered nutrients uptake by water plants in various CWs for treating point source pollution. On the other hand, few studies considered nutrients uptake by water plants in free water surface(FWS) CWs for treating non-point source pollution. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate characteristics of nutrient uptake by water plants in FWS CWs, dry weights, nutrients content and nutrients uptake by water plants were investigated from April, 2008 to October, 2008. Dominance plants were Phragmites japonica STEUD (PHRJA), Nymphaea tetragona ANGUSTA(NTMTE), Typha orientalis PRESL(TYHOR), Phragmites communis TRINIUS(PHRCO) and Zizanis latifolia TURCZ(ZIZLA) in FWS CWs. The dry weights of water plants in August were higher in the order of TYHOR(54.27 g/plant) > PHRJA(44.30 g/plant) ${\geqq}$ PHRCO(39.60 g/plant) ${\geqq}$ ZIZLA(37.80 g/plant) ${\fallingdotseq}$ NTMTE(36.75 g/plant). The T-N and T-P contents by water plants were not significantly differences regardless of cultivation period. The maximum amount of T-N uptake by water plants in August were 773 mg/plant for PHRJA, 625 mg/plant for NTMTE, 1206 mg/plant for TYHOR, 754 mg/plant for PHRCO and 768 mg/plant for ZIZLA. The maximum amounts of T-P uptake by PHRJA, NTMTE, TYHOR, PHRCO and ZIZLA were 397, 177, 411, 261 and 229 mg/plant in August, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The results of this study suggest that optimum water plant was Typha orientalis PRESL in free water surface constructed wetlands.

The Impact of Climate Change on the Dynamics of Soil Water and Plant Water Stress (토양수분과 식생 스트레스 동역학에 기후변화가 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Su-Hee;Kim, Sang-Dan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2009
  • In this study a dynamic modeling scheme is presented to derive the probabilistic structure of soil water and plant water stress when subject to stochastic precipitation conditions. The newly developed model has the form of the Fokker-Planck equation, and its applicability as a model for the probabilistic evolution of the soil water and plant water stress is investigated under climate change scenarios. This model is based on the cumulant expansion theory, and has the advantage of providing the probabilistic solution in the form of probability distribution function (PDF), from which one can obtain the ensemble average behavior of the dynamics. The simulation result of soil water confirms that the proposed soil water model can properly reproduce the results obtained from observations, and it also proves that the soil water behaves with consistent cycle based on the precipitation pattern. The plant water stress simulation, also, shows two different PDF patterns according to the precipitation. Moreover, with all the simulation results with climate change scenarios, it can be concluded that the future soil water and plant water stress dynamics will differently behave with different climate change scenarios.

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LAND FARMING OF WATER PLANT ALUM SLUDGE ON ACID MINERAL SOIL AFFECTED BY ACID WATER

  • Lee, Seung-Sin;Kim, Jae-Gon;Moon, Hi-Soo;Kang, Il-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2001
  • An acid forest surface soil as a land farming medium was treated with a water plant alum sludge at 0 to 18%. Indian mustard was grown in the treated soil in a greenhouse for 5 weeks and watered with pH 4 tap water adjusted with a mixed acid (1HNO$_3$: 2H$_2$SO$_4$) during plant growth. Changes in soil property, leachate chemistry, plant growth, and plant uptake of elements by the sludge treatment were determined. The alum sludge treatment increased buffer capacity to acidity, hydraulic conductivity, water holding capacity, and phosphate adsorption of the soil and decreased bulk density and mobility of small particles. The sludge treatment reduced leaching of Al, Mg, K, Na, and root elongation. Plant did uptake less amount of the cations and P but more Ca with the sludge treatment.

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Response of Monodehydroascorbate Reductase (MDHAR) in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Leaves Subjected to Water Deficit Stress (수분 부족 스트레스 처리시 Monodehydroascorbate Reductase (MDHAR)의 반응)

  • Kang, Sang-Jae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2008
  • The relationship between water deficit stress and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) activity was determined in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaves under water stress condition imposed by with-holding water for 72 hrs. Relative water content determined in water deficit stressed lettuce leaves gradually reduced from 91.29% to 74.58%, and water content of medium drastically decreased 4.73% after quitting of irrigation. Hydrogen peroxide content in leaves subjected to water deficit stress rapidly increased, but soluble protein content rapidly decreased when those were compared to control plant. The relationship between relative water content and hydrogen peroxide content in stressed leaves positively correlated with $R^2$=0.8851, but soluble protein content reversely correlated with $R^2$=0.9826. Total chlorophyll content in stressed plant leaves was higher than that of control plant, and increased rapidly in early stage of treatment of both stressed and control plants. Carotenoid content was higher than that of control plant, and the ratio of carotenoid to total chlorophyll in stressed plant was higher as compared to control plant. As water deficit stress continued progressively, total ascorbate content in stressed plant leaves was a little higher than that of control plant. But dehydroascorbate (DHA) content within 6 hr of water deficit stress was higher than that of control plant, and then, content of control plant in 12 hr of stress treatment higher than that of stressed leaves. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase of cytosolic and chloroplastic tractions increased dramatically, and mRNA of MDHAR was highly detected by probing $^{32}P$-labeled single stranded MDHAR RNA of lettuce plant leaves subjected to water deficit stress. Relationship between MDHAR activity and relative water content and hydrogen peroxide highly correlated with $R^2$=0.9937 and 0.8645, respectively.