• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water hammer

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Experimental Study on the Water Hammer Absorption Effects of Water Hammer Arrester in the Water Supply Piping System (급수관로계에 설치된 수격흡수기의 수격흡수효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Choi, Jung-Geun;Lee, Suk-Jong;Lee, Myoeng-Ho;Sung, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.396-402
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    • 2006
  • In this study, dynamic characteristics of water hammer pressure in water supply piping system with water hammer arrester has been investigated experimentally to characterize the transient pressure of water hammer in high rise building. Experiments were conducted to verify the absorption effects by water hammer arresters with 3 different gas volumes of water hammer pressure generated by sudden valve closure. As the results, it has been found that zoning and sizing of pipe diameter for suitable flow velocity and water hammer arresters with effective pressure absorption capacity have to be installed to protect water hammer problems in building water supply piping system.

Effects of the Lift Valve Opening Area on Water Hammer Pump Performance and Flow Behavior in the Valve Chamber

  • Saito, Sumio;Dejima, Keita;Takahashi, Masaaki;Hijikata, Gaku;Iwamura, Takuya
    • International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2012
  • Water hammer pumps can effectively use the water hammer phenomenon for water pumping. They are capable of providing an effective fluid transport method in regions without a well-developed social infrastructure. The results of experiments examining the effect of the geometric form of water hammer pumps by considering their major dimensions have been reported. However, these conventional studies have not fully evaluated pump performance in terms of pump head and flow rate, common measures of pump performance. The authors have focused on the effects on the pump performance of various geometric form factors in water hammer pumps. The previous study examined how the hydrodynamic characteristics was affected by the inner diameter ratio of the drive and lift pipes and the angle of the drive pipe, basic form factors of water hammer pumps. The previous papers also showed that the behavior of water hammer pump operation could be divided into four characteristic phases. The behavior of temporal changes in valve chamber and air chamber pressures according to the air volume in the air chamber located downstream of the lift valve was also clarified in connection with changes in water hammer pump performance. In addition, the effects on water hammer pump performance of the length of the spring attached to the drain valve and the drain pipe angle, form factors around the drain valve, were examined experimentally. This study focuses on the form of the lift valve, a major component of water hammer pumps, and examines the effects of the size of the lift valve opening area on water hammer pump performance. It also clarifies the behavior of flow in the valve chamber during water hammer pump operation.

A Study on Water Hammer Phenomena in Piping Systems of Buildings (건축배관시스템 내에서의 수격현상에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 한화택;김종만;김종필
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.2251-2256
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    • 1994
  • An experimental study was conducted on water hammer phenomena generated by quick valve operations in piping systems of buildings. Transient water hammer pressure waves were measured for three different types of valves, i. e. a ball valve, a solenoid valve, and on one-touch valve. The effects of flow rate and valve closing time on the maximum water hammer pressure were investigated. Based on the experimental results, general design recommendations were provided to prevent water hammer phenomena in piping systems of high-rise apartment buildings.

Effects of the Geometry of Components Attached to the Drain Valve on the Performance of Water Hammer Pumps

  • Saito, Sumio;Takahashi, Masaaki;Nagata, Yoshimi;Dejima, Keita
    • International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.367-374
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    • 2011
  • Water hammer pumps can effectively use the water hammer phenomenon in long-distance pipeline networks that include pumps and allow fluid transport without drive sources, such as electric motors. The results of experiments that examined the effect of the geometric form of water hammer pumps by considering their major dimensions have been reported. In addition, a paper has also been published analyzing the water hammer phenomenon numerically by using the characteristic curve method for comparison with experimental results. However, these conventional studies have not fully evaluated the pump performance in terms of pump head and flow rate, common measures indicating the performance of pumps. Therefore, as a first stage for the understanding of water hammer pump performance in comparison with the characteristics of typical turbo pumps, the previous paper experimentally examined how the hydrodynamic characteristics were affected by the inner diameter ratio of the drive and lifting pipes, the form of the air chamber, and the angle of the drive pipe. To understand the behavior of the components attached to the valve chamber and the air chamber that affects the performance of water hammer pumps, the previous study also determined the relationship between the water hammer pump performance and temporal changes in valve chamber and air chamber pressures according to the air chamber capacity. For the geometry of components attached to the drain valve, which is another major component of water hammer pumps, this study experimentally examines how the water hammer pump performance is affected by the length of the spring and the angle of the drain pipe.

Effects of the Air Volume in the Air Chamber on the Performance of Water Hammer Pump System

  • Saito, Sumio;Takahashi, Masaaki;Nagata, Yoshimi
    • International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2011
  • Recently, as global-scale problems, such as global warming and energy depletion, have attracted attention, the importance of future environmental preservation has been emphasized worldwide, and various measures have been proposed and implemented. This study focuses on water hammer pumps that can effectively use the water hammer phenomenon and allow fluid transport without drive sources, such as electric motors. An understanding of operating conditions of water hammer pumps and an evaluation of their basic hydrodynamic characteristics are significant for determining whether they can be widely used as an energy-saving device in the future. However, conventional studies have not described the pump performance in terms of pump head and flow rate, common measures indicating the performance of pumps. As a first stage for the understanding of water hammer pump performance in comparison to the characteristics of typical turbo pumps, the previous study focused on understanding the basic hydrodynamic characteristics of water hammer pumps and experimentally examined how the hydrodynamic characteristics were affected by the inner diameters of the drive and lift pipes and the angle of the drive pipe. This paper suggests the effect of the air volume in the air chamber that affects the hydrodynamic characteristics and operating conditions of the water hammer pump.

An Experimental Study on Water-Hammer Effect for Spacecraft Propulsion System (인공위성 추진계통 관로내의 수격효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kwon, Ki-Chul;Lee, Eun-Sang;Park, Sang-Min;Kang, Shin-Jae;Rho, Byung-Joon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.288-293
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    • 2001
  • This paper presents the water-hammer effect due to the rapid opening and closing of isolation valve and thruster valve in the spacecraft propulsion system. The single propellant feed system was modeled to investigate the maximum peak pressure due to the water-hammer effect. The test parameters are tank supply pressure, shape and throat length of orifice and line length. Kerosene was used as the inert simulant propellant liquid instead of hydrazine. As downstream line length after isolation valve increased from 1.5 to 2.5m, the maximum line-filling water-hammer peak pressure decreased, but the average time interval between peak pressures increased. The maximum line-filling water-hammer peak pressure with orifice was lower than without orifice, and the maximum line-filling water-hammer peak pressure with orifice at the back of isolation valve was lower than with orifice in front of isolation valve. Without orifice, the maximum water-hammer peak pressure due to the rapid opening and closing of the thruster valve was about 126% of tank supply pressure. With orifice, it decreased. As orifice throat length increased, it decreased. The maximum water-hammer peak pressure due to the rapid closing of the thruster valve with converging-diverging orifice was lower than normal orifice. It was found that the orifice as a means of pressure drop was very effective to reduce the water hammer peak pressure at the thruster valve. The results of this study can be used for the design of spacecraft liquid propulsion feed system.

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Analysis of a transient vibration response caused by Water Hammer in a pipe-line system (수격 현상에 의한 파이프의 과도진동응답 해석)

  • 조성문;서영수;정의봉;정호경
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2004
  • A water hammer mostly comes out when a valve fixed at the downstream end of the pipe-line system is rapidly closed or opened. A simple phenomenon of water hammer is often caused around us, and this phenomenon imperils the pipe systems occasionally. In this paper, we confirmed the phenomenon of water hammer by an experiment and forecasted a change of pressure in the pipe-line system by a numerical method. Also a vibration response, which is caused by water hammer, of the pipe-line system confirmed by an experiment and analyzed by a numerical method.

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An Experimental Study on the Effect of Water Hammer Arresters and Air Chambers in a Simple Water Piping System (단순 급수관로계내의 에어챔버 및 어레스터의 수격방지효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 한화택;김종만
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1996
  • Water hammer pressure waves were measured in a simplified water piping system with and without arresters and air chambers by the operations of the solenoid valve. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the location of the arresters and the effects of the volume of the air chambers on maximum and minimum water hammer pressures and wave frequency for various flow rates.

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A Study on the Water Hammer Arrester Considering the Way of First Assessment Test (최초의 평가시험 방법을 고려한 수격흡수기의 장치에 관한 연구)

  • Yeum, Moon-Cheon;Han, Yong-Taek
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2015
  • Water hammering created by an unsteady flow in pipeline systems can cause excessive change in pressure, vibration, and noise. So, water hammer analysis is very important for limiting the damage caused to pipeline, pump and valve systems by operation conditions. On the other hand, water hammer arrester has been manufactured and used in order to minimize the damage caused by water hammering phenomenon in domestic, and it has been produced and installed as the low cost-oriented because of being no separate standard in the meanwhile. Therefore, our research team investigated about the standardization of water hammer arrester performance through the various methods, such as test methods for verification of one pipe, assuming the occurrence of water hammer in a water-based fire extinguishing system, separated for opening impact pressure and shut off impact pressure and for a branch pipe in order to make guideline for water hammer arrester performance. And finally, verified the performance of the water hammer pressure as the simple mechanical way using the U-shaped pipe and a test weight, so KFI standards for the water hammer arrester could be established.

A Numerical Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of Water Hammer Arresters for Building Service Applications (건축설비용 워터햄머흡수기의 동특성에 관한 수치 연구)

  • 노승환;차동진
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2002
  • Dynamic characteristics of water hammer arresters installed in a building water supply system have been investigated numerically by utilizing a commercial rode that employs the method of characteristics. Some preliminary results with those arresters produced in this study agree well with the previously reported. Then, the arresters have been incorporated into a water supply pipe system of a $59m^2$ apartment unit constructed by a leading construction company, and their dynamic characteristics, especially on the reduction in the water hammer pressure, are investigated. It is found that the setting of the arresters in the pipe system, which is recommended by the company, may not be proper for reducing the pressure to less than 1082.0 kPa when buick-closure valves in the pipe system are closed within 30 ms at the static pressure of 542.6 kPa. More arresters in the system may be required to meet a pressure criteria.