• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water Spinach

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Changes of Folate Content in Spinach by Cooking and Storage -The Comparisons of Thermal Destruction and Loss of Folate into Cooking Water by Blanching Time of Spinach- (조리 및 저장에 따른 시금치 엽산 함량의 변화 - 조리시간에 따른 엽산의 열파괴 손실과 조리수를 통한 손실의 비교 -)

  • 민혜선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.286-290
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    • 1998
  • The effects of cooking methods and storage time on folate content in spinach were determined by boiling for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 20min in distilled water or by microwave blanching for 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 sec. The folate content of cooked spinach was decreased to 80.7% after 1min boiling, and to 5.5% after 20min boiling. The folate recovered from the cooked spinach and cooking water was 101.1% after 1min, 68.0% after 2min and 51.3% after 3min. The relative folate content leached out of the cooked spinach into the cooking water varied from 20.2% after 1min boiling to 88.8% after 20min boiling. Total folate content of spinach was decreased to 45% by microwave heating for 40sec. However, the spinach cooked by microwave heating retained more folate due to the minimal loss of folate into cooking water. More than 90% of folate content of spinach was retained during 1 to 2 weeks of storage at 4$^{\circ}C$.

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Quality Characteristics of $Jajang$ Noodles with Added Spinach (시금치를 첨가한 자장면의 품질특성)

  • Seo, Jeong-Hee;Kang, Hyun-Woo;Han, Jin-Suk
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.278-289
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of $Jajang$ noodles with added spinach (20%, 30% and 50% based on water). Significant increases ($p$<0.05) were found in cooked weight, water absorption of cooked noodles, turbidity of soup, while soup volume did not changed in proportion to the addition of spinach. Decrease of L and a values and an increase of b values were shown with the increase of spinach concentration. For textural properties, hardness was the lowest in 50% spinach noodles and the highest in 20% spinach noodles. The cohesiveness and springiness values of 20% and 30% spinach noodles were superior to those of the control, but a rise in spinach concentration (50%) lead to a reduction these values. In a sensory evaluation, the most acceptable sample was the 30% spinach noodle sample. These results suggest an addition of 30% spinach is suitable for spinach $Jajang$ noodle processing.

Effect of Blanching on the Chemical Properties of Different Kind of Spinach (데치는 방법이 품종별 시금치의 성분에 미치는 영향-데치는 물량과 시간에 따른 성분변화-)

  • 김나영;윤숙자;장명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 1993
  • This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of studying the chemical properties of different kinds of spinach by various blanching procedure. Ascorbic acid, mineral and oxalic acid retention of spinaches, as well as blanch effluent composition were the major factors considered with Dong-cho(winter spinach) and vinylhouse grown spinach. Ash, crude protein, crude fat and vitamin C contents of Dong-cho were higher than those of vinylhouse spinach. On the other hand, vinylhouse grown spinach showed higher content in moisture, phosporous, calcium and oxalic acid. Most of the components in spinaches were decreased by increasing the blanching water volume and time. Reducing sugar and solid content in blanch effluent of Dong-cho were increased by increasing the blanching water volume and time, however, vinylhouse spinach showed no reducing sugar.

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Changes in Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) under In Vitro Biomimicking System

  • Lee, A-Young;Kim, Young-Suk;Shim, Soon-Mi
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.342-345
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of current study was to examine bioaccessibility of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in each part of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.). In vitro biomimicking system simulated human digestive fluid was employed in order to measure bioavailable anti-oxidative effect and phenolic content. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was measured by using the DPPH method and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, respectively. Stem of water spinach had a higher DPPH free radical scavenging effect (5.43 mg/mL for $IC_{50}$) than leaf (5.95 mg/mL for $IC_{50}$), while leaf had a greater level of total phenolic content (287.45 ${\mu}g$ GAE/mL) than stem (216.45 ${\mu}g$ GAE/mL). Bioaccessible antioxidant capacity and digestive stability of total phenolic content showed a similar pattern to what found in raw materials. Our result also indicated that total phenolic content was not found to be a major marker for prediction of antioxidant activity. It is plausible that other constituents such as vitamin E and C in water spinach could be contributors for antioxidant activities.

Mineral Contents of Spinach and Broccoli Blanched by Conventional Methoed (재래적 방법을 이용한 조리방법에 따른 상용채소의 무기질 함량 변화 -시금치와 브로커리 -)

  • 유양자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.337-341
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    • 1995
  • The effect of time and amount of water by conventional blanching method on the retention minerals in spinach and broccoli was investigated. The vegetables were blanched for 1, 2, 3 and 4 minutes, with 150 $m\ell$, 300 $m\ell$, 450 $m\ell$ of water for every 100 g of raw material. Blanching of spinach showed that Na was reduced remarkably after 2 minute of blanching, the others (K, Fe, Ca, Mg, P, Cu) were gradually decreased as the blanching time increased. Blanching of broccoli showed that the content of minerals were reduced remarkably after 1 minute of blanching. The longer blanching time further reduced the content of minerals. The retention of minerals (Na, K, Fe, Ca, Mg, P, Cu) in spinach and broccoli was reduced gradually as the blanching water increased. The retention rate of minerals were 12.7% of Na, 37.4% of K, 37.1% of Fe, 43.9% of Ca, 39.0% of Mg, 53.5% of P, 56.2% of Cu in spinach and 21.0% of Na, 41.3% of K, 57.8% of Fe, 38.8% of Ca, 51.5% of Mg, 57.7% of P, 44.4% of Cu in broccoli for 4 min, with water 450$m\ell$ every 100g of raw material.

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Extractions of Chlorophyll from Spinach and Mate Powders and Their Dyeability on Fabrics (시금치와 마테 분말을 이용한 클로로필 추출과 직물 염색)

  • Yoo, Hye Ja;Ahn, Cheunsoon;Narantuya, Lkhagva
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.413-423
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    • 2013
  • Chlorophyll is an abundant pigment found in all green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. This study uses methanol, acetone and water to extract spinach and mate powders in order to examine the possibility of dyeing animal fibers with chlorophyll without chemical alteration. It was shown that methanol extracts of spinach and mate powders can be effectively used to dye wool and silk fabrics if the extract is mixed with water by methanol:water 65:35 v/v. Compared to methanol extract, the acetone extract showed lower chlorophyll yield and lower dye uptake. Water was not an appropriate solvent for chlorophyll extraction and dyeing. Spinach powder showed a higher dye uptake than mate powder due to the higher chlorophyll content than mate powder. It is possible that the chlorophyll dyeing of wool and silk fabrics is due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxy amino acids in fiber and the carbonyl groups of chlorophyll. These carbonyl groups are on the heterocyclic ring and the methyl and ethyl side chains of chlorophyll.

Effect of Feeding Head Lettuce, Water Spinach, Ruzi grass or Mimosa pigra on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Growth in Rabbits

  • Nakkitset, Supharoek;Mikled, Choke;Ledin, Inger
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1171-1177
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    • 2008
  • The performance of growing rabbits fed Ruzi grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) residue, Mimosa pigra and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) was studied in an experiment using 64 rabbits (4 males and 4 females per treatment) of 2 breeds, New Zealand White and a crossbred between New Zealand White and native breed. The rabbits had an average initial weight of 668 g, were about 6 weeks old and were housed in individual pens. The foliages were fed ad libitum and a commercial concentrate was fed at a restricted level of 2% of body weight on a dry matter (DM) basis. In the digestibility experiment, the rabbits, 4 per foliage and males only, were fed the same foliages as in the growth experiment but without concentrate. Daily weight gain was lower in the group fed Ruzi grass, 14.8 g/d (p<0.001) compared to 17.6, 18.5 and 18.4 g/d for head lettuce, Mimosa pigra and water spinach, respectively. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were lowest for the rabbits fed water spinach, 66 g DM/d and 3.6 kg DM/kg live weight, respectively. The New Zealand White breed had a higher daily gain than the crossbred rabbits (p<0.05), 18.0 and 16.7 g/d, respectively. There were no significant differences in feed intake, growth or feed conversion ratio due to sex. The digestibility coefficients of DM, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the rabbits fed Ruzi grass. Breed and sex had no effect on digestibility. In conclusion, feeding head lettuce residue, Mimosa pigra and water spinach resulted in higher growth rate and digestibility than feeding Ruzi grass and can be recommended as alternative feeds.

Effect of Blanching Time, Blanching Water and Power Settings on Minerals Retention in Microwave Blanched Vegetables (Microwave를 이용한 조리방법에 따른 상용채소의 무기질 함량 변화 -시금치와 브로커리-)

  • 박세원;김선태;유양자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 1995
  • The effect of blanching time, blanching water and power settings of microwave oven on the minerals retention in spinach and broccoli were investigated. The vegetables were blanched for 60, 120 and 180 sec, with water 0ml, 50ml and 100ml every 100 g of raw material at two different power settings (700w, 400w). The retention of minerals(Ca,K,Mg,Cu,Fe,Na,p) in spinach and broccoli were higher at the 400w power than 700w power level, regardless of blanching time. At the high power, the retention of minerals in spinach and broccoli were reduced remarkably as the blanching time increased. The reason for this is that the increasing power level results in greater water coming ou from the vegetable. Also, minerals in vegetable as coming out with this water loss in proportion to the blanching time.

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Availability of Alkaline ionic Water as a Cooking Water (알칼리성 이온수의 조리용수로서의 이용)

  • O, Seung-Hui;Ha, Tae-Ik;Jang, Myeong-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1993
  • We have examined the utility of alkaline ionic water for processing water In order to compare with piped tap water in cooking rice, making kimchi, making bean curd, raising bean sprouts and parboiling spinach. And we have estimated the quality of them. The result of the examination was as follow. A rice cooked with alkaline ionic water had pale yellow color, and had good quality in polish, viscocity, taste, odour and retrogradation as compared with a rice cooked of piped tap water. In the case of a water kimchi, refreshing taste and other kinds of taste were good. Unpleasant taste and smell have decreased. Fresh colour of a Chinese cabbage were maintained long because of the prevention of destruction of chlorophyll. In the case of bean sprouts, sprouting rate was promoted up to 2∼3% during the period of 2∼3 days as compared with that treated with piped tap water And the growth state was good and the contents of vitamin C were high as compared with those with piped tap water. In the case of parboiling of green spinach, the alkaline ionic water helped keeping the chlorophyll of spinach. In the case of bean curd, soft taste, polish, smell and total taste were good. The Utility value of alkaline ionic water for the processing of soft bean curd was recognized by making it soften.

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Study on the Prevention of Spinach Softening Using Calcium Chloride (염화칼슘을 이용한 시금치의 연화방지 연구)

  • Huang, Ying;Kim, Sen Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to prevent excessive softening of seasoned spinach by heating and freezing through the pre-heating treatment in calcium chloride solution. The pre-heating temperature was set at 60℃, which supports the highest activity of pectinesterase around 60℃. Pre-heating spinach in calcium solution does not affect the chromaticity characteristics of spinach leaves and significantly improves its texture compared to conventional blanching only and pre-heating in water. The improvement of the firmness is related to the formation of strongly cross-linkages between carboxyl groups and Ca2+ by the action of the pectinesterase in spinach. For reheated spinach, the firmness of calcium chloride treated stems were 37.80~44.44 kg, and the control was 28.73 kg. The firmness of calcium chloride treated leaves was 19.73~40.79 kg, and the control was 9.63 kg. Additionally, the total aerobic bacteria in the fresh samples were 3.25~3.99 log CFU/g and 1.97~2.72 log CFU/g in the reheated samples. And the total coliform was not detected in the reheated samples. Considering the color, texture, microbial characteristics and taste quality, the optimum pre-treatment conditions to prevent excessive softening of spinach were 3% calcium chloride solution and 15minutes of treatment.