• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water Intake

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Iodine Intake and Excretion of the Patients with Thyroid Disease (갑상선질환 환자의 요오드섭취량과 배설량)

  • 장남수
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1037-1047
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    • 1994
  • Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodide excretion were meassured from 110 patients with various thyroid hormone diseses(hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, simple goiter and thyroid adenoma) and 67 normal control subjects. Iodine intake was assessed on the 24-hour recall dietary data using the compiled lists of food iodine values developed from various countries. Urinary iodide concentrations of drink water samples were measured with the iodide-selective electrode. The average iodine intake of the thyroid patients was 411$\mu\textrm{g}$, which was 87% higher(p<0.05) than that of the control subjects(220$\mu\textrm{g}$). Patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism or simple goiter excreted the most(0.6442ppm) amount of iodide respectively in the urine, with the control subject in the middle(0.5229ppm). Iodide concentrations of the drinking water samples were found to be in the range of 0.0015ppm to 0.0214ppm, which seemed to vary depending on the kind(underground water vs public water) and the location.

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낙동강 달서지구 강변 여과수 취수에 관한 예비 연구

  • Kim, Hyeong-Su;Park, Seung-Gi;Jeong, Chan;Baek, Geon-Ha;Won, I-Jeong;Shin, Heung-Seop
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.93-97
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    • 2002
  • This research introduces some preliminary results of bank filtering intake method adopted in Dalseo area, Nakdong River. This intake method has been planned to supply water resources of 41,000 ㎥/day to Goryeong-Gun and Seongju-Gun in 2016. It is believed that the bank filtering intake method can afford to supply 41,000 ㎥/day amount of water resources and that the raw water quality using the method has more advantages in water treatment than direct surface water intake. Even though the safety yield about individual vertical well is roughly estimated to about 2,000 ㎥/day, it is desirable to decrease the safety yield to about 1,000 ㎥/day in the consideration of long term and simultaneous well pumpings and other unknown factors. Ongoing study will give basic data and new techniques to solve the problems appearing in application of bank filtering method as well.

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An Irrigation Reliability Assessment of Agricultural Reservoir to Establish Response Plan of Future Climate Change Adaptation (기후변화 대응방안 수립을 위한 농업용 저수지 이수안전도 평가)

  • Kwon, Hyung-Joong;Nam, Won-Ho;Choi, Gyeong-Suk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2020
  • This study assessed the reliability of the agricultural water supply based on future climate change scenarios, and suggested plans to improve the reliability in order to promote the adaptability of irrigation water in agricultural reservoirs to climate change. The assessment of agricultural water supply reliability was performed on reservoirs which had a lower water quantity than their design basis and which had recently been subject to drought. In other words, from the irrigation districts of main intake works among the reservoirs managed by the Korea Rural Community Corporation, 1~2 districts in each province-that is, a total of 13 districts -that were recently designated as a district for securing agricultural water (drought prevention district) were selected. Climate change scenarios were applied to the selected districts to analyze their future water supply reliability compared to the current level. All districts selected showed a drought frequency of 4 years or shorter, which demonstrated the need to establish climate change response plans. As plans for responding to climate change, a plan that utilizes supplemental intake works to reduce the area of the irrigation districts of main intake works, and another one that increases the capacity of main intake works were adopted to reanalyze their water supply reliability. When the area of the irrigation districts of main intake works was reduced by about 30~40%, the drought frequency dropped to more than 10 years, securing the reliability of water supply. To secure the reliability by increasing the capacity of main intake works, it was calculated that about 19,000~2,400,000 tons need to be added to each reservoir. In addition, climate change response plans were suggested to improve the reliability of the water supply in each district based on the results of economic analysis.

Water Quality Modeling for Intake Station by 2-dimensional Advection-Dispersion Model (2차원 이송-확산 모형을 이용한 취수장 유입 수질 예측)

  • Kim, Jae-Dong;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Young-Do;Song, Chang-Geun;Seo, Il-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.667-679
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    • 2011
  • In this study, the influences of pollutant from Dae-po Stream and So-gam Stream located at the downstream of Nak-dong River on the water quality at Mul-geum water intake station were analyzed using RAMS model. Field measurements of velocity by ADCP, and water quality distribution of BOD and TP by water sampling were carried out to present the input and verification data for numerical simulations. The comparison between RAM2 and ADCP measurement, which aimed for the analysis of 2-D velocity distribution around Mul-geum water intake station showed that two results matched well along the spanwise direction. The prediction of pollutant concentration by RAM4 agreed fairly well with the measured data except for the points nearby right banks in the vicinity of tributary pollutant source. Flushing effect by the increase of mainstream discharge in Nak-dong River was analyzed to provide the damage mitigation in preparation for the accidental water pollution. With increasing mainstream discharge, high velocity and increased water quantity induced increasing dilution effect, thereby decreasing the inflow pollutant concentration rapidly.

A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kishi, Tetsuya;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.502-514
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    • 2012
  • When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing $85.1{\pm}4.89kg$) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (p<0.05) in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. However, plasma osmolality in the FBR treatment was lower (p<0.05) than compared to the NFC control from 30 min after the start of feeding. Therefore, thirst level in the FBR treatment was 82.7% less (p<0.01) compared with that in the NFC control upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the study indicate that the increased plasma osmolality in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is the main physiological stimulating factor of water intake during and after dry forage feeding in large-type goats.

Carbon Emission Evaluation of Tap Water (수돗물의 탄소 배출량 평가)

  • Kim, Jin-Keun;Jeon, Hong-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.511-517
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    • 2011
  • To evaluate carbon emission in water treatment processes, LCA (life cycle assessment) was applied to 8 multi-regional water treatment plants (WTPs) from intake to supply of tap water. Investigation of 8 WTPs revealed that average carbon emission for 1 $m^3$ of tap water was 221 g. Major carbon emission sources in water supply system were intake and supply processes. Meanwhile, mixing process was the main carbon emission source in unit water treatment processes. Carbon emission was proportional to the turbidity and COD of raw water. Intake of better raw water and minimization of energy consumption in unit processes are needed to reduce carbon emission in the WTPs. In addition, comparison of carbon emission among WTPs can be used as a parameter for optimization of operation and maintenance of water treatment processes.

Variation of Water Quality around the Chudong Intake Tower in Daechung Reservoir (대청호 추동취수탑 부근의 수질변화 특성)

  • Ma, Xin-Chao;Lim, Bong-Su;Heo, Soon-Uk;Kwak, Mi-Ae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.637-643
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    • 2015
  • This study has been carried out to provide the basic data obtained from the evaluation of the variation of water quality around the Chudong intake tower in Daechung resevoir, which may be able to help the establishment of a pure water supply policy. Five sites around the Chudong intake tower were selected, and the average data for recent ten years(from year 2004 to year 2013) were analysed. The average water quality around Chudong intake tower are as followed; pH 7.5, DO 8.7 mg/L, BOD 1.0 mg/L, COD 3.0 mg/L, SS 3.0 mg/L, TN 1.495 mg/L, TP 0.017 mg/L, and Chlorophyll-a 6.5 mg/m3 were matched the good class by comparing with the living environment standard of reservoir. COD values of higher than 3.0 mg/L after July were likely due to non-point pollutants and algae outbreak during rainy summer season. Total phosphorus rose sharply in the summer season, and then algae watch was issued consistently for average 40 days. Total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio was average 90, and it is important to control the inflow phosphrous from small stream for proper management to block an algae growth according to eutrophication. It was recommended to operate the algae removing boats around intake tower from July to October, and was required advanced water treatment processes to remove NBD COD and bad odor and taste due to algae growth.

A Study on a Calculation Method of Economical Intake Water Depth in the Design of Head Works (취입모의 경제적 계획취입수심 산정방법에 대한 연구)

  • 김철기
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.4592-4598
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    • 1978
  • The purpose of this research is to find out mathemetically an economical intake water depth in the design of head works through the derivation of some formulas. For the performance of the purpose the following formulas were found out for the design intake water depth in each flow type of intake sluice, such as overflow type and orifice type. (1) The conditional equations of !he economical intake water depth in .case that weir body is placed on permeable soil layer ; (a) in the overflow type of intake sluice, {{{{ { zp}_{1 } { Lh}_{1 }+ { 1} over {2 } { Cp}_{3 }L(0.67 SQRT { q} -0.61) { ( { d}_{0 }+ { h}_{1 }+ { h}_{0 } )}^{- { 1} over {2 } }- { { { 3Q}_{1 } { p}_{5 } { h}_{1 } }^{- { 5} over {2 } } } over { { 2m}_{1 }(1-s) SQRT { 2gs} }+[ LEFT { b+ { 4C TIMES { 0.61}^{2 } } over {3(r-1) }+z( { d}_{0 }+ { h}_{0 } ) RIGHT } { p}_{1 }L+(1+ SQRT { 1+ { z}^{2 } } ) { p}_{2 }L+ { dcp}_{3 }L+ { nkp}_{5 }+( { 2z}_{0 }+m )(1-s) { L}_{d } { p}_{7 } ] =0}}}} (b) in the orifice type of intake sluice, {{{{ { zp}_{1 } { Lh}_{1 }+ { 1} over {2 } C { p}_{3 }L(0.67 SQRT { q} -0.61)}}}} {{{{ { ({d }_{0 }+ { h}_{1 }+ { h}_{0 } )}^{ - { 1} over {2 } }- { { 3Q}_{1 } { p}_{ 6} { { h}_{1 } }^{- { 5} over {2 } } } over { { 2m}_{ 2}m' SQRT { 2gs} }+[ LEFT { b+ { 4C TIMES { 0.61}^{2 } } over {3(r-1) }+z( { d}_{0 }+ { h}_{0 } ) RIGHT } { p}_{1 }L }}}} {{{{+(1+ SQRT { 1+ { z}^{2 } } ) { p}_{2 } L+dC { p}_{4 }L+(2 { z}_{0 }+m )(1-s) { L}_{d } { p}_{7 }]=0 }}}} where, z=outer slope of weir body (value of cotangent), h1=intake water depth (m), L=total length of weir (m), C=Bligh's creep ratio, q=flood discharge overflowing weir crest per unit length of weir (m3/sec/m), d0=average height to intake sill elevation in weir (m), h0=freeboard of weir (m), Q1=design irrigation requirements (m3/sec), m1=coefficient of head loss (0.9∼0.95) s=(h1-h2)/h1, h2=flow water depth outside intake sluice gate (m), b=width of weir crest (m), r=specific weight of weir materials, d=depth of cutting along seepage length under the weir (m), n=number of side contraction, k=coefficient of side contraction loss (0.02∼0.04), m2=coefficient of discharge (0.7∼0.9) m'=h0/h1, h0=open height of gate (m), p1 and p4=unit price of weir body and of excavation of weir site, respectively (won/㎥), p2 and p3=unit price of construction form and of revetment for protection of downstream riverbed, respectively (won/㎡), p5 and p6=average cost per unit width of intake sluice including cost of intake canal having the same one as width of the sluice in case of overflow type and orifice type respectively (won/m), zo : inner slope of section area in intake canal from its beginning point to its changing point to ordinary flow section, m: coefficient concerning the mean width of intak canal site,a : freeboard of intake canal. (2) The conditional equations of the economical intake water depth in case that weir body is built on the foundation of rock bed ; (a) in the overflow type of intake sluice, {{{{ { zp}_{1 } { Lh}_{1 }- { { { 3Q}_{1 } { p}_{5 } { h}_{1 } }^{- {5 } over {2 } } } over { { 2m}_{1 }(1-s) SQRT { 2gs} }+[ LEFT { b+z( { d}_{0 }+ { h}_{0 } )RIGHT } { p}_{1 }L+(1+ SQRT { 1+ { z}^{2 } } ) { p}_{2 }L+ { nkp}_{5 }}}}} {{{{+( { 2z}_{0 }+m )(1-s) { L}_{d } { p}_{7 } ]=0 }}}} (b) in the orifice type of intake sluice, {{{{ { zp}_{1 } { Lh}_{1 }- { { { 3Q}_{1 } { p}_{6 } { h}_{1 } }^{- {5 } over {2 } } } over { { 2m}_{2 }m' SQRT { 2gs} }+[ LEFT { b+z( { d}_{0 }+ { h}_{0 } )RIGHT } { p}_{1 }L+(1+ SQRT { 1+ { z}^{2 } } ) { p}_{2 }L}}}} {{{{+( { 2z}_{0 }+m )(1-s) { L}_{d } { p}_{7 } ]=0}}}} The construction cost of weir cut-off and revetment on outside slope of leeve, and the damages suffered from inundation in upstream area were not included in the process of deriving the above conditional equations, but it is true that magnitude of intake water depth influences somewhat on the cost and damages. Therefore, in applying the above equations the fact that should not be over looked is that the design value of intake water depth to be adopted should not be more largely determined than the value of h1 satisfying the above formulas.

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Prediction on Safety Time of Water Intake at Paldang Reservior According to Scenarios of Water Pollution (팔당 유역 수질사고 시나리오에 따른 취수 안전시간 예측)

  • Baek, Kyong-Oh
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the behavior of pollutant was calculated at Paldang reservior according to several scenarios of the accidental water pollution by means of the numerical models for forecasting water quality. Also managemental plans for situation of the accidental water pollution happening at Paldang watershed were simulated. According to the simulating results, a plan of increase of discharge at Cheongpyeong dam reduced the peak concentration of pollutants, whereas extended the time for stopping water intake. Another plan, drop of water elevation at Paldang dam, decreased seriously the time for stopping water intake although there were a little effect to decrease the peak concentration. Thus it was concluded that appropriate combinations of the plans for the increase discharge and the dropping water elevation should be used to deal with the accidental water pollution at Paldang watershed.

Optimization of water intake scheduling based on linear programming (선형계획법을 이용한 정수장 취수계획 최적화)

  • Jeong, Gimoon;Lee, Indoe;Kang, Doosun
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.52 no.8
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    • pp.565-573
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    • 2019
  • An optimization model of water intake planning is developed based on a linear programming (LP) for the intelligent water purification plant operation system. The proposed optimization model minimizes the water treatment costs of raw water purification by considering a time-delay of treatment process and hourly electricity tariff, which is subject to various operation constraints, such as water intake limit, storage tank capacity, and water demand forecasts. For demonstration, the developed model is applied to H water purification center. Here, we have tested three optimization strategies and the results are compared and analyzed in economic and safety aspects. The optimization model is expected to be used as a decision support tool for optimal water intake scheduling of domestic water purification centers.