• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water Intake

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A Study on the Simultanious Reduction of Smoke and NOx by Water Injection through Intake Port in Diesel Engine (디젤기관에서 흡기관내로의 물 분사에 의한 매연과 NOx의 동시 저감에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Kyung-Hyun;Oh, Young-Taig
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2186-2191
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    • 2003
  • This study is to investigate the effects of water induction through the air intake system on the characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions in diesel engine. The effects of water induction through the air intake port were considered in IDI diesel engine in this study. The formation of NOx was significantly suppressed by decreasing the gas peak temperature during the initial combustion process because the water play a role as a heat sink during evaporating in the combustion chamber, but the smoke was slightly increased with increased water amount. Also, NOx significantly decreased with increase in water amount. A simultaneous reduction in smoke and NOx emissions can be obtained when water is injected into the combustion chamber by retarding the fuel injection timing more than without water injection.

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To examine the construction plan of the lightening rod equipment for the intake tower of D-dam (D댐의 취수탑 피뢰설비 구축방안 검토)

  • Hong, Sung-Taek;Lee, Eun-Chun;Shin, Gang-Wook;Lee, Nam-Young
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.290-292
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    • 2003
  • The intake tower of D-dam located in a mountainous area positioned in the left side of the dam and its structure installed alone on the water surface then, can become target of direct lightening. To protect the intake tower from the direct lightening and indirect-lightening, lightening rod installed in the top area of the intake tower and ground pole laid under the surrounding ground. however, because the surrounding ground almost consists of a rock, it is very difficult to obtain the grounding resistance. It is main object to examine the construction plan of the optimum lightening rod equipment and ground pole with measuring the earth specific resistance of the around of the intake tower which is the scheduled area to lay the ground pole with the Wenner's 4-electric pole method and the Schlumberger's method. and using the analysis tool, ESII.

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A Study on the Stability of Intake gate in a Dam (취수문비의 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Kwack, Young-Kyun;Ko, Sung-Ho;Kang, Min-Koo
    • The KSFM Journal of Fluid Machinery
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.46-51
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    • 2008
  • A stability analysis has been made for a newly designed gate of intake tower of reservoir. The analysis is composed of finding the natural frequency of the gate and the frequency induced by water flowing over and through the gate. ANSYS is employed to calculate the natural frequency of the gate and SC/Tetra is utilized for calculating flow field around the gate, which in turn gives the frequency of pressure force fluctuation on the gate. In addition to the safety analysis, the present study presents how the gate selectively intakes a muddy water layer located in the middle depth of reservoir.

Effects of Exercise and Intermittent Watering on the Water and Feed Intake of Sheep

  • Sudarman, A.;Thwaites, C.J.;Hill, M.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.746-750
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the water requirement of exercising sheep. Nine Merino ewes were allocated into three groups differing in water supply after exercise, group 1(G1) supplied water ad libitum, group 2 (G2) supplied with water twice a day, and group 3 (G3) supplied with water once a day. The ewes were exercised outdoors using a circular exercising machine at a speed of 5 km/h for 1 hour for 12 consecutive days. Total daily water intake (TDWI) of animals in G3 was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of those in G1 and G2. TDWI of the 2 later groups was not different. TDWI of G3 was about 60% of that of G1. Feed intake of G3 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of the other two groups. Immediately after exercise, rectal temperature (RT) of animals in G1 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those in the other groups. Respiration rate (RR) of animals in all three groups was not significantly different. Faecal moisture of animals in G3 was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those in the other groups. The results indicate that for optimum productivity sheep should be given water at least twice a day.

Estimation of Maintenance Flow for Suitable Utilization of Fishway (어도의 적절한 이용을 위한 유지유량 평가)

  • Kim, Seok-gyu;Kim, Chul;Kim, Seonghwan;Ko, Kwangyong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2009
  • Achieved monitoring regularly about fishway that is a intake dam belongings to Kyeongchon for 5 years. Result that achieve monitoring, discovered pressing issue of opening and closing degree of discharge control part in fishway. In this research, analyze discharge relation with fishway and intake sluice and presented operation plan of opening and closing of discharge control part. Investigated necessity intake discharge and benefited area to analyze relation of discharge that is flowed in fishway and discharge escaping by intake sluice. When opened discharge control part step by step gradually, analyzed discharge. Compared with survey discharge making ration curve of fishway and intake sluice using orifice and submerged weir formula. Because operation of intake dam is necessary intake discharge and upriver inflow discharge by time, operation uses by survey discharge and calculated opening discharge of fishway by opening discharge of intake sluice via monthly inflow discharge. To sum up, calculated floodgate opening height of fishway by water level to present maintenance standard of intake dam.

Evaluation of Water Temperature Difference Energy of the Raw Water from Paldang Water Intake Station (수도권 팔당취수장 원수 이용 온도차에너지 부존량 조사)

  • Cho, Yong;Park, Jin-Hoon;Kim, Youngjoon;Park, Tae Jin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.170.2-170.2
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    • 2010
  • The amount of the heating and cooling energy of water source heat pump using the raw water from the Paldang water intake station is investigated in the study. The Han river water is conveyed in the large-size shallowly buried pipe. Averaged water temperature at the position, 27 km from the Paldang water intake station, is increased by $1.11^{\circ}C$ due to the geothermal energy transfer under the ground, therefore the raw water has more thermal energy than the river water. To estimate of the thermal energy for the raw water, it is assumed that the water source heat pump is used for the heating and cooling ventilation. When $5.0^{\circ}C$ temperature difference energy of the raw water is used in the heat pump system all the year except for the January and February in which $3.0^{\circ}C$ temperature difference energy is used. It is predicted that total 5,766.3 Tcal could be used in the metropolitan area a year, which is about 3.0% of the river water unutilized energy resources.

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EFFECT OF ADDITIONS OF POTASSIUM AND NITROGEN INTO PRESS CAKE ON MAGNESIUM UTILIZATION OF GOATS WITH RELATION TO WATER INTAKE

  • Kim, S.A.;Ohshima, M.;Kayama, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 1988
  • In a study about minerals cycling in grassland agro-ecosystem, investigation on relations among two minerals, potassium(K) and magnesium(Mg), and nitrogen(N) was performed. Four kinds of diets different in K and N levels were fed to four goats with a Latin-square method and $2{\times}2$ factorial design. As the basal diet, press cake silage prepared from Italian ryegrass was used because of its uniformity and comparatively low mineral concentrations. Supplementation of K and N were made using potassium bicarbonate and urea. In the experiment, it was clearly shown that high K concentration in the forage crops is the main reason of the low utilization of Mg in ruminant animals. However, high nitrogen intake resulted in the increase of magnesium retention, urinary potassium excretion, water intake and volume of urine and in the decreases of potassium intake minus urinary potassium excretion. The results of high nitrogen intake seemed to be produced in the following order;increase of urine, increase of water intake, increase of urinary potassium excretion, and decrease of intake minus urinary potassium excretion. The amount of potassium intake minus urinary potassium excretion had significantly close relationships with magnesium utilization and serum magnesium concentration. As a conclusion, higher nitrogen intake by ruminants seemed to be preferable for magnesium utilization through increased water intake and urinary potassium excretion, if the sufficient drinking water could be supplied to ruminants.

Management of Water Quality of Embayments in Daechong Reservoir (대청호 정체수역의 수질예측과 관리)

  • Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.33-45
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    • 1994
  • Water quality of Chongju and Daejeon Water Intake Tower Region, embayments in Daechong Reservoir was found to be worse than that of main lake after analysis of water which were sampled during April, July, October in 1993. Concentration of COD and SS at those two water intake tower sites were 2.8-5.6 mg/l and 2.2-3.2 mg/l, higher than that of main lake. T-N concentration of those two sites was 1.1-1.9 mg/l similar to that of main lake, and T-P concentration of those two sites was 0.14-0.18 mg/l, higher than that of main lake. This study used water quality model of embayment which can analyse pollutant loads from stream and surrounding land use, advection, decay, and diffusion transport between embayment and main lake. The model can predict water quality of embayment according to the change of pollutant load, water elevation of embayment, quantity of water intake in order to suggest water quality management. This study suggests embayment water quality management alternatives, 1) construction of waste water treatment facilities at embayment and main lake for the decrease of pollutant loading, 2) water intake at main lake less polluted or eutrophicated than embayment, and 3) outflow elevation selection for polluted hypolimnion water outflow during stratification.

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Chemical Composition of Some Tropical Foliage Species and Their Intake and Digestibility by Goats

  • Kongmanila, Daovy;Ledin, Inger
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.803-811
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    • 2009
  • The chemical composition and water extractable dry matter (DM) of foliages from Erythrina (Erythrina variegata), Fig (Ficus racemosa), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill), Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) and Mango (Mangifera indica) and the feed intake, digestibility and N retention when feeding these foliages were studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 12 male goats, 3.5 months old and weighing 14.6 kg, were randomly allocated to a diet consisting of one of the foliages in a change-over design with three periods. The foliages were offered ad libitum at the level of 130% of the average daily feed intake. The Erythrina foliage had a low content of DM and condensed tannins (CT) and a high concentration of crude protein (CP) in leaves plus petioles (193 g/kg DM) and stem, while the Mango foliage had a low CP (69 g/kg DM) and high DM content. The other foliages were intermediate. High content of CT was found in the leaves plus petioles of Jackfruit foliage and in the stem of Fig and Mango foliage. There was a difference in feed intake, nutrient intake, apparent digestibility and N retention between the foliages, with Erythrina, Jackfruit and Kapok foliage being significantly higher in these parameters than Fig, Jujube and Mango foliage. The water extractable DM could be used to estimate N retention, but not DM digestibility in this study. In Experiment 2, 4 male goats weighing 13.4 kg and 6 months old were allocated to a 4${\times}$4 Latin square design. The treatments were: water spinach ad libitum and Fig, Jujube or Mango foliage ad libitum +0.5% of BW as water spinach DM. Feed intake, apparent digestibility and N retention were not significantly different among the foliage diets, but higher than for water spinach alone (p<0.05). Supplementation with water spinach to a diet consisting of low quality foliages such as Fig, Jujube and Mango, increased DM and CP intake, apparent digestibility and N retention, compared to feeding these foliages as sole feeds.

Simulation of Pollutants Transport using 2-D Advection-Dispersion Model near Intake Station (2차원 이송-확산모형을 이용한 취수장 인근에서의 오염물질의 혼합거동 모의)

  • Kim, Jae-Dong;Kim, Young-Do;Lyu, Si-Wan;Seo, Il-Won
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.791-794
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    • 2008
  • The transport and dispersion of pollutants in natural river is a principal issue in intake station management. To study the pollutant transport in natural rivers, the effect of meandering and confluence of tributary on mixing process have to analyzed. The objective of this study is to simulate the mixing and transport of pollutants for operating water gate of Nakdong Estuary Barrage around the intake station. Mulgeum intake station being used as drinking water sources for Pusan. The flow around the intake station is influenced by operating water gate of Nakdong Estuary Barrage which is located downstream. The water gate system includes ten individual gates. The minor gate is usually opened according to elevation of the sea. When the river flow increases, the main water gate is opened. Daepo stream, tributary of the Nakdong river, is on opposite side of the intake station. The pollutants from Daepo stream often flows into the intake station acoording to the flow pattern. In this study, based on this simulation results, proper water gate operation which can minimize negative impact will be provided.

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