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Study on Comparison of Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics for Holstein and F1(Holstein ♀ x Hanwoo ♂) Steers and Heifers (Holstein과 교잡종 거세우 및 처녀우의 성장발육, 사료이용성 및 도체특성 비교 연구)

  • Kang, S.W.;Oh, Y.K.;Kim, K.H.;Choi, C.W.;Son, Y.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.593-606
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    • 2005
  • Present study was conducted to investigate the optimal feeding levels for producing the high quality meat on the basis of the information deriving from the comparison of the growth performance and carcass characteristics among breeds(Holstein vs F1, Holstein♀×Hanwoo♂), sex(steer vs heifer) and interaction between breed and sex. Thirty two animals on 4 treatments(i.e. eight head each) were used for 540 days from seven to 24 months of age. The results obtained are summarized as follows; the range of average daily gains was 0.733 to 1.018, 0.994 to 1.255, 0.947 to 1.259 and 0.736 to 0.824kg for the growing, the early-fattening, the mid- fattening and the finishing periods, respectively. The range of average daily gains for the entire period was 0.882 to 1.061kg. The gains were higher for Holstein(7.3%) and the steers(10.5%) than F1 and the heifers, respectively. Concentrates and total digestible nutrients intakes per kg gain were higher for Holstein and the heifers than F1 and the steers, respectively. These findings may indicate that feed utilization is higher for Holstein than F1, and higher for the steers than the heifers. In carcass characteristics, back fat thickness was thicker for Holstein than F1, and rib-eye area was smaller for Holstein than F1. The rib-eye area per kg carcass weight was larger for F1 and the heifers than Holstein and the steers, respectively. Meat color was better for Holstein than F1, but the sex distinction did not show any differences. In physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi, shear force, cooking loss, water holding capacity and the panel test scores of juiciness, tenderness and flavor for F1 and the heifers were better than those for Holstein and the steers, respectively. According to the above results, we may conclude that F1 and heifers rather than Holstein and steers are recommended for high quality meat production. In steers and heifers of Holstein and F1, the optimal feeding levels may be 1.9% of apparent body weight for concentrates and 25% of concentrates intake for rice straw.

Effects of Liquid Culture of Coriolus versicolor on Lipid Metabolism and Enzyme Activities in Rats fed Cholesterol Diet. (운지버섯 배양액이 콜레스테롤 식이를 섭취한 흰쥐의 지질 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh Jin-Bog
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.790-795
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    • 2005
  • The effects of liquid culture of Coriolus (C) versicolor on weight gain, food intakes, food efficiency ratios, serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were investigated in male rats fed the high cholesterol diets. Eight weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were given three different types of diet for six weeks, respectively: a control diet ($ 20\% fat +0.5 \% $ cholesterol), two kinds of C versicolor diet (control diet + $ 30\% or 40\%$C. versicozor in water) according to the levels of C. versicolor supplementation. The body weight gains of the rats fed $ 30\% or 40\% $ C. versicolor diets were lower than those in the rats fed the control diet. The food intake, food efficiency ratios, and liver, kidney, epididymal fat pad weights of the rats fed $ 30\% or 40\%$ C. versicoEer diets were similar to those of the rats fed the control diet. The concentrations of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride in the rats fed $ 30\% or 40\% $ C. versicolor diets were significantly lower than those in the rats fed the control diet. The concentrations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and atherogenic index ratios were significantly lower in the rats fed $ 30\% or 40\%$ C. versicolor diets compared to those fed the control diet. The HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratios was significantly higher in the rats fed $ 30\% or 40\% $ C. versicolor diets compared to those fed the control diet. The fecal excretion of total lipid and triglyceride in the rats fed $ 40\% $ C. versicolor diet was significantly higher than that of the rats fed the control diet. There were no significant difference found in the serum trigly-ceride, phospholipid and HDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental groups. These results showed that the C. versicolor feeding decreased the hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride, and the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index, and increased the serum HDL-cholesterol/ total-cholesterol ratio of the rats.

The Effect of Hydroxyproline and Pro-Hyp Dipeptide on UV-damaged Skin of Hairless Mice (자외선에 의해 피부가 손상된 hairless mouse에서의 hydroxyproline, Pro-Hyp 경구반복투여시 피부 상태 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Ji-Hae;Seo, Jeong-Hye;Park, Young-Ho;Kim, Wan-Gi;Lim, Kyung-Min;Lee, Sang-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.436-442
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    • 2008
  • Hydroxyproline and Pro-Hyp dipeptide are the digestive products of collagen hydrolysate called collagen peptide. Some suggested that collagen peptides could improve aged or damaged skins, however, the effects of collagen peptides on the skin have not been known. In this study, we investigated the effects of digestive products of collagen peptides, hydroxyproline and Pro-Hyp dipeptide on skin quality using the UV-damaged dorsal skin of hairless mouse as a model system. Female SKH hairless mice were pre-irradiated with UV for 7 weeks, and then hydroxyproline, Pro-Hyp dipeptide were orally administered for 7 weeks with UV irradiation. Wrinkle formation (by replica image), skin elasticity, barrier status (by TEWL, transepidermal water loss), epidermis thickness, and biophysical changes in the stratum comeum (by hematoxylin & eosin staining) were examined. With the oral peptide treatment, effects such as skin barrier maintenance, anti-skin thickening, and recovery of the stratum corneum were observed. These results indicate that oral intake of collagen peptides may have beneficial effects on damaged skin cells.

The Effects of Cudrania tricupidata Tea Leaves on the Blood Glucose and Serum Lipids Profiles of Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemic Rats (꾸지뽕잎차 첨가 식이가 Streptozotocin으로 유발한 고혈당 흰쥐의 혈당 및 혈청지질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Bum-Ho;Shin, Jong-Wook;Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.516-523
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    • 2008
  • The effects of pan-fired (PM) and fermented (FM) Cudrania tricupidata tea leaves on $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity, oral glucose tolerance, blood glucose levels and serum lipids profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. The $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity of FM ethanol extracts (20 mg/mL) was higher (92.5%) than that of raw dried leaves (RM) (69.1%) and PM (54.6%). In addition, the results of a glucose tolerance test revealed that the glucose levels of hyperglycemic rats that were fed PM and FM ethanol extracts and then orally administered glucose began to decrease after 60 minutes, but recovered after 120 minutes. However, the blood glucose levels in the hyperglycemic control group did not begin to decrease for 360 minutes. Additionally, the results of animal experiments that were conducted over five weeks to compare the dietary effects of PM and FM following hyperglycemic induction to the effects on the hyperglycemic control group (DM) were as follows: The body weight gain and FER of the treated rats were $12.9{\sim}16.9%$ higher than those of the DM group, whereas the amounts of feed and water intake by the treated rats were $6.8{\sim}10.1%$ lower. Additionally, the levels of blood glucose and serum fructosamine decreased by $27.3{\sim}39.8%$ and $6.7{\sim}20.0%$, respectively, in the treated rats. Moreover, the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the treated rats were $24.9{\sim}27.1%$, $15.9{\sim}17.4%$ and $33.8{\sim}38.4%$ lower, respectively. Finally, the HDL-cholesterol contents were $20.5{\sim}24.8%$ higher in the treated rats than in the control group. The above results suggest that PM and FM exerts an anti-hyperglycemic effect that occurs due to the inhibition of $\alpha$-glucosidase activity as well as via prevention and/or inhibition of changes in the serum lipid profile. In addition, the results of this study revealed that the synthetic anti-hyperglycemic effect of FM was greater than that of PM. However, further detailed studies are needed to confirm these results.

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A Study on processing of medicinal on medical books of before Han(漢)dynasty (한대(漢代) 이전의 의적(醫籍)을 통한 '포제(炮制)'의 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Cheol;Ha, Hong-Ki;Kim, Ki-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.157-174
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    • 2011
  • We derived following result by organizing research about processing of medicinal of before Han(漢) dynesty. The human being intake of natural substance for the purpose of treatment was what happened later than the use of natural substance as food. According to the record of by the early years of Shang(商) dynasty, we can assume that we cooked food with water and fire. The reason why there is no appearance of common production that can be included under the name of 'Tang Ye(湯液)' in the medical record discovered from Ma Wang Dui(馬王堆) is because 'Tang Ye' was yet developed. However, as the presentation of format of medicine process, there was gradual formation of medicinal fluid concept. There are quite of records on major details of cloth manufacture like washing and selection, grinding, processing of medicine from the recordings of "Wu Shi Er Bing Fang(五十二病方)", "Yang Sheng Fang(養生方)", "Za Liao Fang(雜療方)" discovered at Ma Wang Dui. It used words like 'Ze(擇)', 'Qu(去)' for the selection and 'Jiu(酒)', 'Zhuo(濯)' for the wash as a process method before cloth manufacture. When filter the processed medicine, it used words like 'Zhuo(捉)', 'Suo(索)', 'Jun(浚)' and used 'Yin Gan(陰乾)', 'Bao(暴)', 'Yang(暘)' for dry. The 'cutting(切削)' that crushes the medicine used different names based on the properties of medicines. The most frequent crush is 'Ye(冶)' and it means the powered medicine after dry. There was thermal process of mild fire(微火) and heating of 'Wen(溫)'. There are many states of medicine seen from the medical record discovered at Ma Wang Dui so they can be said as original medicine. 藥末劑 is relatively commercialized type then. Here, it includes later 湯劑 but there was no name such as 'decoction(湯)' or 'decoction of medical ingredients(湯液)'. Also, 'Fu Ju(㕮咀)' is the transformation of what was 'Fu Qie(父且)' at "Ja Liao Fang" of medical books of Ma Wang Dui with time flow. The original meaning of 'Fu Qie(父且)' is 'Fu Zu(斧俎)' and it means the crushing medicine with axe. The most important thing among the medical books of Han dynasty is "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing(神農本草經)" and "Shang Han Za Bing Lun(傷寒雜病論)" of Zhang Zhong Jing(張仲景). "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing" mentioned the dry method of medicine, collection and process production time, cooked and uncooked use of medicine and there are several types of medicine. Other than those, it mentioned 'Seven methods of combining herbs(七情合和)' to address cautions for combining medicines. Therefore, the 'processing of medicinal' in east Han dynasty period entered the theoretical step. However, there is only little recording on cloth manufacture of detailed medicine. From the "Shang Han Za Bing Lun" of Zhang Zhong Jing, the development in the way of 'processing of medicinal' reveled the cloth manufacture for each medicine. This tradition is continued until today and so it presents the development of purpose of 'processing of medicinal' is to greatly present the effect of medicine and to reduce the side-effect.

Effects of Dietary Effective Microorganism (EM) on Growth Performance, Microflora Population and Noxious Gas Emission in Broiler (유용 미생물 첨가가 육계 생산성, 맹장 내 균총 및 유해가스 발생량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hwan Ku;Kim, Chan Ho;Bang, Han Tae;Kim, Ji Hyuk;Kim, Min Ji;Kim, Dong Woon;Na, Jae Cheon;Hwangbo, Jong;Yang, Young Rok;Choi, Hee Cheol;Moon, Hong Kil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with the effective microorganism (EM) on the growth performance, blood parameter, small intestinal microflora, and noxious gas emission of broilers. A total 720 1-d old ROSS 308 was randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatment groups: control, virginiamycin (6 mg/kg), 0.1% PB 0.1% EM, 0.5% EM, and 1.0% EM. Each treatment was fed to 4 replicates of 30 birds per diet for d 35. Two-phase feeding program with a starter diet from 0 to 3 wk, and a finisher diet from 4 to 5 wk was used in the experiment. Within each phase, a diet was formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements of broilers for macro- and micronutrients. The diet and water were available ad libitum. Result indicated that during overall periods of the experiment, final weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were not different among dietary treatments. Feed conversion ratio was less (P<0.05) for EM treatments than control, antibiotics, and PB. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TRG), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), calcium (CA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were not different among dietary treatments. White blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), heterophils (HE), lymphocyte (LY), monocytes (MO), and eosinophils (EO) were not different among dietary treatments. HE:LY was less (P<0.05) for EM0.5 treatments than control, antibiotics, and PB. Lactobacillus was greater (P<0.05) for EM treatments than control and antibiotics. E. coli and Salmonella were not different among dietary treatments. $NH_3$ and $CO_2$ wereless (P<0.05) for EM treatments than control. These results indicated that EM treatments were effective feed conversion ratio, noxious gas emission and micro flora population on the cecum in broilers.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper Soy Proteinate (Cu-SP) and Herbal Mixture (HBM) on the Performance, Blood Parameter and Immune Response in Laying Hens (Copper Soy Proteinate(Cu-SP)와 Herbal Mixture(HBM)의 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 혈액성상 및 면역체계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chan Ho;Kang, Hwan Ku;Bang, Han Tae;Kim, Ji Hyuk;Hwangbo, Jong;Choi, Hee Cheol;Paik, In Kee;Moon, Hong Kil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of copper-soy proteinate (Cu-SP) and herbal mixture (HBM) on growth performance, blood parameter, and immune response in laying hens. A total 800 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments : (1) Control : control diet, (2) Cu-SP : control diet + 100 mg/kg Cu-soy proteinate, (3) HBM : control diet + 0.15% herbal mixture, and (4) Cu-SP + HBM : control diet + 100 mg/kg Cu-soy proteinate + 0.15% herbal mixture. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with forty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 5 weeks under 16L : 8D lighting regimen. The diet and water were available ad libitum. Result indicated that during feeding trial of the experiment, hen-day egg production was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP and HBM treated groups than control. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, broken and shell less egg production were not significantly influenced by treatments. Eggshell strength was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP than control. Eggshell thickness, eggshell color, egg yolk color, Haugh unit were not significantly influenced by treatments. The level of WBC and stress index (heterophil : lymphocyte) were higher in supplemented groups than the control. The concentration of plasma IgG was higher in supplemented groups than the control. The result of this experiment showed that dietary copper-soy proteinate or herbal mixture tended to improve egg production and affect positively on immune response of laying hens.

Effects of Supplementary Cu-Soy Proteinate (Cu-SP) and Herbal Mixture (HBM) on the Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflroa, Immune Response in Broilers (Cu-Soy Proteinate(Cu-SP)와 Herbal Mixture(HBM)의 급여가 육계의 생산성, 소장 내 미생물 균총 및 면역체계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chan Ho;Shin, Kwang Suk;Kang, Hwan Ku;Kim, Ji Hyuk;Hwangbo, Jong;Choi, Hee Cheol;Moon, Hong Kil;Paik, In Kee;Bang, Han Tae
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of copper-soy proteinate (Cu-SP) and herbal mixture (HBM) on growth performance, intestinal microflora, and immune response in broiler. A total 1,000 1-d old ROSS 308 (initial $BW=41{\pm}0.38g$) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates during d 35 of the feeding trial. Dietary included: (1) Control : control diet, (2) Antibiotics : control diet + Avilamycin 6 ppm, (3) Cu-SP : control diet + 100 ppm Cu-soy proteinate, (4) HBM : control diet + 0.15% herbal mixture, (5) Cu-SP+HBM : control diet + 100 ppm Cu-soy proteinate + 0.2% herbal mixture. Two-phase feeding program with a starter diet from d 0 to 21, and a finisher diet from d 22 to 35 was used in the experiment. Within each phase, a diet was formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements of broilers for macro- and micronutrients. The diet and water were available ad libitum. Result indicated that during d 22 to 35 and over all periods of the experiment, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were greater (P<0.05) for other treatment than control. Significant differences were found in lymphocyte (LY), and stress indicator (HE:LY ratio). Lymphocyte was greater (P<0.05) for Cu-SP + HBM treatment than control. However, stress indicator (HE:LY ratio) were greater (P<0.05) for control than Cu-SP + HBM treatment. The plasma IgG was higher (P<0.05) in the antibiotics, HBM, and Cu-SP+HBM treatments groups compared with control. The population of Clostridium perfringens in the antibiotics, Cu-SP, HBM, Cu-SP + HBM treatment groups were lower (P<0.05) than those control. These result suggested that dietary copper-soy proteinate or herbal mixture may be used as an alternative to antibiotics to improve growth performance, and intestinal health of birds.

Study of Kidney Toxicity of Azadirachta Indica Extract for Oral Administration in Rats (님추출물의 경구투여에 따른 랫드의 신장독성 연구)

  • Yoon, Hyunjoo;Choe, Miseon;Cho, Hyeon-Jo;Han, Beom Seok;Park, Kyung-Hun;Oh, Jin-Ah;Cho, Namjun;Paik, Min-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica has been widely used as environment-friendly organic materials because of its insecticidal properties. This study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity and the subacute toxicity of Azadirachta indica extract(AIE) in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the oral acute toxicity test, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with 2.0 g/Kg bw of AIE. The $LD_{50}$ value was greater than 2.0 g/Kg bw for both male and female rats. For the subacute toxicity study, rats were treated with AIE at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/Kg bw once a day for 4 weeks(n=10 animals per each group). There were no significant changes in body weight, food intake and water consumption observed during the experimental duration. In addition, no difference of relative kidney weight was observed among all treated groups. Serum creatinine level in the AIE 2.0 g/Kg group increased significantly compared with that of control group in male rats, but serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Significant increase of serum cholesterol levels were observed in all AIE groups, compared with the control group, in the female rats (p<0.05). However, histopathological examination of the kidney did not reveal any significant lesions in all groups. CONCLUSION: On the basis of results, it could be concluded that oral administration AIE didn't cause any toxic response in kidney, except the increased serum cholesterol.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Vitamin C and Sea Buckthorn on the Performance and Meat Quality in Old Laying Hens (비타민 C와 비타민나무 부산물 첨가가 산란 성계의 생산성 및 계육 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hwan Ku;Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Hwangbo, Jong;Kim, Chan Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C and Sea buckthorn on the performance, blood biochemistry and meat quality in old laying hens. A total 200 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (101 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments : (1) Basal : basal diet, (2) Vit. C : basal diet + 0.1% vitamin C, (3) SB 0.1 : basal diet + 0.1% Sea buckthorn, (4) SB 0.5 : basal diet + 0.5% Sea buckthorn, and (5) SB 1.0 : basal diet + 1.0% Sea buckthorn. Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 10 birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 4 weeks under 16L:8D lighting regimen. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. Result indicated that during feeding trial of the experiment, hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by treatments. However, feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Vit. C and SB treated groups than the basal during 1 wks and 3 wks. Egg weight was significantly (P<0.05) higher in basal and Vit. C than the SB 1.0 treatment. There were no differences in carcass yield during feeding trials. However, partial ratio (breast and neck) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in SB 0.5 than other treatment. There were no differences in the level of leukocytes and erythrocytes. There were no significant differences on proximate analysis (DM, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash), meat color, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and fatty acids concentrations. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of vitamin C and Sea buckthorn to the diet of old laying hens might be a potential ingredient for increasing partial weight (breast) in old laying hens.