• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Water Intake

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The Role of Brain Somatostatin in the Central Regulation of Feed, Water and Salt Intake in Sheep

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Weisinger, Richard S.;McKinley, Michael J.;Purcell, Brett S.;Thomson, Craig;Burns, Peta L.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.929-934
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    • 2001
  • The physiological role of brain somatostatin in the central regulation of feed intake in sheep was investigated through a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of somatostastin 1-28 (SRIF) at a small dose of $5{\mu}g/0.2ml/hr$ for 98.5 hours from day 1 to day 5. Sheep (n=5) were fed for 2 hours once a day, and water and 0.5 M NaCI solution were given ad libitum. Feed, water and salt intake were measured during ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and SRIF. The feed intake during SRIF infusion on days 2 to 5 increased significantly compared to that during CSF infusion. Water intake, when compared to that during CSF infusion, only increased significantly on day 4. NaCI intake during SRIF infusion was not different from that during CSF infusion. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate during SRIF infusion were not different from those during CSF infusion. The plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, osmolality and total protein during SRIF infusion were also not different from those values during CSF infusion.There are two possible mechanisms, that is, the suppression of brain SRIF on feed suppressing hormones and the direct actions on brain mechanisms controlling feed intake, explaining how SRIF works in the brain to bring about increases in feed intake in sheep fed on hay. The results indicate that brain SRIF increases feed intake in sheep fed on hay.

Effect of Brain Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists and Antisense Oligonucleotide on Drinking and Renal Renin in Rats

  • Cho, Hyeon-Kyeong;Yang, Eun-Kyoung;Han, Hee-Suk;Lee, Won-Jung;Phillips, M. Ian
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2000
  • The physiological roles of brain angiotensin II in mediating water deprivation-induced drinking and in regulating renal renin release were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Specific $AT_1$ receptor antagonists, losartan and SK 1080, and antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN) directed to $AT_1$ receptor mRNA were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered in conscious unrestrained rats. When water was given 20 min after i.c.v. injection of $AT_1$ receptor antagonists in 48-h water-deprived rats, losartan and SK 1080 produced approximatly 20% and 50% decrease in 1-h water intake, respectively. In contrast, i.c.v. treatment of the AS-ODN to $AT_1$ receptor mRNA for 24-h did not alter 1-h water intake in 24-h water-deprived rats, but prevented the increase in overnight water intake after 24-h water-deprivation. Six-day i.c.v. treatment of AS-ODN did not alter either the basal plasma renin concentration or renal cortical levels of renin and renin mRNA. The present results suggest that endogenous brain Ang II plays an important role in thirst and water intake through $AT_1$ receptors, but further studies are required to elucidate its regulatory role in renal renin synthesis.

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흡기관내로의 물 분사에 의한 디젤기관의 연소특성 (I) (The Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine by the Water Injection through the Intake Port (I))

  • 유경현;윤용진;오영택
    • 대한기계학회논문집B
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1756-1762
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    • 2002
  • To effectively meet current regulations on the exhaust emissions of diesel engine required to control the deterioration of air pollution in the whole world, this study is to investigate the effects of water induction through the air intake system on the characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions in IDI diesel engine. A method fur supplying water through the air intake system to reduce the exhaust emissions has been considered with other methods such as water introduction in the form of water-in-fuel emulsion or water injection directly into the combustion chamber, but it has not been studied about the effects of water on the combustion concepts and the characteristics of exhaust emissions in detail until now. In this study, the formation of NOx was significantly suppressed by decreasing the gas peak temperature during the initial combustion process because the water play a role as a heat sink during evaporating in the combustion chamber, but the smoke was slightly increased by increasing water amount.

하천취수가 하천흐름 및 수질에 미치는 영향 (Influence of Water Supply Withdrawal on the River Flow and Water Quality)

  • 서일원;송창근
    • 대한토목학회논문집
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    • v.31 no.4B
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    • pp.343-352
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구에서는 상류단 경계조건으로 입력되는 본류 유량에 생성과 소멸로 작용하는 지천유입량과 취수량을 포함하여 취수장에서의 취수가 하천흐름 및 수질에 미치는 영향을 살펴보기 위하여 팔당댐 직하류부터 잠실수중보 구간에 RMA-2 모형과 RMA-4 모형을 적용하였다. 수치모의 결과, 잠실수중보 상류에 위치해 있는 5개 취수장에서의 취수는 해당 하천 구간의 유량을 변화시키게 되며, 이는 하천의 수위, 유속 등 수리학적 인자를 변화시키는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 이러한 취수량 반영에 따른 수위 및 유속 변화는 해당 하천 구간의 수질의 변화를 초래하는 것으로 나타났다. 취수장에서 빠져나가는 유량을 포함하여 모의한 경우, 구의, 자양, 풍납취수장 부근에서 취수에 의한 유량 손실로 인하여 유속구조가 심하게 교란되었으며, 취수를 고려하지 않은 경우에 비해 유속은 평균 25% 낮게, 수위는 1.5 cm 높게 나타났다. 취수를 고려하지 않은 경우 전 구간에 걸쳐 농도분포가 평행하게 나타났으나, 취수의 영향을 고려한 경우 구의, 암사 및 자양 취수장 부근에서의 농도분포가 크게 변화함을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 취수를 고려한 경우 취수에 의한 유랑소멸로 하류구간에서 취수를 고려하지 않은 경우에 비해 BOD 농도가 높게 나타났다. 따라서 자연하천의 동수역학적 흐름 및 오염물질 혼합거동을 보다 정확히 해석하기 위해서는 지천 합류량 뿐만 아니라 취수장으로부터 유출되어 빠져나가는 취수량을 동시에 고려해야 하는 것으로 판단된다.

Effect of Cool Drinking Water on Production and Shell Quality of Laying Hens in Summer

  • Glatz, P.C.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.850-854
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    • 2001
  • Feed intake, egg weight, rate of lay and shell quality characteristics were measured in an Australian tinted egg laying strain from 31-42 weeks of age, housed at $30^{\circ}C$ and provided drinking water at 5, 10, 17 and $30^{\circ}C$. In a second experiment a European brown egg laying strain (59-66 weeks of age) housed at $30^{\circ}C$ were provided drinking water at 5, 10, 15 and $30^{\circ}C$. Brown egg layers given cool drinking water (5, 10 and $15^{\circ}C$) consumed more (p<0.05) feed and produced significantly (p<0.05) thicker and heavier shells than hens given drinking water at ambient temperature ($30^{\circ}C$). However the tinted egg layers given chilled drinking water only consumed more (p<0.05) feed and produced thicker (p<0.05) and heavier (p<0.05) shells when consuming drinking water at $5^{\circ}C$. As the tinted egg layers acclimatised to the environmental temperature there was a decline in the influence of cool drinking water on feed intake and shell quality. For brown egg layers, however, cool drinking water resulted in an improvement (p<0.05) in feed intake and shell quality over the entire period birds were provided cool water. These studies suggest that there is potential for using cool drinking water to improve feed intake and shell quality of hens housed under hot conditions. The combination of high ambient temperature and high drinking water temperature, a common occurrence in Australian layer sheds, should be avoided.

Interannual and Seasonal Fluctuations of Nutrients, Suspended Solids, Chlorophyll, and Trophic Sate along with Other General Water Quality Parameters Near Two Intake Towers of Daechung Dam

  • Lee, Sun-Goo;Han, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Jae-Hoon;An, Kwang-Guk
    • 생태와환경
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.492-502
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    • 2010
  • The study objects were to analyze long-term and seasonal variations of nutrients (N, P), suspended solids, N:P ratios, algal chlorophyll, and trophic state along with general water quality parameters in four sampling sites including two intake tower sites supplying drinking water in Daechung Reservoir. For the analysis, we used water quality long-term data sampled during 1998~2007 by the Ministry of Environment, Korea. Interannual and seasonal trends in inflow and discharge near the intake tower facilities over the ten years were directly influenced by rainfall pattern. The distinct difference between wet year (2003) and dry year (2001) produced marked differences in water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, organic matter contents, nutrients, and these variables influenced algal biomass and trophic state. Values of TP varied depending on the year and locations sampled, but monthly mean TP always peaked during July~August when river inflow and precipitation were maxima. In contrast, TN varied little compared to TP, indicating lower influence by seasonal flow compared to phosphorus. The number of E. coli were highest in Site 2 (Chudong intake tower) and varied largely, whereas at other sites, the numbers were low and low variations. Contents of chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ (CHL), as an estimation of primary productivity, varied largely depending on the year and season. The maximum of CHL occurred at Muneu intake tower (S4) during 2006 when the precipitation and inflow were lowest. In contrast, another CHL peak was observed in Site 2 (Chudong intake tower) in 2006 when one of the largest typoons (Ewinia) occurred and river runoff were maximum. So the CHL maxima were associated with both wet year (high flow, high nutrient supply) and dry year (low flow, nutrient supply by littoral zone). Such conditions influenced trophic states, based on Trophic State Index of nutrients and CHL. Based on all analyses, we can provide some clues for management and protection strategies of two intake tower sites.

지갈탕(枳葛湯)이 C57BL/6형 생쥐의 알코올섭취량에 미치는 영향 (Influence of Gigaltang on Alcohol Intake Amount in C57BL/6 mice)

  • 변순임;김성곤;김종우;황의완
    • 동의신경정신과학회지
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.75-88
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    • 2007
  • Objective : This study was designed to test the anti-craving effect of Gigaltang(extracts of Oriental medicinal herbs ; Hovenia dulcis and Puerariae flos) in C57BL/6 mice. Anti-craving effect was substituted by alcohol intake amount of C57BL/6 mice. Method : 60 C57BL/6 mice was randomized into vehicle(water) group and Gigaltang group. Only 39(vehicle group(21) and Gigaltang group(18)) was eligible for this study, and 21 C57BL/6 mice was dropped out. The procedure was composed of 5 days of adjustment period and 32 days of alcohol exposure and withdrawal period with limited access paradigm and 10 days of treatment period. Alcohol was offered only for 2 hours a day from 2 to 4PM and water was offered for 22 hours left. Food was offered for 24 hours a day. 1140mg/Kg/day of Gigaltang was administrated to 18 mice of Gigaltang group for 10 days whereas water to 21 mice of vehicle group. The amount of alcohol intake, water intake, food intake, body weight were measured every other day. Result : There weren't significant differences in 2 hours of alcohol intake, 22 hours of water intake, 24 hours of food intake and body weight for ten days between Gigaltang and vehicle group. Conclusion : Anti-craving effect of Gigaltang on C57BL/6 mice wasn't verified. To verify the anti-craving effect, further study with advanced animal model, various dose of Gigaltang and diverse period of drug administration should be taken.

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음용수의 섭취량 및 다경로 노출평가를 위한 노출변수 조사연구 (Daily Water Intake and Exposure Parameters Related to the Multi-route Exposure in Drinking Water)

  • 정용;신동천;박성은;최시내;박선미
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.11 no.1_2
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 1996
  • Human exposure to volatile compounds in tap water can occur from inhalation and dermal absorption as well as direct ingestion. The relative contribution to total human exposure from these pathways has been considered to be important especially for VOC's (volatile organic compounds). In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty of the risk assessment, it has been suggested that the exposure assessment process could be significantly improved by adopting Monte-Carlo simulation. However, there is no actual data in Korea for each exposure parameter to determine the level of exposure, and the distributional pattern. Therefore, we surveyed water use patterns and behavior related to multi-route exposure to VOC's in household tap water in Korea, and compared these values to the those in western countries. In the first survey, we calculated daily water intake using data from a sample of 1322 persons of several cities in Korea. In the second survey, we obtained questionnaire data on exposure time for showering, bathing and household activities, and tap water intake from 851households in Korea. In the last survey, we measured the exposure parameters (exposure time, water use rate etc.) related to showers, baths, toilets, dish washing, washing and cooking, and tap water intake was surveyed. Also, the subjects were measured their body weight, height and tidal volume, etc. A diary, a flow meter and a measuring cup were used to measure these values as precisely as possible. Average daily water intake was ranged 0.79-1.71 L/day for adults in three surveys. Tap water intake measured by log-sheet during one week in third survey was 1.26 (average), 1.98 L/day (90 percentlie), respectively. These results were comparable with results from EPA (1.4, 2L/day). The average amount of water used by housewives in the third survey was 515.0 $\pm$ 564.6L/day. In usual activity, the amount of water used in the bathroom, the laundry and the kitchen was 140.0 $\pm$ 538.9, 148.0 $\pm$ 174.5, 229.3 $\pm$ 205.4 L/day, respectively. Exposure parameters such as water intake rate, exposure duration, body weight, inhalation rates in surveyed data of Korean people differed from those published from western countries. This could be attributed to variations in lifestyle, dietary habits and physiological characteristics.

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Premeal Consumption of a Protein-Enriched, Dietary Fiber-Fortified Bar Decreases Total Energy Intake in Healthy Individuals

  • Ahn, Chang Ho;Bae, Jae Hyun;Cho, Young Min
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.879-892
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    • 2019
  • Background: A premeal load of protein can increase satiety and reduce energy intake. Dietary fiber also conveys metabolic benefits by modulating energy intake. We made a protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB) and aimed to investigate its effects on food intake and gut hormone secretion in healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled. On three separate visits, the subjects received, in a randomized order, one of the following: a PFB containing 73 kcal with 10.7 g of protein and 12.7 g of dietary fiber; a usual bar (UB) containing the same calories as the PFB but only 0.9 g of protein and no dietary fiber; or water (control). After 15 minutes, the subjects had ad libitum intake of a test meal. Food consumption, appetite, and plasma gut hormone levels were measured. Results: Total energy intake, including the bar and the test meal, was significantly reduced with the PFB preload compared to the water (904.4±534.9 kcal vs. 1,075.0±508.0 kcal, P=0.016). With the UB preload, only the intake of the test meal was reduced (P=0.044) but not the total energy intake (P=0.471) than the water. Fullness was also significantly increased after the PFB. In addition, postprandial glucose levels decreased and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels increased with the PFB compared with both the UB and water. Conclusion: In healthy individuals, a premeal supplementation of PFB reduced total energy intake and decreased postprandial glucose excursion. This finding necessitates long-term studies regarding clinical use in obesity.

당일수술 후 최초 경구수분섭취 시간단축이 소아에서의 갈증감소 및 오심, 구토 발생에 미치는 영향 (The Effects of Early First Oral Water Intake on Thirsty Feeling, Nausea, and Vomiting in Child under Ambulatory Surgery)

  • 김경자;이윤영;현동수;박광옥
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to find effects of early oral water intake on thirsty feeling, nausea, and vomiting after ambulatory surgery. Method : Sixty patients who received PET(Pressure Equalizing Tube) insertion surgery under general anesthesia were conveniently sampled and divided into two groups. Experimental group was instructed to drink water after two hours and control group was directed to intake water after three hours postoperatively. Data were collected from May 1, 2002 to August 31, 2002 at ambulatory surgery center of Asan Medical Center. The thirsty feeling, nausea and vomiting score between experimental and control group were compared at the time of recovery, recovering consciousness, 2hr, 3hr, right before discharge and/or 24hr(telephone interview) postoperatively. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 8.0 statistic program. Result : Result of this study are as follows. 1) There was a statistically significant difference(t=-10.31, p=0.00) in the occurrence of thirsty feeling at the 3hr postoperatively between experimental and control groups. 2) There was a statistically significant difference($x^2=6.66$, p=0.02) in the incidence of nausea during the 2hr postoperatively between experimental and control groups. 3) There was no difference($x^2=0.35$, p=0.55) between groups in vomiting scores. Conclusion : It was generally known that the delay of oral water intake decreases post operative complications. But, this study shows that early oral water intake decreases discomfort of thirsty and there was no adverse effects on the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

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