• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water Intake

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Effect of Pre-meal Water Consumption on Energy Intake and Satiety in Non-obese young Adults

  • Jeong, Ji Na
    • Clinical Nutrition Research
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 2018
  • I determined whether water consumption reduces energy intake and affects satiety in non-obese young adults. The final subjects consisted of 15 individuals (8 women and 7 men) with average ages of 26.4 and 23.5 years for women and men, respectively. When subjects drank water before eating a test meal, they ate a lower amount of the test meal compared to eating test meals under waterless and postload water conditions (preload water: 123.3 g vs. waterless: 161.7 g or postload water: 163.3 g, p < 0.05). Water consumption after eating a test meal did not affect energy intake. When the subjects drank water before eating a test meal, despite consuming a lower amount, the subjects did not feel significantly less satiety than eating meals under waterless or postload water conditions. The finding that pre-meal water consumption led to a significant reduction in meal energy intake in young adults suggests that pre-meal water consumption may be an effective weight control strategy, although the mechanism of action is unknown.

수분 섭취 및 배설량의 측정방법에 관한 연구 (A Study on Fluid Intake and Output Measurements)

  • 최스미;양영희;정연
    • 대한간호학회지
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.88-98
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    • 1995
  • The Fluid and electrolytes balance in the body is of critical importance in maintaining good health. When the fluid and electrolyte imbalance is present, patients are in great danger. They must be assessed immediately by a nurse so that appropriate treatment can be started as soon as possible. Patients' fluid intake and output records contain highly important information for the diagnosis and treatment of fluid imbalance, but, these records are often inaccurate and the method of recording the fluid intake is not universal for every hospital. Be-cause they are few quantitative measurements of a patient's hydration, the need to improve the accuracy of fluid intake records is very important. However, very few studies have been done to investigate the accuracy of measurements of patients' fluid intake and output. The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods used for calculation of fluid intake which is most similar to fluid output in normal adults and hospitalized patients. This study focused on three different calculation methods for fluid intake and compared these to fluid output and developed suggestions as to the ideal way to record fluid in-take. Data for 43 hospitalized patients and 37 normal adults were analyzed. The findings of this study are as follows ; 1) In normal adults, the daily intake of water which enteres by the oral route was 2415m1 (the first method of calculation). The daily intake of water in the form of pure water or some other beverage was 1365m1 (the third method of calculation) The daily intake of water including fresh fruits and vegetables, rice, porridges, and Me m which have water content more than 80% were 2186m1 (the second method of calculation). 2) The urine output of the normal adults was 1350m1. This apprroximates the amount of fluid an adult takes in the form of pure water. 3) In patient group, the total intake of water was 2550m1 (the first method of calculation). The in-take of water in the form of pure water or as some other beverage and IV fluid was 1661m1 (the third method of calculation). The daily in-take of water including foods which have high water content was 2356m1 (the second method of calculation). 4) The urine output of the patient's group was 1728m1. This approximates the amount of fluid an adult takes in the form of pure water. 5) Investigation of the method of calculation of the patient fluid intake showed that among the 31 hospitals studied, only eight use the third method of calculation which reflects the most close value to urine output. From the results obtained in this study, it was indicated that the amount of fluid taken in the form of pure water reflects the most close value to urine output. Therefore, it can be suggested that the third method of calculation which includes water in-take only in the form of pure water or beverage should be used as patients' fluid intake record.

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한국 노인의 일일 수분섭취 상태에 따른 주요 만성질환 유병률 및 탈수 예측 생리적 지표 탐색 연구: 2015년 국민건강영양조사 결과를 바탕으로 (Exploratory Study of the Prevalence of Major Chronic Disease According to Daily Water Intake and Physiological Parameters related to Dehydration in Korean Elderly: Based on the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015))

  • 홍현정;김나현
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of major chronic diseases related to daily oral water intake and to identify the physiological parameters related to dehydration in Korean elderly. Methods: The data were collected from the sixth Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KHANES), which was a nationwide and cross-sectional survey in 2015. We analyzed 1,392 participants using t-test and logistic regression. All participants were divided into the adequate water intake (AWI) group and the non-adequate water intake (NAWI) group based on the dietary reference intakes for Koreans. Results: There was a significant difference in the water intake between the AWI (6.8 cups in a day) and NAWI (2.8 cups) groups (p< .001). There was no statistically significant association between the level of water intake and any of the major chronic diseases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and BUN/Creatinine (Cr) ratio were significantly higher in the NAWI group. Especially, BUN/Cr ratio shows that the NAWI group reached dehydration status. Older age (adjusted odd ratio, OR= 1.07, 95% confidence interval, CI [1.04-1.10]), female gender (adjusted OR= 1.56, 95% CI [1.05-2.33]), lower body mass index (BMI) (adjusted OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.92-1.00]), higher BUN (adjusted OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01-1.08]), and higher urine specific gravity (USG) (adjusted OR= 1.56, 95% CI [1.19-2.05]) were factors associated with the NAWI group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the level of water intake needs to be considered in relation to age, gender, BMI, BUN, and USG. These are sensitive physiological parameters used for predicting dehydration of the elderly according to their daily oral water intake. It would be helpful to develop strategies to prevent dehydration in elderly individuals and enhance their water intake.

Physiological Relationship Between Thirst Level and Feed Intake in Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay Cubes

  • Prasetiyono, Bambang W.H.E.;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Shinjo, Akihisa;Shiroma, Sadao
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1536-1541
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    • 2000
  • The present study was carried out to measure changes of feed intake and thirst level caused by water deprivation in goats fed on dry feed and to elucidate the relationship between those two parameters. Water deprivation significantly (p<0.01) decreased cumulative feed intake and rate of eating at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively, after feed presentation. Cumulative feed intake, after completion of 2 h feeding, was reduced by about 20, 21 and 64 % due to water deprivation during feeding for 2 h (WD2), for 22 h (WD22) and for 46 h (WD46), respectively, compared to free access to water (FAW). Compared to the FAW, WD2, WD22 and WD46 increased thirst level by about 5, 5 and 9 times, respectively. Mean thirst level (X, g/30 min) was negatively correlated with cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=1302-0.2 X, $r^2=0.97$, p<0.05). Water deprivation depressed plasma volume and there was a significant positive regression between plasma volume (X, ml) and cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=-1003+0.6 X, $r^2=0.99$, p<0.01). Mean plasma osmolality (X, mOsmol/l) correlated significantly and negatively with cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=27004-84.9 X, $r^2=0.95$, p<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease of feed intake during water deprivation is mainly due to an increase of thirst level quantitatively, and the act of feeding itself induces thirst more than the length of water-deprivation periods in goats fed on dry feeds. The present findings suggest that plasma osmolality and plasma volume which affect thirst level are involved in the decrease of feed intake in water-deprived goats.

대학생의 수분섭취, 피부 수분보유도 및 피부 pH와의 관계 (The Correlation Analysis of Fluid Intake, Skin Hydration and Skin pH of College Students)

  • 김남조;홍해숙
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.132-139
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to verify the correlation analysis between fluid intake on skin hydration and pH of college students. Methods: The subjects were 129 female nursing students in D city. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire, using a skin moisture checker and skin pH meter on faces, hands, and feet. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation analysis, using SPSS WIN, 20. Results: The daily fluid intake was composed of 57% pure water, 21% caffeinated beverages, 22% non-caffeinated beverages. There were significant differences in average skin hydration on the three body parts according to pure water, caffeinated beverages, and non-caffeinated beverages; however, there was no significant difference measured by fluid intake. There was a significant positive correlation between fluid intake and skin hydration: between pure water and skin hydration. There was significant negative correlation between caffeinated beverages and skin hydration: between non-caffeinated beverages and skin hydration. Conclusion: The results suggest that fluid intake, pure water, caffeinated beverages, and non-caffeinated beverages have an effect on skin hydration and pH. Therefore, it is good to increase the amount of fluid intake but, it is recommended to increase the amount of intake of pure water rather than beverages to improve skin status.

Effects of Water Restriction on the Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Organ Weights of Naked Neck and Ovambo Chickens of Southern Africa

  • Chikumba, N.;Chimonyo, M.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.974-980
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    • 2014
  • In semi-arid areas of Southern Africa, dehydration can compromise the performance and welfare of local chickens, particularly during the growing period when confinement is curtailed and birds are left to scavenge for feed and water. The effect of water restriction on the growth performance was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens that are predominant in Southern Africa. A total of 54 eight-wk-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of $641{\pm}10g/bird$ were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments, each having six birds for 8 wk. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% of ad libitum and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of $3.3m^2$ per strain were used. The pens were housed in an open-sided house with cement floor deep littered with a 20 cm layer of untreated wood shavings. Feed was provided ad libitum. Average daily water intake (ADWI), BW at 16 weeks of age (FBW), ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and water to feed ratios (WFR) were determined. Ovambo chickens had superior (p<0.05) FBW, ADG and ADWI than NNK chickens. Body weight of birds at 16 weeks of age, ADG, ADFI, ADWI, and WFR declined progressively (p<0.05) with increasing severity of water restriction while FCR values increased (p<0.05) as the severity of water restriction increased. Naked Neck chickens had better FCR at the 40% of ad libitum water intake level than Ovambo chickens. The dressing percentage per bird was higher in water restricted birds than those on ad libitum water consumption, irrespective of strain. Heart weight was significantly lower in birds on 40% of ad libitum water intake than those on ad libitum and 70% of ad libitum water intake, respectively. In conclusion, NNK chickens performed better than OVB chickens under conditions of water restriction and would be ideal to raise for meat and egg production in locations where water shortages are a major challenge.

수분 섭취의 증가가 닭의 고온 스트레스 완화에 미치는 효과 (Effect of Increased Water Intake on the Alleviation of Heat Stress in Chicken)

  • 이봉덕
    • 한국가금학회지
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1994
  • Chickens subjected to heat stress decrease their heat production by consuming less feed. The lowered feed intake naturally brings about decreased production performance of chicken. The only exception to this is the increased survivability. Birds drink less when they eat less. In hot enviror-mental temperature, chicken need more water for increased heat loss through evaporation an increased urine excretion. Thus, the increased water intake may alleviate the heat stress of chicken. Various electrolytes supplementation to feed or drinking water can alleviate the heat stress of chicken by their effect of increasing water intake. Lasalocid, an ionophorous coccidiostat, was found to have the effect of increasing water consumption of chicken, thereby improving the lowered production performance of heat-stressed chicken. Finally, dietary fiber could be another possible element which can exert beneficial effects on heat-stressed chicken.

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Effect of Salt Level in the Feed on Performance of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Fischer, M.;Glatz, P.C.;Bao, Y.M.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.638-642
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    • 2004
  • In Australia, many cropping areas are affected by salt. In these regions, Chenopodiaceous plants, such as Atriplex, Kochia and Bassia spp have been planted to improve soil conditions. These plants have become invaluable feed resources for grazing animals in dry summers, but have a high sodium content. To assess the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used 30 fallow weaner deer to examine the effect of salt level in the diet on feed intake, water intake and body weight of fallow deer. Salt was added to lucerne chaff at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6% and fresh water was offered all the time. Increasing the salt level in the diet from 0 to 6% didn't affect feed intake, osmotic pressure and mineral concentration in blood of fallow deer. However, water intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in deer fed diets containing more than 3% salt. Body weight was lower (p${\leq}$0.056) for fallow deer in July and August when salt content was over 3%, suggesting they can ingest over 15 g sodium/day without significant depression in both feed intake and growth rate if the fresh water is available. In the second experiment, 18 red weaner deer were fed lucerne chaff diets containing 1.5, 4.5 and 6.0% salt with 6 deer/diet. The results revealed that feed intake and blood osmotic pressure were similar (p>0.05) for red deer fed different levels of salt although the feed intake declined from 1.91 to 1.67 kg with the increase of salt level from 1.5% to 6.0% in the diet. Water intake was significantly higher for deer fed diets containing over 4.5% salt, but there was no difference in body weight during the experiment. However, no recommendation can be made on the salt tolerance of red deer due to limited increment of salt level in the diet.

국내담수지역 인체위해성기반 준거치 산정에 활용되는 어류섭취량인자 타당성 평가 (Adequacy Evaluation of Fish Intake Parameter used for Human Health Risk Assessment to Derive Freshwater Quality Criteria in Korea)

  • 안윤주;남선화
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.364-370
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    • 2011
  • Water quality criteria for human health protection are derived based on the human health risk assessment. Water quality criteria in Korean freshwater bodies have been derived according to the equations developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The equations include the fish intake parameter, which is very important factor that significantly influences on the criteria derivation. So far, several fish intake values were used in human health risk assessment for water quality standards and effluent standards. However, these values are not consistent and they refer to various sources. Therefore, there is a need to suggest the most appropriate value of fish intake parameter to derive freshwater quality criteria in Korea. In this study, national and international fish intake values were widely collected and evaluated to select the adequate value of fish intake parameter that can be applied in Korea. The USEPA presented fish intake parameter as the 17.5 g/day for general adults and sport fishers and 142.4 g/day for subsistence fishers. In Korean reports, wide range values of 2 to 67.7 g/day were suggested as fish intake value. These values included finfish and shellfish intakes in common but had various habits. This study found that the 52.4 g/day suggested in Korean Exposure Factors Handbook published by the Ministry of Environment in 2007 seemed to be the suitable fish intake parameter to derive the freshwater quality criteria in Korea. The value is based on water corrected intakes of finfish and shellfish present in freshwater and coastal areas. We expect that this report can be useful to select suitable fish intake value in human health risk assessment for establishing freshwater quality standard in Korea.

Effect of Diet and Water Intake on Aquaporin 2 Function

  • Kim, Jun-Mo;Kim, Tae-Hee;Wang, Tong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2016
  • Appropriate control of diet and water intake is important for maintaining normal blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in the body. It is relatively understood that the amount of sodium and potassium intake directly affects blood pressure and regulates ion transporters; Na and K channel functions in the kidney. However, little is known about whether diet and water intake regulates Aquaporin (AQP) function. AQPs, a family of aquaporin proteins with different types being expressed in different tissues, are important for water absorption by the cell. Water reabsorption is a passive process driven by osmotic gradient and water permeability is critical for this process. In most of the nephron, however, water reabsorption is unregulated and coupled to solute reabsorption, such as AQP1 mediated water absorption in the proximal tubule. AQP2 is the only water channel founded so far that can be regulated by hormones in the kidney. AQP2 expressed in the apical membrane of the principal cells in the collecting tubule can be regulated by vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) controlling the final volume of urine excretion. When vasopressin binds to its receptor on the collecting duct cells, it stimulates the translocation of AQP2 to the membrane, leading to increased water absorption via this AQP2 water channel. However, some studies also indicated that the AQP2 is also been regulated by vasopressin independent mechanism. This review is focused on the regulation of AQP2 by diet and the amount of water intake on salt and water homeostasis.