• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water Disappearance

Search Result 91, Processing Time 0.166 seconds

Effect of Nipple Angle on Water Disappearance by Pigs

  • Yun, M.S.;Ju, W.S.;Piao, L.G.;Long, H.F.;Kil, D.Y.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.120-123
    • /
    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different nipple angles on water disappearance in growing pigs, which is defined as the water which leaves the watering device but is not consumed by the pig. This water adds to the volume of the total waste slurry. Four crossbred pigs averaging $70.0{\pm}1.4$ kg were assigned into 1 of 4 treatments using a $4{\times}4$ Latin-square design. Treatments were distinguished by the angle between nipple terminal and the perpendicular wall. These angles were: 1) NA-30 (= Nipple Angle $30^{\circ}$), 2) NA-45 (= Nipple Angle $45^{\circ}$), 3) NA-60 (= Nipple Angle $60^{\circ}$) and 4) NA-90 (= Nipple Angle $90^{\circ}$). All of the nipples were fixed at shoulder height of each pig. After a 7-day adaptation period, samples were collected from each pig for 4 days, followed by a day for change-over. Pigs were fed a 0.8 kg diet twice daily at 08:00 and 20:00 and supplied water ad libitum. Throughout the experimental period, pigs in the NA-30 treatment group showed greater water disappearance than other treatments. Water disappearance was the lowest for the NA-60 treatment group (p<0.01). The percentage of water disappearance to the water supply was significantly reduced in the NA-60 treatment group (p<0.01). Water intake was the same for all the treatment groups. The rate of water disappearance per unit of water intake was significantly decreased in pigs in the NA-60 treatment group compared to other groups (p<0.01). These results suggested that the nipple angle for growing pigs should be $60^{\circ}$ to reduce water disappearance and, subsequently, the amount of waste generated.

A Study on the Significance of the Colloidal Radiogold Disappearance Rate as a Simple Clinical Liver Function Test (임상간기능검사법(臨床肝機能檢査法)으로서의 교질형방사성금(膠質形放射性金)의 혈중소실율(血中消失率)의 의의(意義)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Chang-Gi
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 1969
  • Liver functions in diffuse parenchymal liver disease such as cirrhosis of the liver depend largely on the effective hepatic blood flow rather than on the individual cell functions. Clinical methods of measuring the hepatic blood flow were developed recently by the application of colloidal disappearance rate. In order to correlate the radiogold disappearance rate to conventional biochemical liver function tests, 21 normal subjects and 80 cases of cirrhosis of the liver were studied with both methods. The results are summarized as following: 1. The validity of external counting method to measure the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was confirmed by in vitro counting of the serial blood samples. 2. The blood disappearance rate of collidal radiogold was essentially the same. as the liver uptake rate of colloidal radiogold in normal and cirrhotic subjects with various degrees of functional disturbance. And it seemed there was no serious extrahepatic removal of the colloidal radiogold. 3. The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not significantly changed by the posture change, but was enhanced by ingestion of 500 ml of water. 4. The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not influenced by single dose of Telepaque, while BSP retention was increased after Telepaque. 5. The mean disappearance half time of colloidal radiogold in normal subjects was $2.49{\pm}0.391$(S.D.) minutes. The mean normal disappearance rate constant (K value) was $0.285{\pm}0.0428$(S.D.)/minute. 6. The colloidal radiogold disappearance half time was abnormally prolonged (over 3.2 min.) in $87.7{\pm}3.68$(S.D.) % of cirrhotic subjects. 7. In patients of liver cirrhosis the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold correlated well to serum albumin and globulin levels and BSP retention which were considered to reflect functions of hepatic parenchymal cells. There was, however, no correlation between colloidal disappearance rate and thymol turbidity test, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and serm alkaline phosphatase activities. The latters were considered to be associated with the activity of liver disease.

  • PDF

Oceanographic Condition of the Coastal Area between Narodo Is. and Solido Is. in the Southern Sea of Korea and Its Relation to the Disappearance of Red-Tide Observed in Summer 1998 (한국 남해 나로도와 소리도 사이 해역의 1998년 하계 해황 및 적조소멸과의 관계)

  • Choi, Hyun-Yong
    • The Sea
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.49-62
    • /
    • 2001
  • Hydrographic surveys were carried out seven times during May 31, 1998 and September 24, 1998 in order to study the physical environments of the coastal area between Narodo Is. and Sorido Is. in the southern sea of Korea (the South Sea) where the occurrence of Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tide is frequently observed in summer. Temperature and salinity of the water column from the surface to the depth of 30 m exhibit large seasonal variations. Mean temperature of the water column increased by 6 and mean salinity of the water column decreased by 2.71 psu during the observation period. Both the freshwater supplied from the adjacent land and the precipitation over the study area cannot account for the observed salinity variations. The influx of the low salinity water from the offshore area is considered to be the main cause for the observed salinity changes. Surface salinity in the study area shows different spatial distribution in the period of outbreaking, mid-stage and disappearance of the red tide. Especially, salinity was abruptly lowered at the stage of disappearance of red tide as compared to salinity of the previous observation period. Vertical structure of water properties also became vertically homogeneous at the disappearance stage, while it was highly stratified in the previous observation. Such changes can only be explained by the inflow of low salinity water from the offshore, which is considered as the most possible cause for the disappearance of the red tide in the study area. This study suggests that exchanges of water, and chemical and biological factors between coastal areas and of shore area in the South Sea need to be studied in association with the general circulation of the South Sea in order for the better understanding of the occurrence and disappearance of the red tide in the coastal area of the South Sea.

  • PDF

Identifying Riparian Water Landscape Change Detection Using Digital Photogrammetry Technique

  • Ahn Seung-mahn;Lee Kyoo-seock
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.25-27
    • /
    • 2004
  • Han River water landscape changes between 1966 and 2002 were detected by interpreting IKONOS images, aerial photographs. Digital photogrammetry technique was used in this process. Most of water landscape change are disappearance of sandbars and meandering streams in 1966. It is mainly due to the stream straightening for housing site development.

  • PDF

THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED CHEMICAL TREATMENTS ON THE RUMINAL DEGRADATION AND SUBSEQUENT INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF CEREAL STRAW

  • Wanapat, M.;Varvikko, T.;Vanhatalo, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.3 no.2
    • /
    • pp.75-83
    • /
    • 1990
  • An experiment was conducted with three ruminally and intestinally cannulated non-lactating cows of Finnish Ayrshire breed, to assess the ruminal degradation characteristics of oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and rice (Oryza sativa) straw by the nylon bag technique, and the subsequent post-ruminal degradation of their rumen-undegraded residues by using the mobile bag technique, respectively. The straw samples were untreated or treated with aqueous $NH_3$ or with urea solution in cold or hot water. The untreated straw samples were milled or chopped, and the treated straw samples were chopped. The constant values a, b, and c were computed according to the exponential equation, where a = intercept of degradation curve at time 0, b = potentially degradable material, c = rate of degradation of band (a+b) = maximum potential degradability (asymptote). It was found that nitrogen contents of chemically treated straw were markedly increased by both $NH_3$ and urea treatments. Milling the samples attributed to a remarkable loss at 0 h incubation time as compared to chopping of the respective samples. However, chemical treatment markedly improved the b value and the subsequent (a+b) values for dry matter, organic matter, neutral-detergent fiber, and acid-detergent fiber of the samples. Furthermore, temperature of the water used in the urea solutions was considered essential, since urea in hot water rather than in cold water seemed to enhance the overall degradability. The disappearance of rumen-incubated straw residues from the mobile bags ranged from 4.5 to 9.6% for the parameters measured. On average, the OM disappearance from bags was clearly higher for the residues of urea treated straw compared to those of ammonia treated straw, but the disappearance of NDF tended, however, to be higher on the ammonia treatment.

RUMINAL SOLUBILIZATION OF MACROMINERALS IN SELECTED PHILIPPINE FORAGES

  • Serra, S.D.;Serra, A.B.;Ichinohe, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.75-81
    • /
    • 1996
  • The dry matter (DM) disappearance and ruminal solubility of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) in eight Philippine forages were studied. The forages were: paragrass (Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapf), stargrass (Cynodon plectostachyum Pilger), napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), clopo (Calopogonium mucconoides Desv.), centrocema (Centrocema pubescens Benth.), gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.) and sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir. Nylon bags with samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h in rumen cannulated sheep. The 0-h bags were washed with deionized water. For the 0-h samples, 20.4, 17.2, 50.7, 52.2 and 80.1% of the DM, Ca, P, Mg and K was solubilized, respectively. At 3-h incubation period, DM disappearance was 10 percentage units higher than that of 0-h incubation whereas mineral disappearance increased by 43, 21, 30 and 13% for Ca, P, Mg and K, respectively. At 72-h incubation period, greater proportion of DM, Ca, especially in P, Mg and K was solubilized with a value of 73.8, 71.5, 85.6, 91.4 and 98.2%, respectively. The average particulate passage rate obtained in the present study was 1.9%/h where as the range of disappearance rates of various mineral elements were : 0.4 to 1.2%/h for Ca, 0.1 to 1.6%/h for P, 0.7 to 2%/h for Mg and 0.1 to 2%/h for K. The effective ruminal solubilization (ERS) of the macrominerals was calculated where particulate passage rate and disappearance rate of the various elements were included in the equation. The ERS of Ca, P, Mg and K was 50.0, 72.6, 83.9 and 94.5%, respectively. Species differences (p<0.05) on the various mineral solubilities were also observed. This study shows that ruminal solubility of macrominerals in selected Philippine forages is K > Mg > P > Ca.

Abiotic Degradation Degradation of the Herbicide Oxadiazon in Water

  • Rahman Md. Mokhlesur;Park, Jong-Woo;Park, Man;Rhee In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.49 no.4
    • /
    • pp.157-161
    • /
    • 2006
  • The performance of abiotic degradation of oxadiazon was investigated by applying zerovalent iron(ZVI), potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$) and titanium dioxide($TiO_2$) in the contaminated water. Experimental conditions allowed the disappearance of oxadiazon in the abiotic system. The degradation of this herbicide was monitored in buffer solutions having pH 3, 5 and 7 in the presence of iron powder in which the maximum degradation rate was achieved at acidic condition(pH 3) by 2% of ZVI treatment. The oxidative degradation of oxadiazon was observed in aqueous solution by $KMnO_4$ at pH 3, 7 and 10 in which the highest disappearance rate was found at neutral pH when treated with 2% of $KMnO_4$. The catalytic degradation of oxadiazon in $TiO_2$ suspension was obtained under dark and UV irradiation conditions. UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of oxadiazon in aquatic system in the presence of $TiO_2$. Conclusively, the remediation strategy using these abiotic reagents could be applied to remove oxadiazon from the contaminated water.

FRACTIONS, RUMINAL DISAPPEARANCE AND DIGESTION RATE OF DEER FEED NUTRIENTS ESTIMATED USING IN SITU BAG TECHNIQUE IN THE ARTIFICIAL RUMEN

  • Kwak, W.S.;Ahn, H.S.;Jeon, B.T.;Kim, O.H.;Roh, S.C.;Kim, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.189-193
    • /
    • 1996
  • A study was conducted to estimate nutritive value of forage sources used in deer diets. Bags containing feedstuffs were incubated four times for periods up to 72 hours in two chemostats filled with ruminal fluid from deer or cattle. Parameters estimated were water-soluble and $65{\mu}m$ filterable plus insoluble digestible fractions(No. = 4) and extent of disappearance(No. = 8) of feed neutral detergent fiber(NDF). Among tested feeds, the ranking of values of these parameters were soybean hulls > alfalfa pellets > corn cobs or rice straw > cottonseed hulls or rice hulls > sawdust, indicating that soybean hulls and alfalfa pellets were more fermentable than other agricultural residues. It is possible to utilize variability among tested feeds of fraction, disappearance rate and (or) extent of DM and NDF when these feeds are used as roughage sources in deer diets.

The Effect of Histamine on the Disappearance Rate of $D_2O$ from the Arterial Blood of Rabbits (토끼 동맥혈로 부터의 $D_2O$ 소실률에 대한 히스타민의 영향)

  • Kim, Kyong-Tai;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-32
    • /
    • 1967
  • Disappearance rate of injected $D_2O$ from the arterial blood as well as the effect of histamine on the rate were studied in rabbits. The concentrations of $D_2O$ in the serial arterial samples obtained through a Polyethylene tubing inserted into the carotid artery were assayed by the freezing point elevation method of Reaser. At zero time 3 ml of isotonic $D_2O$ in normal saline was injected into the jugular vein and at the same time serial sampling of arterial blood started. The serial sampling interval was either 7.7 sec or 12.3 sec. In the histamine treated animals histamine diphosphate (0,5 mg of histamine base) was injected intravenously 30 minutes prior to the zero time. The following results were obtained. 1. $D_2O$ concentration in arterial plasma water, x, was empirically obtained by the sum of 2 exponential terms of time, $x=Ae^{-k1t}+Be^{-k2t},$ and its theoretical basis was sought. The first term of the right member of the equation was regarded to be attributable to the compartment P which possessed instantaneous exchange of water with plasma. The second term was postulated to represent the poorly exchangeable compartment. 2. The constant A of the equation was evaluated as 4,37% and 14.3% in the control and histamine treated groups, respectively. B was 1.19% in the control and 0.849% in histamine treated animals. 3. The disappearance rates determined were; $k_1=0.0519{\pm}0.0221\;sec^{-1}\;K_2=0.00454{\pm}0.00247\;sec^{-1}$ in the control group. $k_1=0.1137{\pm}0.0290\;sec^{-1}\;K_2=0.00499{\pm}0.00204\;sec^{-1}$ in the histamine group. 4. In the histamine treated animals the disappearance rate of the first term was larger than that of the control animals, suggesting an enlarged size of the rapidly exchangeable compartment with regard to the plasma water. On the other hand the constant B was decreased by histamine administration, suggesting a distribution of $D_2O$ in an enlarged volume. This view was also made clear by comparing the apparent asymptotes to which the concentration curves of $D_2O$ approached in respective groups. The asymptotes in the histamine treated group showed lower values.

  • PDF

Disappearance of the ${\alpha}$-Effect : Reaction of p-Nitrophenyl Acetate with Various Aryloxides and Benzohydroxamates in the Presence of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

  • Dong Sook Kwon;Seung Eun Lee;Jin Kyung Jung;Jong Yoon Park;Ik Hwan Um
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.13 no.5
    • /
    • pp.486-491
    • /
    • 1992
  • The rate constants for the reactions of p-nitrophenyl acetate with 6 different aryloxides and 2 benzohydroxamates have been measured spectrophotometrically in water containing various concentrations of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactivity of the nucleophiles has been demonstrated to be significantly enhanced as the concentration of the surfactant increases up to a certain point. When the basicities of the aryloxides are comparable, the rate enhancement is more prominent for the aryloxide having larger binding constant to the micellar aggregate. Benzohydroxamates exhibitis significantly large ${\alpha}$-effect in the absence of the surfactant, although, the ${\alpha}$-effect nucleophiles are considered to be more solvated in water than the corresponding normal nucleophile. Thus, the solvation effect does not appear to be solely responsible for the ${\alpha}$-effect. Interestingly, the large ${\alpha}$-effect disappears in the presence of the surfactant. Therefore, one might attribute the disappearance of the ${\alpha}$-effect to solvent effect. However, a structural change of the reactive ${\alpha}$ -effect nucleophile into unreactive ones would also be considered to be responsible for the absence of the ${\alpha}$-effect in the present system.

  • PDF