• Title, Summary, Keyword: WQS

Search Result 7, Processing Time 0.03 seconds

A study on health risk assessment for small-scale water works in Gyeongnam province from 2014 to 2016 (2014~2016년 동안 경남지역 소규모 급수시설에 대한 건강 위해성 평가 연구)

  • Park, Ju-Won;Son, Song-Ee;Lee, Hu-Jang
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.44 no.3
    • /
    • pp.227-237
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study was investigated the characteristics of small-scale water works (SWW) in Gyeongnam area and conduct a health risk assessment of water-quality inspection items unfitted for water-quality standards (WQS). Methods: The characteristics of SWW in Gyeongnam province were analyzed using the data of SWW in the last three years (2014~2016) published in National Waterworks Information System. In addition, the health risk assessment for inspection items unfitted for WQS was carried out in four steps: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Results: The total number of SWW in Gyeongnam area was gradually decreased from 2014 to 2016. In addition, drinking water sources of SWW were in the order of ground water, valley water, spring water, surface water, and river-bed water. The number of points unfitted for WQS in SWW by year was 22, 45, and 18 in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, and a total of 112 points were found to unfit for WQS in SWW during 2014~2016. The hazard quotient (HQ) for fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, boron in the unfitted points for WQS was more than 1.0, and the mean values for turbidity and color in points unfitted for WQS were 2.38 nephelometric turbidity unit and 16.25 color unit, respectively. Conclusions: The HQ for fluorine, nitrate nitrogen and boron was more than 1.0 in points unfitted for WQS among SWW in Gyeongnam area, and the turbidity and the color degree exceeded WQS, which mean that there is a possibility of harmful impacts on the human health.

Factors Related to Willingness-to-quit Smoking Cigarette Price among Korean Adults (성인 흡연자의 금연의향 담배가격에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kang, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Jae-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.125-137
    • /
    • 2011
  • Objectives: This paper estimates willingness to quit smoking(WQS) cigarette price among Korean adults and examines the factors related to WQS price. Methods: Data on 799 participants in a random dial telephone survey with questions designed based on Contingent Valuation Method were analyzed by conducting t-test, ${\chi}^2$ test, and OLS. Results: The median and the mean of the distribution of WQS prices were 3,000 won and 3,862 won, respectively. Age, household income, the amount of smoking, and the length of smoking period were related to WQS prices. Conclusions: The results show that increase in cigarette price could be an effective policy tool to make smokers quit smoking when the increase in cigarette prices is substantial enough to be over WQS prices. This implies that with its effect on low-income smokers to consider quitting smoking or reducing the amount of smoking, increase in cigarette price can be income-progressive in the long run by reducing the amount of expenditure spent on cigarette purchase.

Water Quality Assesment of the Lower Yeongsan River System (영산강 하류권역 하천수의 수질평가)

  • Youn, Seok-Tai;Koh, Yeong-Koo;Oh, Kang-Ho;Moon, Byoung-Chan;Kim, Hai-Gyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.259-270
    • /
    • 2003
  • To investigate the water quality and the pollution state of lower Yeongsan river system, 38 water samples were taken from the main stream of the Yeongsan river, Gomakwon and Hampyeong streams of the system in dry and flood seasons, May and August, 2001. The Yeongsan river is typically natural in accordance with pH-& diagram. But the chemistry based on Piper's diagram indicates that the river is influenced by seawater. BOD increases as the sampling sites are approaching the downstream in Gomakwon and Hampyeong streams overwhelming WQS V grade of 12.40mg/l. T-N and T-P of the river are mainly loaded not in above branch streams but in the main stream of the river, which are caused by manure for farming, domestic animal discharges and life-sewage, in possible. Meanwhile, heavy metal contents are below WQS or not detect in whole water samples. So, it shows that the above river waters be polluted by not industrial but life/agricultural foul waters.

Expanding the Substances of Water Quality Standard for the Protection of Human Health Based on Risk Assessment (인체 위해성기반 수질환경기준 항목 확대를 위한 연구)

  • An, Youn-Joo;Nam, Sun-Hwa;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.41 no.1
    • /
    • pp.34-42
    • /
    • 2008
  • Water quality standards (WQS) are mandatory to guarantee the human health and protection of aquatic ecosystems, and maintain the condition of suitable water quality. The present WQS for the protection of human health in Korea contain nine substances (As, Cd, $Cr^{6+}$, CN, Pb, Hg, ABS, organophosphorus compounds and PCBs), but it is insufficient to preserve the human and aquatic ecosystem from a variety of chemicals. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the substance of WQS for the protection of human health. In this study, we chose the 20 chemicals from 43 chemicals of the project entitled 'Development of Integrated Methodology for Evaluation of Water Environment'. The methodology for calculating water quality criteria was amended from the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)'s equation for deriving ambient water quality criteria for the protection of human health. The factors including fish intake, drinking water intake, and human body weight used in the equation reflected Korean situations. The monitoring values were derived from the water quality monitoring data in Korean four main rivers. The orders of priorities of chemicals were evaluated by human health risk assessment, and the proposed WQS was derived by technical and economic analyses. These results were reflected to expand the WQS for the protection of human health.

Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals of Concern for Initiation of Ecorisk-based Water Quality Standards in Korea (생태수질기준설정을 위한 대상물질의 생태위해성 평가)

  • An, Youn-Joo;Nam, Sun-Hwa;Kim, Yong-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.24 no.5
    • /
    • pp.592-597
    • /
    • 2008
  • Current water quality standard (WQS) in Korea is based on the protection of human health, not considering the protection of aquatic organisms. Most of chemicals can be toxic to ecological biota as well as human. Health of aquatic biota is closely related to the human health via food chain, therefore ecological risk based-WQS needs to be developed to protect the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, we selected the 31 chemicals in the Project entitled 'Development of integrated methodology for evaluation of water environment'. The methodology for calculating water quality criteria was derived from the Australian and New Zealand processes for deriving guideline trigger value for aquatic ecosystem. The available ecotoxicity data were collected from US EPA's ECOTOXicology Database (ECOTOX), TOX-2000 Database, European Chemicals Bureau (ECB)'s International Uniform Chemical Information Database (IUCLID) and Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)'s report 'Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC)'. The aquatic toxicity data for the Korean species were selected for risk assessment to reflect the Korean water environment. The monitoring values were calculated from the water quality monitoring data four main Korean rivers. We suggested the order of priorities of chemicals based on ecological risk assessment. We expect that these results can be useful information for establishing the WQS for the protection of aquatic ecosystem.

Infestation of Larval Trematodes from Fresh-Water Fish and Brackish-water Fish in River Taechong, Kyungpook Province, Korea (대종천 담수어와 반함수어에서의 흡충류 피설유충의 기생상)

  • 주종윤;박무길
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.6-10
    • /
    • 1983
  • A study of infestation patterns for larval trematodes from fresh-water fish and brackish-water fish was carried out during the period from June to October in 1982. They were collected by netting, asking with rod and lino, and using the a bait of crushed oil cake in a transparent plastic bowls at the three localities, Daebon-dong, Kugil-dong, and Hoam-dong in the river Taechong, Kyungpook Province, Korea. Five species of fresh-water fish, the crussian carp, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, the bullhead, Coreobagrus brfvicorpus Mori, the fat minnow, Morose oxycephalus (Bleeker) , the flat bitterling, Paracheilognathus rhombea (Temminck et Schlegel) , and the catfish, Parasilurus asotus (Linnaeus), and two kinds of brackish-water fish, the grey mullet, Mugil cephalus(Linnaeus) and the sweet-fish, Plecoglossus aztivelis (Temminck et Schlegel) were examined. Four species of the metacercariae, Exorchis eviformis, Metacercaria hasegawai, Metorchis orientalis and undetermined larvae were found. Of these, the encysted larvae of the human intestinal fluke, Metagonimus yokegawai, were found from three kinds of fresh-water fish, the crussian carp, the bullhead and the fat minnow and one species of brackish-water fish, the sweets;sh and the infestation rates for the larvae varied appreciably from fish to fish. The intensity of infestation with the Metagonimus larvae in the three species of fresh-water fish was low, and the average number of the larvae per gram of flesh varied from 0.5 to 0.2. By comparison, the brackish-water fish wqs more heavily infested and the mean number of cysts per gram of flesh in Plecoglossus altivelis was 109.2. It was foung that infection with Metagonimus yokogawai os caused by consuming raw fresh-sater fish and brackish-water fish caught in the river Taechong, Kyungpook Province, Korea.

  • PDF

Water Ouantity/Quality Analysis and Pollutants Load Estimation in Sillicheon River, Jumunjin, Gangneung (강릉 신리천의 수량 수질 분석 및 오염부하량 추정)

  • Cho Hong Yeon;Kim Chang Il;Lee Dal Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
    • /
    • v.16 no.4
    • /
    • pp.196-205
    • /
    • 2004
  • Water qualities (WQ) were measured biweekly from April 2nd to October 29th, 2003 in Sillicheon flowing into the entrance of Jumunjin Harbour and daily water quantities (river discharges) were estimated by the TANK model which has been widely used to compute the runoff discharges in the ungauged watersheds. The spatial and temporal change patterns of the measured WQs were analysed in detail and the correlation between rainfall - WQ and river discharge - WQ were also analysed. From this results, it is found that the correlation coefficient between BOD concentration and rainfall is 0.75 and between the SS concentration and 2-days river discharge is 0.36. The correlation between the COD, TN, TP in the station of Silli Lower Bridge and rainfall runoff quantity was analysed as un-correlated items. As a consequence, the estimated BOD and SS pollutants loads are reliable and show good change patterns even though the accuracy of SS pollutants load is slightly low. The estimated COD, TN and TP pollutants loads, however, can be used only as the reference or averaged values. In order to analyse more accurately the temporal change patterns of these items, more-detailed researches considering the artificial effects and landuse patterns are highly required.